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    1 /*    hv.h
    2  *
    3  *    Copyright (C) 1991, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999,
    4  *    2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, by Larry Wall and others
    5  *
    6  *    You may distribute under the terms of either the GNU General Public
    7  *    License or the Artistic License, as specified in the README file.
    8  *
    9  */
   10 
   11 /* These control hash traversal randomization and the environment variable PERL_PERTURB_KEYS.
   12  * Currently disabling this functionality will break a few tests, but should otherwise work fine.
   13  * See perlrun for more details. */
   14 
   15 #if defined(PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_DISABLED)
   16 #   define PL_HASH_RAND_BITS_ENABLED        0
   17 #   define PERL_HASH_ITER_BUCKET(iter)      ((iter)->xhv_riter)
   18 #else
   19 #   define PERL_HASH_RANDOMIZE_KEYS         1
   20 #   if defined(PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_RANDOM)
   21 #       define PL_HASH_RAND_BITS_ENABLED    1
   22 #   elif defined(PERL_PERTURB_KEYS_DETERMINISTIC)
   23 #       define PL_HASH_RAND_BITS_ENABLED    2
   24 #   else
   25 #       define USE_PERL_PERTURB_KEYS        1
   26 #       define PL_HASH_RAND_BITS_ENABLED    PL_hash_rand_bits_enabled
   27 #   endif
   28 #   define PERL_HASH_ITER_BUCKET(iter)      (((iter)->xhv_riter) ^ ((iter)->xhv_rand))
   29 #endif
   30 
   31 /* entry in hash value chain */
   32 struct he {
   33     /* Keep hent_next first in this structure, because sv_free_arenas take
   34        advantage of this to share code between the he arenas and the SV
   35        body arenas  */
   36     HE      *hent_next; /* next entry in chain */
   37     HEK     *hent_hek;  /* hash key */
   38     union {
   39     SV  *hent_val;  /* scalar value that was hashed */
   40     Size_t  hent_refcount;  /* references for this shared hash key */
   41     } he_valu;
   42 };
   43 
   44 /* hash key -- defined separately for use as shared pointer */
   45 struct hek {
   46     U32         hek_hash;        /* computed hash of key */
   47     I32         hek_len;        /* length of the hash key */
   48     /* Be careful! Sometimes we store a pointer in the hek_key
   49      * buffer, which means it must be 8 byte aligned or things
   50      * dont work on aligned platforms like HPUX
   51      * Also beware, the last byte of the hek_key buffer is a
   52      * hidden flags byte about the key. */
   53      char       hek_key[1];        /* variable-length hash key */
   54     /* the hash-key is \0-terminated */
   55     /* after the \0 there is a byte for flags, such as whether the key
   56        is UTF-8 or WAS-UTF-8, or an SV */
   57 };
   58 
   59 struct shared_he {
   60     struct he shared_he_he;
   61     struct hek shared_he_hek;
   62 };
   63 
   64 /* Subject to change.
   65    Don't access this directly.
   66    Use the funcs in mro_core.c
   67 */
   68 
   69 struct mro_alg {
   70     AV *(*resolve)(pTHX_ HV* stash, U32 level);
   71     const char *name;
   72     U16 length;
   73     U16 kflags; /* For the hash API - set HVhek_UTF8 if name is UTF-8 */
   74     U32 hash; /* or 0 */
   75 };
   76 
   77 struct mro_meta {
   78     /* a hash holding the different MROs private data.  */
   79     HV      *mro_linear_all;
   80     /* a pointer directly to the current MROs private data.  If mro_linear_all
   81        is NULL, this owns the SV reference, else it is just a pointer to a
   82        value stored in and owned by mro_linear_all.  */
   83     SV      *mro_linear_current;
   84     HV      *mro_nextmethod; /* next::method caching */
   85     U32     cache_gen;       /* Bumping this invalidates our method cache */
   86     U32     pkg_gen;         /* Bumps when local methods/@ISA change */
   87     const struct mro_alg *mro_which; /* which mro alg is in use? */
   88     HV      *isa;            /* Everything this class @ISA */
   89     HV      *super;          /* SUPER method cache */
   90     CV      *destroy;        /* DESTROY method if destroy_gen non-zero */
   91     U32     destroy_gen;     /* Generation number of DESTROY cache */
   92 };
   93 
   94 #define MRO_GET_PRIVATE_DATA(smeta, which)         \
   95     (((smeta)->mro_which && (which) == (smeta)->mro_which) \
   96      ? (smeta)->mro_linear_current             \
   97      : Perl_mro_get_private_data(aTHX_ (smeta), (which)))
   98 
   99 /* Subject to change.
