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   24 <rfc category="info" docName="draft-zyp-json-schema-03" ipr="trust200902">
   25     <front>
   26         <title abbrev="JSON Schema Media Type">A JSON Media Type for Describing the Structure and Meaning of JSON Documents</title>
   28         <author fullname="Kris Zyp" initials="K" role="editor" surname="Zyp">
   29             <organization>SitePen (USA)</organization>
   30             <address>
   31                 <postal>
   32                     <street>530 Lytton Avenue</street>
   33                     <city>Palo Alto, CA 94301</city>
   34                     <country>USA</country>
   35                 </postal>
   36                 <phone>+1 650 968 8787</phone>
   37                 <email>kris@sitepen.com</email>
   38             </address>
   39         </author>
   41         <author fullname="Gary Court" initials="G" surname="Court">
   42             <address>
   43                 <postal>
   44                     <street></street>
   45                     <city>Calgary, AB</city>
   46                     <country>Canada</country>
   47                 </postal>
   48                 <email>gary.court@gmail.com</email>
   49             </address>
   50         </author>
   52         <date year="2011" />
   53         <workgroup>Internet Engineering Task Force</workgroup>
   54         <keyword>JSON</keyword>
   55         <keyword>Schema</keyword>
   56         <keyword>JavaScript</keyword>
   57         <keyword>Object</keyword>
   58         <keyword>Notation</keyword>
   59         <keyword>Hyper Schema</keyword>
   60         <keyword>Hypermedia</keyword>
   62         <abstract>
   63             <t>
   64                 JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) Schema defines the media type "application/schema+json",
   65                 a JSON based format for defining
   66                 the structure of JSON data. JSON Schema provides a contract for what JSON
   67                 data is required for a given application and how to interact with it. JSON
   68                 Schema is intended to define validation, documentation, hyperlink
   69                 navigation, and interaction control of JSON data.
   70             </t>
   71         </abstract>
   72     </front>
   74     <middle>
   75         <section title="Introduction">
   76             <t>
   77                 JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) Schema is a JSON media type for defining
   78                 the structure of JSON data. JSON Schema provides a contract for what JSON
   79                 data is required for a given application and how to interact with it. JSON
   80                 Schema is intended to define validation, documentation, hyperlink
   81                 navigation, and interaction control of JSON data.
   82             </t>
   83         </section>
   85         <section title="Conventions">
   86             <t>
   87                 <!-- The text in this section has been copied from the official boilerplate,
   88                 and should not be modified.-->
   90                 The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD",
   91                 "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be
   92                 interpreted as described in <xref target="RFC2119">RFC 2119</xref>.
   93             </t>
   94         </section>
   96         <!-- ********************************************* -->
   98         <section title="Overview">
   99             <t>
  100                 JSON Schema defines the media type "application/schema+json" for
  101                 describing the structure of other
  102                 JSON documents. JSON Schema is JSON-based and includes facilities
  103                 for describing the structure of JSON documents in terms of
  104                 allowable values, descriptions, and interpreting relations with other resources.
  105             </t>
  106             <t>
  107                 JSON Schema format is organized into several separate definitions. The first
  108                 definition is the core schema specification. This definition is primary
  109                 concerned with describing a JSON structure and specifying valid elements
  110                 in the structure. The second definition is the Hyper Schema specification
  111                 which is intended define elements in a structure that can be interpreted as
  112                 hyperlinks.
  113                 Hyper Schema builds on JSON Schema to describe the hyperlink structure of
  114                 other JSON documents and elements of interaction. This allows user agents to be able to successfully navigate
  115                 JSON documents based on their schemas.
  116             </t>
  117             <t>
  118                 Cumulatively JSON Schema acts as a meta-document that can be used to define the required type and constraints on
  119                 property values, as well as define the meaning of the property values
  120                 for the purpose of describing a resource and determining hyperlinks
  121                 within the representation.
  122             </t>
  123             <figure>
  124                 <preamble>An example JSON Schema that describes products might look like:</preamble>
  125                 <artwork>
  126 <![CDATA[
  127 {
  128     "title": "Product",
  129     "properties": {
  130         "id": {
  131             "type": "number",
  132             "description": "Product identifier",
  133             "required": true
  134         },
  135         "name": {
  136             "description": "Name of the product",
  137             "type": "string",
  138             "required": true
  139         },
  140         "price": {
  141             "required": true,
  142             "type": "number",
  143             "minimum": 0,
  144             "required": true
  145         },
  146         "tags": {
  147             "type": "array",
  148             "items": {
  149                 "type": "string"
  150             }
  151         }
  152     },
  153     "links": [{
  154         "rel": "full",
  155         "href": "{id}"
  156     }, {
  157         "rel": "comments",
  158         "href": "comments/?id={id}"
  159     }]
  160 }
  161 ]]>
  162                 </artwork>
  163                 <postamble>
  164                     This schema defines the properties of the instance JSON documents,
  165                     the required properties (id, name, and price), as well as an optional
  166                     property (tags). This also defines the link relations of the instance
  167                     JSON documents.
  168                 </postamble>
  169             </figure>
  171             <section title="Terminology">
  172                 <t>
  173                     For this specification, <spanx style="strong">schema</spanx> will be used to denote a JSON Schema
  174                     definition, and an <spanx style="strong">instance</spanx> refers to a JSON value that the schema
  175                     will be describing and validating.
  176                 </t>
  177             </section>
  179             <section title="Design Considerations">
  180                 <t>
  181                     The JSON Schema media type does not attempt to dictate the structure of JSON
  182                     representations that contain data, but rather provides a separate format
  183                     for flexibly communicating how a JSON representation should be
  184                     interpreted and validated, such that user agents can properly understand
  185                     acceptable structures and extrapolate hyperlink information
  186                     with the JSON document. It is acknowledged that JSON documents come
  187                     in a variety of structures, and JSON is unique in that the structure
  188                     of stored data structures often prescribes a non-ambiguous definite
  189                     JSON representation. Attempting to force a specific structure is generally
  190                     not viable, and therefore JSON Schema allows for a great flexibility
  191                     in the structure of the JSON data that it describes.