  100    Don't access this directly.
  101 */
  102 
  103 union _xhvnameu {
  104     HEK *xhvnameu_name;     /* When xhv_name_count is 0 */
  105     HEK **xhvnameu_names;   /* When xhv_name_count is non-0 */
  106 };
  107 
  108 struct xpvhv_aux {
  109     union _xhvnameu xhv_name_u; /* name, if a symbol table */
  110     AV      *xhv_backreferences; /* back references for weak references */
  111     HE      *xhv_eiter; /* current entry of iterator */
  112     I32     xhv_riter;  /* current root of iterator */
  113 
  114 /* Concerning xhv_name_count: When non-zero, xhv_name_u contains a pointer 
  115  * to an array of HEK pointers, this being the length. The first element is
  116  * the name of the stash, which may be NULL. If xhv_name_count is positive,
  117  * then *xhv_name is one of the effective names. If xhv_name_count is nega-
  118  * tive, then xhv_name_u.xhvnameu_names[1] is the first effective name.
  119  */
  120     I32     xhv_name_count;
  121     struct mro_meta *xhv_mro_meta;
  122 #ifdef PERL_HASH_RANDOMIZE_KEYS
  123     U32         xhv_rand;       /* random value for hash traversal */
  124     U32         xhv_last_rand;  /* last random value for hash traversal,
  125                                    used to detect each() after insert for warnings */
  126 #endif
  127     U32         xhv_aux_flags;      /* assorted extra flags */
  128 };
  129 
  130 #define HvAUXf_SCAN_STASH   0x1   /* stash is being scanned by gv_check */
  131 #define HvAUXf_NO_DEREF     0x2   /* @{}, %{} etc (and nomethod) not present */
  132 
  133 /* hash structure: */
  134 /* This structure must match the beginning of struct xpvmg in sv.h. */
  135 struct xpvhv {
  136     HV*     xmg_stash;  /* class package */
  137     union _xmgu xmg_u;
  138     STRLEN      xhv_keys;       /* total keys, including placeholders */
  139     STRLEN      xhv_max;        /* subscript of last element of xhv_array */
  140 };
  141 
  142 /*
  143 =head1 Hash Manipulation Functions
  144 
  145 =for apidoc AmU||HEf_SVKEY
  146 This flag, used in the length slot of hash entries and magic structures,
  147 specifies the structure contains an C<SV*> pointer where a C<char*> pointer
  148 is to be expected.  (For information only--not to be used).
  149 
  150 =head1 Handy Values
  151 
  152 =for apidoc AmU||Nullhv
  153 Null HV pointer.
  154 
  155 (deprecated - use C<(HV *)NULL> instead)
  156 
  157 =head1 Hash Manipulation Functions
  158 
  159 =for apidoc Am|char*|HvNAME|HV* stash
  160 Returns the package name of a stash, or C<NULL> if C<stash> isn't a stash.
  161 See C<L</SvSTASH>>, C<L</CvSTASH>>.
  162 
  163 =for apidoc Am|STRLEN|HvNAMELEN|HV *stash
  164 Returns the length of the stash's name.
  165 
  166 =for apidoc Am|unsigned char|HvNAMEUTF8|HV *stash
  167 Returns true if the name is in UTF-8 encoding.
  168 
  169 =for apidoc Am|char*|HvENAME|HV* stash
  170 Returns the effective name of a stash, or NULL if there is none.  The
  171 effective name represents a location in the symbol table where this stash
  172 resides.  It is updated automatically when packages are aliased or deleted.
  173 A stash that is no longer in the symbol table has no effective name.  This
  174 name is preferable to C<HvNAME> for use in MRO linearisations and isa
  175 caches.
  176 
  177 =for apidoc Am|STRLEN|HvENAMELEN|HV *stash
  178 Returns the length of the stash's effective name.
  179 
  180 =for apidoc Am|unsigned char|HvENAMEUTF8|HV *stash
  181 Returns true if the effective name is in UTF-8 encoding.
  182 
  183 =for apidoc Am|void*|HeKEY|HE* he
  184 Returns the actual pointer stored in the key slot of the hash entry.  The
  185 pointer may be either C<char*> or C<SV*>, depending on the value of
  186 C<HeKLEN()>.  Can be assigned to.  The C<HePV()> or C<HeSVKEY()> macros are
  187 usually preferable for finding the value of a key.
  188 
  189 =for apidoc Am|STRLEN|HeKLEN|HE* he
  190 If this is negative, and amounts to C<HEf_SVKEY>, it indicates the entry
  191 holds an C<SV*> key.  Otherwise, holds the actual length of the key.  Can
  192 be assigned to.  The C<HePV()> macro is usually preferable for finding key
  193 lengths.
  194 
  195 =for apidoc Am|SV*|HeVAL|HE* he
  196 Returns the value slot (type C<SV*>)
  197 stored in the hash entry.  Can be assigned
  198 to.
  199 
  200   SV *foo= HeVAL(hv);
  201   HeVAL(hv)= sv;
  202 
  203 
  204 =for apidoc Am|U32|HeHASH|HE* he
  205 Returns the computed hash stored in the hash entry.
  206 
  207 =for apidoc Am|char*|HePV|HE* he|STRLEN len
  208 Returns the key slot of the hash entry as a C<char*> value, doing any
  209 necessary dereferencing of possibly C<SV*> keys.  The length of the string
  210 is placed in C<len> (this is a macro, so do I<not> use C<&len>).  If you do
  211 not care about what the length of the key is, you may use the global
  212 variable C<PL_na>, though this is rather less efficient than using a local
  213 variable.  Remember though, that hash keys in perl are free to contain
  214 embedded nulls, so using C<strlen()> or similar is not a good way to find
  215 the length of hash keys.  This is very similar to the C<SvPV()> macro
  216 described elsewhere in this document.  See also C<L</HeUTF8>>.
  217 
  218 If you are using C<HePV> to get values to pass to C<newSVpvn()> to create a
  219 new SV, you should consider using C<newSVhek(HeKEY_hek(he))> as it is more
  220 efficient.
  221 
  222 =for apidoc Am|U32|HeUTF8|HE* he
  223 Returns whether the C<char *> value returned by C<HePV> is encoded in UTF-8,
  224 doing any necessary dereferencing of possibly C<SV*> keys.  The value returned
  225 will be 0 or non-0, not necessarily 1 (or even a value with any low bits set),
  226 so B<do not> blindly assign this to a C<bool> variable, as C<bool> may be a
  227 typedef for C<char>.
  228 
  229 =for apidoc Am|SV*|HeSVKEY|HE* he
  230 Returns the key as an C<SV*>, or C<NULL> if the hash entry does not
  231 contain an C<SV*> key.
  232 
  233 =for apidoc Am|SV*|HeSVKEY_force|HE* he
  234 Returns the key as an C<SV*>.  Will create and return a temporary mortal
  235 C<SV*> if the hash entry contains only a C<char*> key.
  236 
  237 =for apidoc Am|SV*|HeSVKEY_set|HE* he|SV* sv
  238 Sets the key to a given C<SV*>, taking care to set the appropriate flags to
  239 indicate the presence of an C<SV*> key, and returns the same
  240 C<SV*>.
  241 
  242 =cut
  243 */
  244 
  245 #define PERL_HASH_DEFAULT_HvMAX 7
  246 
  247 /* During hsplit(), if HvMAX(hv)+1 (the new bucket count) is >= this value,
  248  * we preallocate the HvAUX() struct.
  249  * The assumption being that we are using so much space anyway we might
  250  * as well allocate the extra bytes and speed up later keys()
  251  * or each() operations. We don't do this to small hashes as we assume
  252  * that a) it will be easy/fast to resize them to add the iterator, and b) that
  253  * many of them will be objects which won't be traversed. Larger hashes however
  254  * will take longer to extend, and the size of the aux struct is swamped by the
  255  * overall length of the bucket array.
  256  * */
  257 #define PERL_HV_ALLOC_AUX_SIZE (1 << 9)
  258 
  259 /* these hash entry flags ride on hent_klen (for use only in magic/tied HVs) */
  260 #define HEf_SVKEY   -2  /* hent_key is an SV* */
  261 
  262 #ifndef PERL_CORE
  263 #  define Nullhv Null(HV*)
  264 #endif
  265 #define HvARRAY(hv) ((hv)->sv_u.svu_hash)
  266 #define HvFILL(hv)  Perl_hv_fill(aTHX_ MUTABLE_HV(hv))
  267 #define HvMAX(hv)   ((XPVHV*)  SvANY(hv))->xhv_max
  268 /* This quite intentionally does no flag checking first. That's your
  269    responsibility.  */
  270 #define HvAUX(hv)   ((struct xpvhv_aux*)&(HvARRAY(hv)[HvMAX(hv)+1]))
  271 #define HvRITER(hv) (*Perl_hv_riter_p(aTHX_ MUTABLE_HV(hv)))
  272 #define HvEITER(hv) (*Perl_hv_eiter_p(aTHX_ MUTABLE_HV(hv)))
  273 #define HvRITER_set(hv,r)   Perl_hv_riter_set(aTHX_ MUTABLE_HV(hv), r)
  274 #define HvEITER_set(hv,e)   Perl_hv_eiter_set(aTHX_ MUTABLE_HV(hv), e)
  275 #define HvRITER_get(hv) (SvOOK(hv) ? HvAUX(hv)->xhv_riter : -1)
  276 #define HvEITER_get(hv) (SvOOK(hv) ? HvAUX(hv)->xhv_eiter : NULL)
  277 #define HvRAND_get(hv)  (SvOOK(hv) ? HvAUX(hv)->xhv_rand : 0)
  278 #define HvLASTRAND_get(hv)  (SvOOK(hv) ? HvAUX(hv)->xhv_last_rand : 0)
  279 
  280 #define HvNAME(hv)  HvNAME_get(hv)
  281 #define HvNAMELEN(hv)   HvNAMELEN_get(hv)
  282 #define HvENAME(hv) HvENAME_get(hv)