  192                 </t>
  193                 <t>
  194                     This specification is protocol agnostic.
  195                     The underlying protocol (such as HTTP) should sufficiently define the
  196                     semantics of the client-server interface, the retrieval of resource
  197                     representations linked to by JSON representations, and modification of
  198                     those resources. The goal of this
  199                     format is to sufficiently describe JSON structures such that one can
  200                     utilize existing information available in existing JSON
  201                     representations from a large variety of services that leverage a representational state transfer
  202                     architecture using existing protocols.
  203                 </t>
  204             </section>
  205         </section>
  207         <section title="Schema/Instance Association">
  208             <t>
  209                 JSON Schema instances are correlated to their schema by the "describedby"
  210                 relation, where the schema is defined to be the target of the relation.
  211                 Instance representations may be of the "application/json" media type or
  212                 any other subtype. Consequently, dictating how an instance
  213                 representation should specify the relation to the schema is beyond the normative scope
  214                 of this document (since this document specifically defines the JSON
  215                 Schema media type, and no other), but it is recommended that instances
  216                 specify their schema so that user agents can interpret the instance
  217                 representation and messages may retain the self-descriptive
  218                 characteristic, avoiding the need for out-of-band information about
  219                 instance data. Two approaches are recommended for declaring the
  220                 relation to the schema that describes the meaning of a JSON instance's (or collection
  221                 of instances) structure. A MIME type parameter named
  222                 "profile" or a relation of "describedby" (which could be defined by a Link header) may be used:
  224                 <figure>
  225                     <artwork>
  226 <![CDATA[
  227 Content-Type: application/my-media-type+json;
  228               profile=http://json.com/my-hyper-schema
  229 ]]>
  230                     </artwork>
  231                 </figure>
  233                 or if the content is being transferred by a protocol (such as HTTP) that
  234                 provides headers, a Link header can be used:
  236                 <figure>
  237                     <artwork>
  238 <![CDATA[
  239 Link: <http://json.com/my-hyper-schema>; rel="describedby"
  240 ]]>
  241                     </artwork>
  242                 </figure>
  244                 Instances MAY specify multiple schemas, to indicate all the schemas that
  245                 are applicable to the data, and the data SHOULD be valid by all the schemas.
  246                 The instance data MAY have multiple schemas
  247                 that it is defined by (the instance data SHOULD be valid for those schemas).
  248                 Or if the document is a collection of instances, the collection MAY contain
  249                 instances from different schemas. When collections contain heterogeneous
  250                 instances, the "pathStart" attribute MAY be specified in the
  251                 schema to disambiguate which schema should be applied for each item in the
  252                 collection. However, ultimately, the mechanism for referencing a schema is up to the
  253                 media type of the instance documents (if they choose to specify that schemas
  254                 can be referenced).
  255             </t>
  257             <section title="Self-Descriptive Schema">
  258                 <t>
  259                     JSON Schemas can themselves be described using JSON Schemas.
  260                     A self-describing JSON Schema for the core JSON Schema can
  261                     be found at <eref target="http://json-schema.org/schema">http://json-schema.org/schema</eref> for the latest version or
  262                     <eref target="http://json-schema.org/draft-03/schema">http://json-schema.org/draft-03/schema</eref> for the draft-03 version. The hyper schema
  263                     self-description can be found at <eref target="http://json-schema.org/hyper-schema">http://json-schema.org/hyper-schema</eref>
  264                     or <eref target="http://json-schema.org/draft-03/hyper-schema">http://json-schema.org/draft-03/hyper-schema</eref>. All schemas
  265                     used within a protocol with media type definitions
  266                     SHOULD include a MIME parameter that refers to the self-descriptive
  267                     hyper schema or another schema that extends this hyper schema:
  269                     <figure>
  270                         <artwork>
  271 <![CDATA[
  272 Content-Type: application/json;
  273               profile=http://json-schema.org/draft-03/hyper-schema
  274 ]]>
  275                         </artwork>
  276                     </figure>
  277                 </t>
  278             </section>
  279         </section>
  281         <section title="Core Schema Definition">
  282             <t>
  283                 A JSON Schema is a JSON Object that defines various attributes
  284                 (including usage and valid values) of a JSON value. JSON
  285                 Schema has recursive capabilities; there are a number of elements
  286                 in the structure that allow for nested JSON Schemas.
  287             </t>
  289             <figure>
  290                 <preamble>An example JSON Schema definition could look like:</preamble>
  291                 <artwork>
  292 <![CDATA[
  293 {
  294     "description": "A person",
  295     "type": "object",
  297     "properties": {
  298         "name": {
  299             "type": "string"
  300         },
  301         "age": {
  302             "type": "integer",
  303             "maximum": 125
  304         }
  305     }
  306 }
  307 ]]>
  308                 </artwork>
  309             </figure>
  311             <t>
  312                 A JSON Schema object may have any of the following properties, called schema
  313                 attributes (all attributes are optional):
  314             </t>
  316             <section title="type">
  317                 <t>
  318                     This attribute defines what the primitive type or the schema of the instance MUST be in order to validate.
  319                     This attribute can take one of two forms:
  321                     <list style="hanging">
  322                         <t hangText="Simple Types">
  323                             A string indicating a primitive or simple type. The following are acceptable string values:
  325                             <list style="hanging">
  326                                 <t hangText="string">Value MUST be a string.</t>
  327                                 <t hangText="number">Value MUST be a number, floating point numbers are allowed. </t>
  328                                 <t hangText="integer">Value MUST be an integer, no floating point numbers are allowed. This is a subset of the number type.</t>
  329                                 <t hangText="boolean">Value MUST be a boolean. </t>
  330                                 <t hangText="object">Value MUST be an object.</t>
  331                                 <t hangText="array">Value MUST be an array.</t>
  332                                 <t hangText="null">Value MUST be null. Note this is mainly for purpose of being able use union types to define nullability. If this type is not included in a union, null values are not allowed (the primitives listed above do not allow nulls on their own).</t>
  333                                 <t hangText="any">Value MAY be of any type including null.</t>
  334                             </list>
  336                             If the property is not defined or is not in this list, then any type of value is acceptable.
  337                             Other type values MAY be used for custom purposes, but minimal validators of the specification
  338                             implementation can allow any instance value on unknown type values.
  339                         </t>
  341                         <t hangText="Union Types">
  342                             An array of two or more simple type definitions. Each item in the array MUST be a simple type definition or a schema.
  343                             The instance value is valid if it is of the same type as one of the simple type definitions, or valid by one of the schemas, in the array.
  344                         </t>
  345                     </list>
  346                 </t>
  348                 <figure>
  349                     <preamble>For example, a schema that defines if an instance can be a string or a number would be:</preamble>
  350                     <artwork>
  351 <![CDATA[
  352 {
  353     "type": ["string", "number"]
  354 }
  355 ]]></artwork>
  356                 </figure>
  357             </section>
  359             <section title="properties" anchor="properties">
  360                 <t>This attribute is an object with property definitions that define the valid values of instance object property values. When the instance value is an object, the property values of the instance object MUST conform to the property definitions in this object. In this object, each property definition's value MUST be a schema, and the property's name MUST be the name of the instance property that it defines. The instance property value MUST be valid according to the schema from the property definition. Properties are considered unordered, the order of the instance properties MAY be in any order.</t>
  361             </section>
  363             <section title="patternProperties">
  364                 <t>This attribute is an object that defines the schema for a set of property names of an object instance. The name of each property of this attribute's object is a regular expression pattern in the ECMA 262/Perl 5 format, while the value is a schema. If the pattern matches the name of a property on the instance object, the value of the instance's property MUST be valid against the pattern name's schema value.</t>
  365             </section>
  367             <section title="additionalProperties" anchor="additionalProperties">
  368                 <t>This attribute defines a schema for all properties that are not explicitly defined in an object type definition. If specified, the value MUST be a schema or a boolean. If false is provided, no additional properties are allowed beyond the properties defined in the schema. The default value is an empty schema which allows any value for additional properties.</t>
  369             </section>
  371             <section title="items">
  372                 <t>This attribute defines the allowed items in an instance array, and MUST be a schema or an array of schemas. The default value is an empty schema which allows any value for items in the instance array.</t>
  373                 <t>When this attribute value is a schema and the instance value is an array, then all the items in the array MUST be valid according to the schema.</t>
  374                 <t>When this attribute value is an array of schemas and the instance value is an array, each position in the instance array MUST conform to the schema in the corresponding position for this array. This called tuple typing. When tuple typing is used, additional items are allowed, disallowed, or constrained by the <xref target="additionalItems">"additionalItems"</xref> attribute using the same rules as <xref target="additionalProperties">"additionalProperties"</xref> for objects.</t>
  375             </section>
  377             <section title="additionalItems" anchor="additionalItems">
  378                 <t>This provides a definition for additional items in an array instance when tuple definitions of the items is provided. This can be false to indicate additional items in the array are not allowed, or it can be a schema that defines the schema of the additional items.</t>
  379             </section>
  381             <section title="required">
  382                 <t>This attribute indicates if the instance must have a value, and not be undefined. This is false by default, making the instance optional.</t>
  383             </section>
  385             <section title="dependencies">
  386                 <t>This attribute is an object that defines the requirements of a property on an instance object. If an object instance has a property with the same name as a property in this attribute's object, then the instance must be valid against the attribute's property value (hereafter referred to as the "dependency value").</t>
  387                 <t>
  388                     The dependency value can take one of two forms:
  390                     <list style="hanging">
  391                         <t hangText="Simple Dependency">
  392                             If the dependency value is a string, then the instance object MUST have a property with the same name as the dependency value.
  393                             If the dependency value is an array of strings, then the instance object MUST have a property with the same name as each string in the dependency value's array.
  394                         </t>
  395                         <t hangText="Schema Dependency">
  396                             If the dependency value is a schema, then the instance object MUST be valid against the schema.