  283 #define HvENAMELEN(hv)  HvENAMELEN_get(hv)
  284 
  285 /* Checking that hv is a valid package stash is the
  286    caller's responsibility */
  287 #define HvMROMETA(hv) (HvAUX(hv)->xhv_mro_meta \
  288                        ? HvAUX(hv)->xhv_mro_meta \
  289                        : Perl_mro_meta_init(aTHX_ hv))
  290 
  291 #define HvNAME_HEK_NN(hv)             \
  292  (                        \
  293   HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_count           \
  294   ? *HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_u.xhvnameu_names     \
  295   : HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_u.xhvnameu_name       \
  296  )
  297 /* This macro may go away without notice.  */
  298 #define HvNAME_HEK(hv) \
  299     (SvOOK(hv) && HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_u.xhvnameu_name ? HvNAME_HEK_NN(hv) : NULL)
  300 #define HvNAME_get(hv) \
  301     ((SvOOK(hv) && HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_u.xhvnameu_name && HvNAME_HEK_NN(hv)) \
  302              ? HEK_KEY(HvNAME_HEK_NN(hv)) : NULL)
  303 #define HvNAMELEN_get(hv) \
  304     ((SvOOK(hv) && HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_u.xhvnameu_name && HvNAME_HEK_NN(hv)) \
  305                  ? HEK_LEN(HvNAME_HEK_NN(hv)) : 0)
  306 #define HvNAMEUTF8(hv) \
  307     ((SvOOK(hv) && HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_u.xhvnameu_name && HvNAME_HEK_NN(hv)) \
  308                  ? HEK_UTF8(HvNAME_HEK_NN(hv)) : 0)
  309 #define HvENAME_HEK_NN(hv)                                             \
  310  (                                                                      \
  311   HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_count > 0   ? HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_u.xhvnameu_names[0] : \
  312   HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_count < -1  ? HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_u.xhvnameu_names[1] : \
  313   HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_count == -1 ? NULL                              : \
  314                                     HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_u.xhvnameu_name \
  315  )
  316 #define HvENAME_HEK(hv) \
  317     (SvOOK(hv) && HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_u.xhvnameu_name ? HvENAME_HEK_NN(hv) : NULL)
  318 #define HvENAME_get(hv) \
  319    ((SvOOK(hv) && HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_u.xhvnameu_name && HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_count != -1) \
  320              ? HEK_KEY(HvENAME_HEK_NN(hv)) : NULL)
  321 #define HvENAMELEN_get(hv) \
  322    ((SvOOK(hv) && HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_u.xhvnameu_name && HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_count != -1) \
  323                  ? HEK_LEN(HvENAME_HEK_NN(hv)) : 0)
  324 #define HvENAMEUTF8(hv) \
  325    ((SvOOK(hv) && HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_u.xhvnameu_name && HvAUX(hv)->xhv_name_count != -1) \
  326                  ? HEK_UTF8(HvENAME_HEK_NN(hv)) : 0)
  327 
  328 /* the number of keys (including any placeholders) - NOT PART OF THE API */
  329 #define XHvTOTALKEYS(xhv)   ((xhv)->xhv_keys)
  330 
  331 /*
  332  * HvKEYS gets the number of keys that actually exist(), and is provided
  333  * for backwards compatibility with old XS code. The core uses HvUSEDKEYS
  334  * (keys, excluding placeholders) and HvTOTALKEYS (including placeholders)
  335  */
  336 #define HvKEYS(hv)      HvUSEDKEYS(hv)
  337 #define HvUSEDKEYS(hv)      (HvTOTALKEYS(hv) - HvPLACEHOLDERS_get(hv))
  338 #define HvTOTALKEYS(hv)     XHvTOTALKEYS((XPVHV*)  SvANY(hv))
  339 #define HvPLACEHOLDERS(hv)  (*Perl_hv_placeholders_p(aTHX_ MUTABLE_HV(hv)))
  340 #define HvPLACEHOLDERS_get(hv)  (SvMAGIC(hv) ? Perl_hv_placeholders_get(aTHX_ (const HV *)hv) : 0)
  341 #define HvPLACEHOLDERS_set(hv,p)    Perl_hv_placeholders_set(aTHX_ MUTABLE_HV(hv), p)
  342 
  343 #define HvSHAREKEYS(hv)     (SvFLAGS(hv) & SVphv_SHAREKEYS)
  344 #define HvSHAREKEYS_on(hv)  (SvFLAGS(hv) |= SVphv_SHAREKEYS)
  345 #define HvSHAREKEYS_off(hv) (SvFLAGS(hv) &= ~SVphv_SHAREKEYS)
  346 
  347 /* This is an optimisation flag. It won't be set if all hash keys have a 0
  348  * flag. Currently the only flags relate to utf8.