  397                         </t>
  398                     </list>
  399                 </t>
  400             </section>
  402             <section title="minimum">
  403                 <t>This attribute defines the minimum value of the instance property when the type of the instance value is a number.</t>
  404             </section>
  406             <section title="maximum">
  407                 <t>This attribute defines the maximum value of the instance property when the type of the instance value is a number.</t>
  408             </section>
  410             <section title="exclusiveMinimum">
  411                 <t>This attribute indicates if the value of the instance (if the instance is a number) can not equal the number defined by the "minimum" attribute. This is false by default, meaning the instance value can be greater then or equal to the minimum value.</t>
  412             </section>
  414             <section title="exclusiveMaximum">
  415                 <t>This attribute indicates if the value of the instance (if the instance is a number) can not equal the number defined by the "maximum" attribute. This is false by default, meaning the instance value can be less then or equal to the maximum value.</t>
  416             </section>
  418             <section title="minItems">
  419                 <t>This attribute defines the minimum number of values in an array when the array is the instance value.</t>
  420             </section>
  422             <section title="maxItems">
  423                 <t>This attribute defines the maximum number of values in an array when the array is the instance value.</t>
  424             </section>
  426             <section title="uniqueItems" anchor="uniqueItems">
  427                 <t>This attribute indicates that all items in an array instance MUST be unique (contains no two identical values).</t>
  428                 <t>
  429                     Two instance are consider equal if they are both of the same type and:
  431                     <list>
  432                         <t>are null; or</t>
  433                         <t>are booleans/numbers/strings and have the same value; or</t>
  434                         <t>are arrays, contains the same number of items, and each item in the array is equal to the corresponding item in the other array; or</t>
  435                         <t>are objects, contains the same property names, and each property in the object is equal to the corresponding property in the other object.</t>
  436                     </list>
  437                 </t>
  438             </section>
  440             <section title="pattern">
  441                 <t>When the instance value is a string, this provides a regular expression that a string instance MUST match in order to be valid. Regular expressions SHOULD follow the regular expression specification from ECMA 262/Perl 5</t>
  442             </section>
  444             <section title="minLength">
  445                 <t>When the instance value is a string, this defines the minimum length of the string.</t>
  446             </section>
  448             <section title="maxLength">
  449                 <t>When the instance value is a string, this defines the maximum length of the string.</t>
  450             </section>
  452             <section title="enum">
  453                 <t>This provides an enumeration of all possible values that are valid for the instance property. This MUST be an array, and each item in the array represents a possible value for the instance value. If this attribute is defined, the instance value MUST be one of the values in the array in order for the schema to be valid. Comparison of enum values uses the same algorithm as defined in <xref target="uniqueItems">"uniqueItems"</xref>.</t>
  454             </section>
  456             <section title="default">
  457                 <t>This attribute defines the default value of the instance when the instance is undefined.</t>
  458             </section>
  460             <section title="title">
  461                 <t>This attribute is a string that provides a short description of the instance property.</t>
  462             </section>
  464             <section title="description">
  465                 <t>This attribute is a string that provides a full description of the of purpose the instance property.</t>
  466             </section>
  468             <section title="format">
  469                 <t>This property defines the type of data, content type, or microformat to be expected in the instance property values. A format attribute MAY be one of the values listed below, and if so, SHOULD adhere to the semantics describing for the format. A format SHOULD only be used to give meaning to primitive types (string, integer, number, or boolean). Validators MAY (but are not required to) validate that the instance values conform to a format.</t>
  471                 <t>
  472                     The following formats are predefined:
  474                     <list style="hanging">
  475                         <t hangText="date-time">This SHOULD be a date in ISO 8601 format of YYYY-MM-DDThh:mm:ssZ in UTC time. This is the recommended form of date/timestamp.</t>
  476                         <t hangText="date">This SHOULD be a date in the format of YYYY-MM-DD. It is recommended that you use the "date-time" format instead of "date" unless you need to transfer only the date part.</t>
  477                         <t hangText="time">This SHOULD be a time in the format of hh:mm:ss. It is recommended that you use the "date-time" format instead of "time" unless you need to transfer only the time part.</t>
  478                         <t hangText="utc-millisec">This SHOULD be the difference, measured in milliseconds, between the specified time and midnight, 00:00 of January 1, 1970 UTC. The value SHOULD be a number (integer or float).</t>
  479                         <t hangText="regex">A regular expression, following the regular expression specification from ECMA 262/Perl 5.</t>
  480                         <t hangText="color">This is a CSS color (like "#FF0000" or "red"), based on <xref target="W3C.CR-CSS21-20070719">CSS 2.1</xref>.</t>
  481                         <t hangText="style">This is a CSS style definition (like "color: red; background-color:#FFF"), based on <xref target="W3C.CR-CSS21-20070719">CSS 2.1</xref>.</t>
  482                         <t hangText="phone">This SHOULD be a phone number (format MAY follow E.123).</t>
  483                         <t hangText="uri">This value SHOULD be a URI.</t>
  484                         <t hangText="email">This SHOULD be an email address.</t>
  485                         <t hangText="ip-address">This SHOULD be an ip version 4 address.</t>
  486                         <t hangText="ipv6">This SHOULD be an ip version 6 address.</t>
  487                         <t hangText="host-name">This SHOULD be a host-name.</t>
  488                     </list>
  489                 </t>
  491                 <t>Additional custom formats MAY be created. These custom formats MAY be expressed as an URI, and this URI MAY reference a schema of that format.</t>
  492             </section>
  494             <section title="divisibleBy">
  495                 <t>This attribute defines what value the number instance must be divisible by with no remainder (the result of the division must be an integer.) The value of this attribute SHOULD NOT be 0.</t>
  496             </section>
  498             <section title="disallow">
  499                 <t>This attribute takes the same values as the "type" attribute, however if the instance matches the type or if this value is an array and the instance matches any type or schema in the array, then this instance is not valid.</t>
  500             </section>
  502             <section title="extends">
  503                 <t>The value of this property MUST be another schema which will provide a base schema which the current schema will inherit from. The inheritance rules are such that any instance that is valid according to the current schema MUST be valid according to the referenced schema. This MAY also be an array, in which case, the instance MUST be valid for all the schemas in the array. A schema that extends another schema MAY define additional attributes, constrain existing attributes, or add other constraints.</t>
  504                 <t>
  505                     Conceptually, the behavior of extends can be seen as validating an
  506                     instance against all constraints in the extending schema as well as
  507                     the extended schema(s). More optimized implementations that merge
  508                     schemas are possible, but are not required. Some examples of using "extends":
  510                     <figure>
  511                         <artwork>
  512 <![CDATA[
  513 {
  514     "description": "An adult",
  515     "properties": {
  516         "age": {
  517             "minimum": 21
  518         }
  519     },
  520     "extends": {"$ref": "person"}
  521 }
  522 ]]>
  523                         </artwork>
  524                     </figure>
  526                     <figure>
  527                         <artwork>
  528 <![CDATA[
  529 {
  530     "description": "Extended schema",
  531     "properties": {
  532         "deprecated": {
  533             "type": "boolean"
  534         }
  535     },
  536     "extends": {"$ref": "http://json-schema.org/draft-03/schema"}
  537 }
  538 ]]>
  539                         </artwork>
  540                     </figure>
  541                 </t>
  542             </section>
  544             <section title="id">
  545                 <t>
  546                     This attribute defines the current URI of this schema (this attribute is
  547                     effectively a "self" link). This URI MAY be relative or absolute. If
  548                     the URI is relative it is resolved against the current URI of the parent
  549                     schema it is contained in. If this schema is not contained in any
  550                     parent schema, the current URI of the parent schema is held to be the
  551                     URI under which this schema was addressed. If id is missing, the current URI of a schema is
  552                     defined to be that of the parent schema. The current URI of the schema
  553                     is also used to construct relative references such as for $ref.