  349  * Hence it won't be set if all keys are 8 bit only. It will be set if any key
  350  * is utf8 (including 8 bit keys that were entered as utf8, and need upgrading
  351  * when retrieved during iteration. It may still be set when there are no longer
  352  * any utf8 keys.
  353  * See HVhek_ENABLEHVKFLAGS for the trigger.
  354  */
  355 #define HvHASKFLAGS(hv)     (SvFLAGS(hv) & SVphv_HASKFLAGS)
  356 #define HvHASKFLAGS_on(hv)  (SvFLAGS(hv) |= SVphv_HASKFLAGS)
  357 #define HvHASKFLAGS_off(hv) (SvFLAGS(hv) &= ~SVphv_HASKFLAGS)
  358 
  359 #define HvLAZYDEL(hv)       (SvFLAGS(hv) & SVphv_LAZYDEL)
  360 #define HvLAZYDEL_on(hv)    (SvFLAGS(hv) |= SVphv_LAZYDEL)
  361 #define HvLAZYDEL_off(hv)   (SvFLAGS(hv) &= ~SVphv_LAZYDEL)
  362 
  363 #ifndef PERL_CORE
  364 #  define Nullhe Null(HE*)
  365 #endif
  366 #define HeNEXT(he)      (he)->hent_next
  367 #define HeKEY_hek(he)       (he)->hent_hek
  368 #define HeKEY(he)       HEK_KEY(HeKEY_hek(he))
  369 #define HeKEY_sv(he)        (*(SV**)HeKEY(he))
  370 #define HeKLEN(he)      HEK_LEN(HeKEY_hek(he))
  371 #define HeKUTF8(he)  HEK_UTF8(HeKEY_hek(he))
  372 #define HeKWASUTF8(he)  HEK_WASUTF8(HeKEY_hek(he))
  373 #define HeKLEN_UTF8(he)  (HeKUTF8(he) ? -HeKLEN(he) : HeKLEN(he))
  374 #define HeKFLAGS(he)  HEK_FLAGS(HeKEY_hek(he))
  375 #define HeVAL(he)       (he)->he_valu.hent_val
  376 #define HeHASH(he)      HEK_HASH(HeKEY_hek(he))
  377 #define HePV(he,lp)     ((HeKLEN(he) == HEf_SVKEY) ?        \
  378                  SvPV(HeKEY_sv(he),lp) :        \
  379                  ((lp = HeKLEN(he)), HeKEY(he)))
  380 #define HeUTF8(he)      ((HeKLEN(he) == HEf_SVKEY) ?        \
  381                  SvUTF8(HeKEY_sv(he)) :         \
  382                  (U32)HeKUTF8(he))
  383 
  384 #define HeSVKEY(he)     ((HeKEY(he) &&              \
  385                   HeKLEN(he) == HEf_SVKEY) ?        \
  386                  HeKEY_sv(he) : NULL)
  387 
  388 #define HeSVKEY_force(he)   (HeKEY(he) ?                \
  389                  ((HeKLEN(he) == HEf_SVKEY) ?       \
  390                   HeKEY_sv(he) :            \
  391                   newSVpvn_flags(HeKEY(he),     \
  392                                                  HeKLEN(he),            \
  393                                                  SVs_TEMP |             \
  394                                       ( HeKUTF8(he) ? SVf_UTF8 : 0 ))) : \
  395                  &PL_sv_undef)
  396 #define HeSVKEY_set(he,sv)  ((HeKLEN(he) = HEf_SVKEY), (HeKEY_sv(he) = sv))
  397 
  398 #ifndef PERL_CORE
  399 #  define Nullhek Null(HEK*)
  400 #endif
  401 #define HEK_BASESIZE        STRUCT_OFFSET(HEK, hek_key[0])
  402 #define HEK_HASH(hek)       (hek)->hek_hash
  403 #define HEK_LEN(hek)        (hek)->hek_len
  404 #define HEK_KEY(hek)        (hek)->hek_key
  405 #define HEK_FLAGS(hek)  (*((unsigned char *)(HEK_KEY(hek))+HEK_LEN(hek)+1))
  406 
  407 #define HVhek_UTF8  0x01 /* Key is utf8 encoded. */
  408 #define HVhek_WASUTF8   0x02 /* Key is bytes here, but was supplied as utf8. */
  409 #define HVhek_UNSHARED  0x08 /* This key isn't a shared hash key. */
  410 /* the following flags are options for functions, they are not stored in heks */
  411 #define HVhek_FREEKEY   0x100 /* Internal flag to say key is Newx()ed.  */
  412 #define HVhek_PLACEHOLD 0x200 /* Internal flag to create placeholder.
  413                                * (may change, but Storable is a core module) */
  414 #define HVhek_KEYCANONICAL 0x400 /* Internal flag - key is in canonical form.
  415                     If the string is UTF-8, it cannot be
  416                     converted to bytes. */
  417 #define HVhek_MASK  0xFF
  418 
  419 #define HVhek_ENABLEHVKFLAGS        (HVhek_MASK & ~(HVhek_UNSHARED))
  420 
  421 #define HEK_UTF8(hek)       (HEK_FLAGS(hek) & HVhek_UTF8)
  422 #define HEK_UTF8_on(hek)    (HEK_FLAGS(hek) |= HVhek_UTF8)
  423 #define HEK_UTF8_off(hek)   (HEK_FLAGS(hek) &= ~HVhek_UTF8)
  424 #define HEK_WASUTF8(hek)    (HEK_FLAGS(hek) & HVhek_WASUTF8)
  425 #define HEK_WASUTF8_on(hek) (HEK_FLAGS(hek) |= HVhek_WASUTF8)
  426 #define HEK_WASUTF8_off(hek)    (HEK_FLAGS(hek) &= ~HVhek_WASUTF8)
  427 
  428 /* calculate HV array allocation */
  429 #ifndef PERL_USE_LARGE_HV_ALLOC
  430 /* Default to allocating the correct size - default to assuming that malloc()
  431    is not broken and is efficient at allocating blocks sized at powers-of-two.
  432 */   
  433 #  define PERL_HV_ARRAY_ALLOC_BYTES(size) ((size) * sizeof(HE*))
  434 #else
  435 #  define MALLOC_OVERHEAD 16
  436 #  define PERL_HV_ARRAY_ALLOC_BYTES(size) \
  437             (((size) < 64)                  \
  438              ? (size) * sizeof(HE*)             \
  439              : (size) * sizeof(HE*) * 2 - MALLOC_OVERHEAD)
  440 #endif
  441 
  442 /* Flags for hv_iternext_flags.  */
  443 #define HV_ITERNEXT_WANTPLACEHOLDERS    0x01    /* Don't skip placeholders.  */
  444 
  445 #define hv_iternext(hv) hv_iternext_flags(hv, 0)
  446 #define hv_magic(hv, gv, how) sv_magic(MUTABLE_SV(hv), MUTABLE_SV(gv), how, NULL, 0)
  447 #define hv_undef(hv) Perl_hv_undef_flags(aTHX_ hv, 0)
  448 
  449 #define Perl_sharepvn(pv, len, hash) HEK_KEY(share_hek(pv, len, hash))
  450 #define sharepvn(pv, len, hash)      Perl_sharepvn(pv, len, hash)
  451 
  452 #define share_hek_hek(hek)                      \
  453     (++(((struct shared_he *)(((char *)hek)             \
  454                   - STRUCT_OFFSET(struct shared_he,     \
  455                           shared_he_hek)))      \
  456     ->shared_he_he.he_valu.hent_refcount),              \
  457      hek)
  458 
  459 #define hv_store_ent(hv, keysv, val, hash)              \
  460     ((HE *) hv_common((hv), (keysv), NULL, 0, 0, HV_FETCH_ISSTORE,  \
  461               (val), (hash)))
  462 
  463 #define hv_exists_ent(hv, keysv, hash)                  \
  464     cBOOL(hv_common((hv), (keysv), NULL, 0, 0, HV_FETCH_ISEXISTS, 0, (hash)))
  465 #define hv_fetch_ent(hv, keysv, lval, hash)             \
  466     ((HE *) hv_common((hv), (keysv), NULL, 0, 0,            \
  467               ((lval) ? HV_FETCH_LVALUE : 0), NULL, (hash)))
  468 #define hv_delete_ent(hv, key, flags, hash)             \
  469     (MUTABLE_SV(hv_common((hv), (key), NULL, 0, 0, (flags) | HV_DELETE, \
  470               NULL, (hash))))
  471 
  472 #define hv_store_flags(hv, key, klen, val, hash, flags)         \
  473     ((SV**) hv_common((hv), NULL, (key), (klen), (flags),       \
  474               (HV_FETCH_ISSTORE|HV_FETCH_JUST_SV), (val),   \
  475               (hash)))
  476 
  477 #define hv_store(hv, key, klen, val, hash)              \
  478     ((SV**) hv_common_key_len((hv), (key), (klen),          \
  479                   (HV_FETCH_ISSTORE|HV_FETCH_JUST_SV),  \
  480                   (val), (hash)))
  481 
  482 
  483 
  484 #define hv_exists(hv, key, klen)                    \
  485     cBOOL(hv_common_key_len((hv), (key), (klen), HV_FETCH_ISEXISTS, NULL, 0))
  486 
  487 #define hv_fetch(hv, key, klen, lval)                   \
  488     ((SV**) hv_common_key_len((hv), (key), (klen), (lval)       \