  554                 </t>
  555             </section>
  557             <section title="$ref">
  558                 <t>
  559                     This attribute defines a URI of a schema that contains the full representation of this schema.
  560                     When a validator encounters this attribute, it SHOULD replace the current schema with the schema referenced by the value's URI (if known and available) and re-validate the instance.
  561                     This URI MAY be relative or absolute, and relative URIs SHOULD be resolved against the URI of the current schema.
  562                 </t>
  563             </section>
  565             <section title="$schema">
  566                 <t>
  567                     This attribute defines a URI of a JSON Schema that is the schema of the current schema.
  568                     When this attribute is defined, a validator SHOULD use the schema referenced by the value's URI (if known and available) when resolving <xref target="hyper-schema">Hyper Schema</xref><xref target="links">links</xref>.
  569                 </t>
  571                 <t>
  572                     A validator MAY use this attribute's value to determine which version of JSON Schema the current schema is written in, and provide the appropriate validation features and behavior.
  573                     Therefore, it is RECOMMENDED that all schema authors include this attribute in their schemas to prevent conflicts with future JSON Schema specification changes.
  574                 </t>
  575             </section>
  576         </section>
  578         <section title="Hyper Schema" anchor="hyper-schema">
  579             <t>
  580                 The following attributes are specified in addition to those
  581                 attributes that already provided by the core schema with the specific
  582                 purpose of informing user agents of relations between resources based
  583                 on JSON data. Just as with JSON
  584                 schema attributes, all the attributes in hyper schemas are optional.
  585                 Therefore, an empty object is a valid (non-informative) schema, and
  586                 essentially describes plain JSON (no constraints on the structures).
  587                 Addition of attributes provides additive information for user agents.
  588             </t>
  590             <section title="links" anchor="links">
  591                 <t>
  592                     The value of the links property MUST be an array, where each item
  593                     in the array is a link description object which describes the link
  594                     relations of the instances.
  595                 </t>
  597                 <section title="Link Description Object">
  598                     <t>
  599                         A link description object is used to describe link relations. In
  600                         the context of a schema, it defines the link relations of the
  601                         instances of the schema, and can be parameterized by the instance
  602                         values. The link description format can be used on its own in
  603                         regular (non-schema documents), and use of this format can
  604                         be declared by referencing the normative link description
  605                         schema as the the schema for the data structure that uses the
  606                         links. The URI of the normative link description schema is:
  607                         <eref target="http://json-schema.org/links">http://json-schema.org/links</eref> (latest version) or
  608                         <eref target="http://json-schema.org/draft-03/links">http://json-schema.org/draft-03/links</eref> (draft-03 version).
  609                     </t>
  611                     <section title="href">
  612                         <t>
  613                             The value of the "href" link description property
  614                             indicates the target URI of the related resource. The value
  615                             of the instance property SHOULD be resolved as a URI-Reference per <xref target="RFC3986">RFC 3986</xref>
  616                             and MAY be a relative URI. The base URI to be used for relative resolution
  617                             SHOULD be the URI used to retrieve the instance object (not the schema)
  618                             when used within a schema. Also, when links are used within a schema, the URI
  619                             SHOULD be parametrized by the property values of the instance
  620                             object, if property values exist for the corresponding variables
  621                             in the template (otherwise they MAY be provided from alternate sources, like user input).
  622                         </t>
  624                         <t>
  625                             Instance property values SHOULD be substituted into the URIs where
  626                             matching braces ('{', '}') are found surrounding zero or more characters,
  627                             creating an expanded URI. Instance property value substitutions are resolved
  628                             by using the text between the braces to denote the property name
  629                             from the instance to get the value to substitute.
  631                             <figure>
  632                                 <preamble>For example, if an href value is defined:</preamble>
  633                                 <artwork>
  634 <![CDATA[
  635 http://somesite.com/{id}
  636 ]]>
  637                                 </artwork>
  638                                 <postamble>Then it would be resolved by replace the value of the "id" property value from the instance object.</postamble>
  639                             </figure>
  641                             <figure>
  642                                 <preamble>If the value of the "id" property was "45", the expanded URI would be:</preamble>
  643                                 <artwork>
  644 <![CDATA[
  645 http://somesite.com/45
  646 ]]>
  647                                 </artwork>
  648                             </figure>
  650                             If matching braces are found with the string "@" (no quotes) between the braces, then the
  651                             actual instance value SHOULD be used to replace the braces, rather than a property value.
  652                             This should only be used in situations where the instance is a scalar (string,
  653                             boolean, or number), and not for objects or arrays.
  654                         </t>
  655                     </section>
  657                     <section title="rel">
  658                         <t>
  659                             The value of the "rel" property indicates the name of the
  660                             relation to the target resource. The relation to the target SHOULD be interpreted as specifically from the instance object that the schema (or sub-schema) applies to, not just the top level resource that contains the object within its hierarchy. If a resource JSON representation contains a sub object with a property interpreted as a link, that sub-object holds the relation with the target. A relation to target from the top level resource MUST be indicated with the schema describing the top level JSON representation.
  661                         </t>
  663                         <t>
  664                             Relationship definitions SHOULD NOT be media type dependent, and users are encouraged to utilize existing accepted relation definitions, including those in existing relation registries (see <xref target="RFC4287">RFC 4287</xref>). However, we define these relations here for clarity of normative interpretation within the context of JSON hyper schema defined relations:
  666                             <list style="hanging">
  667                                 <t hangText="self">
  668                                     If the relation value is "self", when this property is encountered in
  669                                     the instance object, the object represents a resource and the instance object is
  670                                     treated as a full representation of the target resource identified by
  671                                     the specified URI.