  489                   ? (HV_FETCH_JUST_SV | HV_FETCH_LVALUE)    \
  490                   : HV_FETCH_JUST_SV, NULL, 0))
  491 
  492 #define hv_delete(hv, key, klen, flags)                 \
  493     (MUTABLE_SV(hv_common_key_len((hv), (key), (klen),          \
  494                   (flags) | HV_DELETE, NULL, 0)))
  495 
  496 /* Provide 's' suffix subs for constant strings (and avoid needing to count
  497  * chars). See STR_WITH_LEN in handy.h - because these are macros we cant use
  498  * STR_WITH_LEN to do the work, we have to unroll it. */
  499 #define hv_existss(hv, key) \
  500     hv_exists((hv), ("" key ""), (sizeof(key)-1))
  501 
  502 #define hv_fetchs(hv, key, lval) \
  503     hv_fetch((hv), ("" key ""), (sizeof(key)-1), (lval))
  504 
  505 #define hv_deletes(hv, key, flags) \
  506     hv_delete((hv), ("" key ""), (sizeof(key)-1), (flags))
  507 
  508 #define hv_name_sets(hv, name, flags) \
  509     hv_name_set((hv),("" name ""),(sizeof(name)-1), flags)
  510 
  511 #define hv_stores(hv, key, val) \
  512     hv_store((hv), ("" key ""), (sizeof(key)-1), (val), 0)
  513 
  514 #ifdef PERL_CORE
  515 # define hv_storehek(hv, hek, val) \
  516     hv_common((hv), NULL, HEK_KEY(hek), HEK_LEN(hek), HEK_UTF8(hek),    \
  517           HV_FETCH_ISSTORE|HV_FETCH_JUST_SV, (val), HEK_HASH(hek))
  518 # define hv_fetchhek(hv, hek, lval) \
  519     ((SV **)                                \
  520      hv_common((hv), NULL, HEK_KEY(hek), HEK_LEN(hek), HEK_UTF8(hek),   \
  521            (lval)                           \
  522         ? (HV_FETCH_JUST_SV | HV_FETCH_LVALUE)          \
  523         : HV_FETCH_JUST_SV,                 \
  524            NULL, HEK_HASH(hek)))
  525 # define hv_deletehek(hv, hek, flags) \
  526     hv_common((hv), NULL, HEK_KEY(hek), HEK_LEN(hek), HEK_UTF8(hek), \
  527           (flags)|HV_DELETE, NULL, HEK_HASH(hek))
  528 #endif
  529 
  530 /* This refcounted he structure is used for storing the hints used for lexical
  531    pragmas. Without threads, it's basically struct he + refcount.
  532    With threads, life gets more complex as the structure needs to be shared
  533    between threads (because it hangs from OPs, which are shared), hence the
  534    alternate definition and mutex.  */
  535 
  536 struct refcounted_he;
  537 
  538 /* flags for the refcounted_he API */
  539 #define REFCOUNTED_HE_KEY_UTF8      0x00000001
  540 #ifdef PERL_CORE
  541 # define REFCOUNTED_HE_EXISTS       0x00000002
  542 #endif
  543 
  544 #ifdef PERL_CORE
  545 
  546 /* Gosh. This really isn't a good name any longer.  */
  547 struct refcounted_he {
  548     struct refcounted_he *refcounted_he_next;   /* next entry in chain */
  549 #ifdef USE_ITHREADS
  550     U32                   refcounted_he_hash;
  551     U32                   refcounted_he_keylen;
  552 #else
  553     HEK                  *refcounted_he_hek;    /* hint key */
  554 #endif
  555     union {
  556     IV                refcounted_he_u_iv;
  557     UV                refcounted_he_u_uv;
  558     STRLEN            refcounted_he_u_len;
  559     void         *refcounted_he_u_ptr;  /* Might be useful in future */
  560     } refcounted_he_val;
  561     U32                   refcounted_he_refcnt; /* reference count */
  562     /* First byte is flags. Then NUL-terminated value. Then for ithreads,
  563        non-NUL terminated key.  */
  564     char                  refcounted_he_data[1];
  565 };
  566 
  567 /*
  568 =for apidoc m|SV *|refcounted_he_fetch_pvs|const struct refcounted_he *chain|"literal string" key|U32 flags
  569 
  570 Like L</refcounted_he_fetch_pvn>, but takes a literal string
  571 instead of a string/length pair, and no precomputed hash.