  672                                 </t>
  674                                 <t hangText="full">
  675                                     This indicates that the target of the link is the full representation for the instance object. The object that contains this link possibly may not be the full representation.
  676                                 </t>
  678                                 <t hangText="describedby">
  679                                     This indicates the target of the link is the schema for the instance object. This MAY be used to specifically denote the schemas of objects within a JSON object hierarchy, facilitating polymorphic type data structures.
  680                                 </t>
  682                                 <t hangText="root">
  683                                     This relation indicates that the target of the link
  684                                     SHOULD be treated as the root or the body of the representation for the
  685                                     purposes of user agent interaction or fragment resolution. All other
  686                                     properties of the instance objects can be regarded as meta-data
  687                                     descriptions for the data.
  688                                 </t>
  689                             </list>
  690                         </t>
  692                         <t>
  693                             The following relations are applicable for schemas (the schema as the "from" resource in the relation):
  695                             <list style="hanging">
  696                                 <t hangText="instances">This indicates the target resource that represents collection of instances of a schema.</t>
  697                                 <t hangText="create">This indicates a target to use for creating new instances of a schema. This link definition SHOULD be a submission link with a non-safe method (like POST).</t>
  698                             </list>
  699                         </t>
  701                         <t>
  702                             <figure>
  703                                 <preamble>For example, if a schema is defined:</preamble>
  704                                 <artwork>
  705 <![CDATA[
  706 {
  707     "links": [{
  708         "rel": "self",
  709         "href": "{id}"
  710     }, {
  711         "rel": "up",
  712         "href": "{upId}"
  713     }, {
  714         "rel": "children",
  715         "href": "?upId={id}"
  716     }]
  717 }
  718 ]]>
  719                                 </artwork>
  720                             </figure>
  722                             <figure>
  723                                 <preamble>And if a collection of instance resource's JSON representation was retrieved:</preamble>
  724                                 <artwork>
  725 <![CDATA[
  726 GET /Resource/
  728 [{
  729     "id": "thing",
  730     "upId": "parent"
  731 }, {
  732     "id": "thing2",
  733     "upId": "parent"
  734 }]
  735 ]]>
  736                                 </artwork>
  737                             </figure>
  739                             This would indicate that for the first item in the collection, its own
  740                             (self) URI would resolve to "/Resource/thing" and the first item's "up"
  741                             relation SHOULD be resolved to the resource at "/Resource/parent".
  742                             The "children" collection would be located at "/Resource/?upId=thing".
  743                         </t>
  744                     </section>
  746                     <section title="targetSchema">
  747                         <t>This property value is a schema that defines the expected structure of the JSON representation of the target of the link.</t>
  748                     </section>
  750                     <section title="Submission Link Properties">
  751                         <t>
  752                             The following properties also apply to link definition objects, and
  753                             provide functionality analogous to HTML forms, in providing a
  754                             means for submitting extra (often user supplied) information to send to a server.
  755                         </t>
  757                         <section title="method">
  758                             <t>
  759                                 This attribute defines which method can be used to access the target resource.
  760                                 In an HTTP environment, this would be "GET" or "POST" (other HTTP methods
  761                                 such as "PUT" and "DELETE" have semantics that are clearly implied by
  762                                 accessed resources, and do not need to be defined here).
  763                                 This defaults to "GET".
  764                             </t>
  765                         </section>
  767                         <section title="enctype">
  768                             <t>
  769                                 If present, this property indicates a query media type format that the server
  770                                 supports for querying or posting to the collection of instances at the target
  771                                 resource. The query can be
  772                                 suffixed to the target URI to query the collection with
  773                                 property-based constraints on the resources that SHOULD be returned from
  774                                 the server or used to post data to the resource (depending on the method).
  776                                 <figure>
  777                                     <preamble>For example, with the following schema:</preamble>
  778                                     <artwork>
  779 <![CDATA[
  780 {
  781     "links": [{
  782         "enctype": "application/x-www-form-urlencoded",
  783         "method": "GET",
  784         "href": "/Product/",
  785         "properties": {
  786             "name": {
  787                 "description": "name of the product"
  788             }
  789         }
  790     }]
  791 }
  792 ]]>
  793                                     </artwork>
  794                                     <postamble>This indicates that the client can query the server for instances that have a specific name.</postamble>
  795                                 </figure>
  797                                 <figure>
  798                                     <preamble>For example:</preamble>
  799                                     <artwork>
  800 <![CDATA[
  801 /Product/?name=Slinky
  802 ]]>
  803                                     </artwork>
  804                                 </figure>
  806                                 If no enctype or method is specified, only the single URI specified by
  807                                 the href property is defined. If the method is POST, "application/json" is
  808                                 the default media type.
  809                             </t>
  810                         </section>
  812                         <section title="schema">
  813                             <t>
  814                                 This attribute contains a schema which defines the acceptable structure of the submitted
  815                                 request (for a GET request, this schema would define the properties for the query string
  816                                 and for a POST request, this would define the body).
  817                             </t>
  818                         </section>
  819                     </section>
  820                 </section>
  821             </section>
  823             <section title="fragmentResolution">
  824                 <t>
  825                     This property indicates the fragment resolution protocol to use for
  826                     resolving fragment identifiers in URIs within the instance
  827                     representations. This applies to the instance object URIs and all
  828                     children of the instance object's URIs. The default fragment resolution
  829                     protocol is "slash-delimited", which is defined below. Other fragment
  830                     resolution protocols MAY be used, but are not defined in this document.
  831                 </t>
  833                 <t>
  834                     The fragment identifier is based on <xref target="RFC2396">RFC 2396, Sec 5</xref>, and defines the
  835                     mechanism for resolving references to entities within a document.
  836                 </t>
  838                 <section title="slash-delimited fragment resolution">
  839                     <t>
  840                         With the slash-delimited fragment resolution protocol, the fragment
  841                         identifier is interpreted as a series of property reference tokens that start with and
  842                         are delimited by the "/" character (\x2F). Each property reference token
  843                         is a series of unreserved or escaped URI characters. Each property
  844                         reference token SHOULD be interpreted, starting from the beginning of
  845                         the fragment identifier, as a path reference in the target JSON
  846                         structure. The final target value of the fragment can be determined by
  847                         starting with the root of the JSON structure from the representation of
  848                         the resource identified by the pre-fragment URI. If the target is a JSON
  849                         object, then the new target is the value of the property with the name
  850                         identified by the next property reference token in the fragment. If the
  851                         target is a JSON array, then the target is determined by finding the
  852                         item in array the array with the index defined by the next property
  853                         reference token (which MUST be a number). The target is successively
  854                         updated for each property reference token, until the entire fragment has
  855                         been traversed.
  856                     </t>
  858                     <t>
  859                         Property names SHOULD be URI-encoded. In particular, any "/" in a
  860                         property name MUST be encoded to avoid being interpreted as a property
  861                         delimiter.
  862                     </t>
  864                     <t>
  865                         <figure>
  866                             <preamble>For example, for the following JSON representation:</preamble>
  867                             <artwork>
  868 <![CDATA[
  869 {
  870     "foo": {
  871         "anArray": [{
  872             "prop": 44
  873         }],
  874         "another prop": {
  875             "baz": "A string"
  876         }
  877     }
  878 }
  879 ]]>
  880                             </artwork>
  881                         </figure>
  883                         <figure>
  884                             <preamble>The following fragment identifiers would be resolved:</preamble>
  885                             <artwork>
  886 <![CDATA[
  887 fragment identifier      resolution
  888 -------------------      ----------
  889 #                        self, the root of the resource itself
  890 #/foo                    the object referred to by the foo property
  891 #/foo/another%20prop     the object referred to by the "another prop"
  892                          property of the object referred to by the
  893                          "foo" property
  894 #/foo/another%20prop/baz the string referred to by the value of "baz"
  895                          property of the "another prop" property of
  896                          the object referred to by the "foo" property
  897 #/foo/anArray/0          the first object in the "anArray" array
  898 ]]>
  899                             </artwork>
  900                         </figure>
  901                     </t>
  902                 </section>
  904                 <section title="dot-delimited fragment resolution">
  905                     <t>
  906                         The dot-delimited fragment resolution protocol is the same as
  907                         slash-delimited fragment resolution protocol except that the "." character
  908                         (\x2E) is used as the delimiter between property names (instead of "/") and
  909                         the path does not need to start with a ".". For example, #.foo and #foo are a valid fragment
  910                         identifiers for referencing the value of the foo propery.
  911                     </t>
  912                 </section>
  913             </section>
  915             <section title="readonly">
  916                 <t>This attribute indicates that the instance property SHOULD NOT be changed. Attempts by a user agent to modify the value of this property are expected to be rejected by a server.</t>
  917             </section>
  919             <section title="contentEncoding">
  920                 <t>If the instance property value is a string, this attribute defines that the string SHOULD be interpreted as binary data and decoded using the encoding named by this schema property. <xref target="RFC2045">RFC 2045, Sec 6.1</xref> lists the possible values for this property.</t>
  921             </section>
  923             <section title="pathStart">
  924                 <t>
  925                     This attribute is a URI that defines what the instance's URI MUST start with in order to validate.
  926                     The value of the "pathStart" attribute MUST be resolved as per <xref target="RFC3986">RFC 3986, Sec 5</xref>,
  927                     and is relative to the instance's URI.
  928                 </t>
  930                 <t>
  931                     When multiple schemas have been referenced for an instance, the user agent
  932                     can determine if this schema is applicable for a particular instance by
  933                     determining if the URI of the instance begins with the the value of the "pathStart"
  934                     attribute. If the URI of the instance does not start with this URI,
  935                     or if another schema specifies a starting URI that is longer and also matches the
  936                     instance, this schema SHOULD NOT be applied to the instance. Any schema
  937                     that does not have a pathStart attribute SHOULD be considered applicable
  938                     to all the instances for which it is referenced.
  939                 </t>
  940             </section>
  942             <section title="mediaType">
  943                 <t>This attribute defines the media type of the instance representations that this schema is defining.</t>
  944             </section>
  945         </section>
  947         <section title="Security Considerations">
  948             <t>
  949                 This specification is a sub-type of the JSON format, and
  950                 consequently the security considerations are generally the same as <xref target="RFC4627">RFC 4627</xref>.
  951                 However, an additional issue is that when link relation of "self"
  952                 is used to denote a full representation of an object, the user agent
  953                 SHOULD NOT consider the representation to be the authoritative representation
  954                 of the resource denoted by the target URI if the target URI is not
  955                 equivalent to or a sub-path of the the URI used to request the resource
  956                 representation which contains the target URI with the "self" link.