  572 
  573 =cut
  574 */
  575 
  576 #define refcounted_he_fetch_pvs(chain, key, flags) \
  577     Perl_refcounted_he_fetch_pvn(aTHX_ chain, STR_WITH_LEN(key), 0, flags)
  578 
  579 /*
  580 =for apidoc m|struct refcounted_he *|refcounted_he_new_pvs|struct refcounted_he *parent|"literal string" key|SV *value|U32 flags
  581 
  582 Like L</refcounted_he_new_pvn>, but takes a literal string
  583 instead of a string/length pair, and no precomputed hash.
  584 
  585 =cut
  586 */
  587 
  588 #define refcounted_he_new_pvs(parent, key, value, flags) \
  589     Perl_refcounted_he_new_pvn(aTHX_ parent, STR_WITH_LEN(key), 0, value, flags)
  590 
  591 /* Flag bits are HVhek_UTF8, HVhek_WASUTF8, then */
  592 #define HVrhek_undef    0x00 /* Value is undef. */
  593 #define HVrhek_delete   0x10 /* Value is placeholder - signifies delete. */
  594 #define HVrhek_IV   0x20 /* Value is IV. */
  595 #define HVrhek_UV   0x30 /* Value is UV. */
  596 #define HVrhek_PV   0x40 /* Value is a (byte) string. */
  597 #define HVrhek_PV_UTF8  0x50 /* Value is a (utf8) string. */
  598 /* Two spare. As these have to live in the optree, you can't store anything
  599    interpreter specific, such as SVs. :-( */
  600 #define HVrhek_typemask 0x70
  601 
  602 #ifdef USE_ITHREADS
  603 /* A big expression to find the key offset */
  604 #define REF_HE_KEY(chain)                       \
  605     ((((chain->refcounted_he_data[0] & 0x60) == 0x40)       \
  606         ? chain->refcounted_he_val.refcounted_he_u_len + 1 : 0) \
  607      + 1 + chain->refcounted_he_data)
  608 #endif
  609 
  610 #  ifdef USE_ITHREADS
  611 #    define HINTS_REFCNT_LOCK       MUTEX_LOCK(&PL_hints_mutex)
  612 #    define HINTS_REFCNT_UNLOCK     MUTEX_UNLOCK(&PL_hints_mutex)
  613 #  else
  614 #    define HINTS_REFCNT_LOCK       NOOP
  615 #    define HINTS_REFCNT_UNLOCK     NOOP
  616 #  endif
  617 #endif
  618 
  619 #ifdef USE_ITHREADS
  620 #  define HINTS_REFCNT_INIT     MUTEX_INIT(&PL_hints_mutex)
  621 #  define HINTS_REFCNT_TERM     MUTEX_DESTROY(&PL_hints_mutex)
  622 #else
  623 #  define HINTS_REFCNT_INIT     NOOP
  624 #  define HINTS_REFCNT_TERM     NOOP
  625 #endif
  626 
  627 /* Hash actions
  628  * Passed in PERL_MAGIC_uvar calls
  629  */
  630 #define HV_DISABLE_UVAR_XKEY    0x01
  631 /* We need to ensure that these don't clash with G_DISCARD, which is 2, as it
  632    is documented as being passed to hv_delete().  */
  633 #define HV_FETCH_ISSTORE    0x04
  634 #define HV_FETCH_ISEXISTS   0x08
  635 #define HV_FETCH_LVALUE     0x10
  636 #define HV_FETCH_JUST_SV    0x20
  637 #define HV_DELETE       0x40
  638 #define HV_FETCH_EMPTY_HE   0x80 /* Leave HeVAL null. */
  639 
  640 /* Must not conflict with HVhek_UTF8 */
  641 #define HV_NAME_SETALL      0x02
  642 
  643 /*
  644 =for apidoc newHV
  645 
  646 Creates a new HV.  The reference count is set to 1.
  647 
  648 =cut
  649 */
  650 
  651 #define newHV() MUTABLE_HV(newSV_type(SVt_PVHV))
  652 
  653 #include "hv_func.h"
  654 
  655 /*
  656  * ex: set ts=8 sts=4 sw=4 et:
  657  */