  958                 <figure>
  959                     <preamble>For example, if a hyper schema was defined:</preamble>
  960                     <artwork>
  961 <![CDATA[
  962 {
  963     "links": [{
  964         "rel": "self",
  965         "href": "{id}"
  966     }]
  967 }
  968 ]]>
  969                     </artwork>
  970                 </figure>
  972                 <figure>
  973                     <preamble>And a resource was requested from somesite.com:</preamble>
  974                     <artwork>
  975 <![CDATA[
  976 GET /foo/
  977 ]]>
  978                     </artwork>
  979                 </figure>
  981                 <figure>
  982                     <preamble>With a response of:</preamble>
  983                     <artwork>
  984 <![CDATA[
  985 Content-Type: application/json; profile=/schema-for-this-data
  987 [{
  988     "id": "bar",
  989     "name": "This representation can be safely treated \
  990         as authoritative "
  991 }, {
  992     "id": "/baz",
  993     "name": "This representation should not be treated as \
  994         authoritative the user agent should make request the resource\
  995         from '/baz' to ensure it has the authoritative representation"
  996 }, {
  997     "id": "http://othersite.com/something",
  998     "name": "This representation\
  999         should also not be treated as authoritative and the target\
 1000         resource representation should be retrieved for the\
 1001         authoritative representation"
 1002 }]
 1003 ]]>
 1004                     </artwork>
 1005                 </figure>
 1006             </t>
 1007         </section>
 1009         <section title="IANA Considerations">
 1010             <t>The proposed MIME media type for JSON Schema is "application/schema+json".</t>
 1011             <t>Type name: application</t>
 1012             <t>Subtype name: schema+json</t>
 1013             <t>Required parameters: profile</t>
 1014             <t>
 1015                 The value of the profile parameter SHOULD be a URI (relative or absolute) that
 1016                 refers to the schema used to define the structure of this structure (the
 1017                 meta-schema). Normally the value would be http://json-schema.org/draft-03/hyper-schema,
 1018                 but it is allowable to use other schemas that extend the hyper schema's meta-
 1019                 schema.
 1020             </t>
 1021             <t>Optional parameters: pretty</t>
 1022             <t>The value of the pretty parameter MAY be true or false to indicate if additional whitespace has been included to make the JSON representation easier to read.</t>
 1024             <section title="Registry of Link Relations">
 1025                 <t>
 1026                     This registry is maintained by IANA per <xref target="RFC4287">RFC 4287</xref> and this specification adds
 1027                     four values: "full", "create", "instances", "root".  New
 1028                     assignments are subject to IESG Approval, as outlined in <xref target="RFC5226">RFC 5226</xref>.
 1029                     Requests should be made by email to IANA, which will then forward the
 1030                     request to the IESG, requesting approval.
 1031                 </t>
 1032             </section>
 1033         </section>
 1034     </middle>
 1036     <back>
 1037         <!-- References Section -->
 1038         <references title="Normative References">
 1039             &rfc2045;
 1040             &rfc2119;
 1041             &rfc2396;
 1042             &rfc3339;
 1043             &rfc3986;
 1044             &rfc4287;
 1045         </references>
 1046         <references title="Informative References">
 1047             &rfc2616;
 1048             &rfc4627;
 1049             &rfc5226;
 1050             &iddiscovery;
 1051             &uritemplate;
 1052             &linkheader;
 1053             &html401;
 1054             &css21;
 1055         </references>
 1057         <section title="Change Log">
 1058             <t>
 1059                 <list style="hanging">
 1060                     <t hangText="draft-03">
 1061                         <list style="symbols">
 1062                             <t>Added example and verbiage to "extends" attribute.</t>
 1063                             <t>Defined slash-delimited to use a leading slash.</t>
 1064                             <t>Made "root" a relation instead of an attribute.</t>
 1065                             <t>Removed address values, and MIME media type from format to reduce confusion (mediaType already exists, so it can be used for MIME types).</t>
 1066                             <t>Added more explanation of nullability.</t>
 1067                             <t>Removed "alternate" attribute.</t>
 1068                             <t>Upper cased many normative usages of must, may, and should.</t>
 1069                             <t>Replaced the link submission "properties" attribute to "schema" attribute.</t>
 1070                             <t>Replaced "optional" attribute with "required" attribute.</t>
 1071                             <t>Replaced "maximumCanEqual" attribute with "exclusiveMaximum" attribute.</t>
 1072                             <t>Replaced "minimumCanEqual" attribute with "exclusiveMinimum" attribute.</t>
 1073                             <t>Replaced "requires" attribute with "dependencies" attribute.</t>
 1074                             <t>Moved "contentEncoding" attribute to hyper schema.</t>
 1075                             <t>Added "additionalItems" attribute.</t>
 1076                             <t>Added "id" attribute.</t>
 1077                             <t>Switched self-referencing variable substitution from "-this" to "@" to align with reserved characters in URI template.</t>
 1078                             <t>Added "patternProperties" attribute.</t>
 1079                             <t>Schema URIs are now namespace versioned.</t>
 1080                             <t>Added "$ref" and "$schema" attributes.</t>
 1081                         </list>
 1082                     </t>
 1084                     <t hangText="draft-02">
 1085                         <list style="symbols">
 1086                             <t>Replaced "maxDecimal" attribute with "divisibleBy" attribute.</t>
 1087                             <t>Added slash-delimited fragment resolution protocol and made it the default.</t>
 1088                             <t>Added language about using links outside of schemas by referencing its normative URI.</t>
 1089                             <t>Added "uniqueItems" attribute.</t>
 1090                             <t>Added "targetSchema" attribute to link description object.</t>
 1091                         </list>
 1092                     </t>
 1094                     <t hangText="draft-01">
 1095                         <list style="symbols">
 1096                             <t>Fixed category and updates from template.</t>
 1097                         </list>
 1098                     </t>
 1100                     <t hangText="draft-00">
 1101                         <list style="symbols">
 1102                             <t>Initial draft.</t>
 1103                         </list>
 1104                     </t>
 1105                 </list>
 1106             </t>
 1107         </section>
 1109         <section title="Open Issues">
 1110             <t>
 1111                 <list>
 1112                     <t>Should we give a preference to MIME headers over Link headers (or only use one)?</t>
 1113                     <t>Should "root" be a MIME parameter?</t>
 1114                     <t>Should "format" be renamed to "mediaType" or "contentType" to reflect the usage MIME media types that are allowed?</t>
 1115                     <t>How should dates be handled?</t>
 1116                 </list>
 1117             </t>
 1118         </section>
 1119     </back>
 1120 </rfc>