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    1 gitcvs-migration(7)
    2 ===================
    3 
    4 NAME
    5 ----
    6 gitcvs-migration - Git for CVS users
    7 
    8 SYNOPSIS
    9 --------
   10 [verse]
   11 'git cvsimport' *
   12 
   13 DESCRIPTION
   14 -----------
   15 
   16 Git differs from CVS in that every working tree contains a repository with
   17 a full copy of the project history, and no repository is inherently more
   18 important than any other.  However, you can emulate the CVS model by
   19 designating a single shared repository which people can synchronize with;
   20 this document explains how to do that.
   21 
   22 Some basic familiarity with Git is required. Having gone through
   23 linkgit:gittutorial[7] and
   24 linkgit:gitglossary[7] should be sufficient.
   25 
   26 Developing against a shared repository
   27 --------------------------------------
   28 
   29 Suppose a shared repository is set up in /pub/repo.git on the host
   30 foo.com.  Then as an individual committer you can clone the shared
   31 repository over ssh with:
   32 
   33 ------------------------------------------------
   34 $ git clone foo.com:/pub/repo.git/ my-project
   35 $ cd my-project
   36 ------------------------------------------------
   37 
   38 and hack away.  The equivalent of 'cvs update' is
   39 
   40 ------------------------------------------------
   41 $ git pull origin
   42 ------------------------------------------------
   43 
   44 which merges in any work that others might have done since the clone
   45 operation.  If there are uncommitted changes in your working tree, commit
   46 them first before running git pull.
   47 
   48 [NOTE]
   49 ================================
   50 The 'pull' command knows where to get updates from because of certain
   51 configuration variables that were set by the first 'git clone'
   52 command; see `git config -l` and the linkgit:git-config[1] man
   53 page for details.
   54 ================================
   55 
   56 You can update the shared repository with your changes by first committing
   57 your changes, and then using the 'git push' command:
   58 
   59 ------------------------------------------------
   60 $ git push origin master
   61 ------------------------------------------------
   62 
   63 to "push" those commits to the shared repository.  If someone else has
   64 updated the repository more recently, 'git push', like 'cvs commit', will
   65 complain, in which case you must pull any changes before attempting the
   66 push again.
   67 
   68 In the 'git push' command above we specify the name of the remote branch
   69 to update (`master`).  If we leave that out, 'git push' tries to update
   70 any branches in the remote repository that have the same name as a branch
   71 in the local repository.  So the last 'push' can be done with either of:
   72 
   73 ------------
   74 $ git push origin
   75 $ git push foo.com:/pub/project.git/
   76 ------------
   77 
   78 as long as the shared repository does not have any branches
   79 other than `master`.
   80 
   81 Setting Up a Shared Repository
   82 ------------------------------
   83 
   84 We assume you have already created a Git repository for your project,
   85 possibly created from scratch or from a tarball (see
   86 linkgit:gittutorial[7]), or imported from an already existing CVS
   87 repository (see the next section).
   88 
   89 Assume your existing repo is at /home/alice/myproject.  Create a new "bare"
   90 repository (a repository without a working tree) and fetch your project into
   91 it:
   92 
   93 ------------------------------------------------
   94 $ mkdir /pub/my-repo.git
   95 $ cd /pub/my-repo.git
   96 $ git --bare init --shared
   97 $ git --bare fetch /home/alice/myproject master:master
   98 ------------------------------------------------
   99 
  100 Next, give every team member read/write access to this repository.  One
  101 easy way to do this is to give all the team members ssh access to the
  102 machine where the repository is hosted.  If you don't want to give them a
  103 full shell on the machine, there is a restricted shell which only allows
  104 users to do Git pushes and pulls; see linkgit:git-shell[1].
  105 
  106 Put all the committers in the same group, and make the repository
  107 writable by that group:
  108 
  109 ------------------------------------------------
  110 $ chgrp -R $group /pub/my-repo.git
  111 ------------------------------------------------
  112 
  113 Make sure committers have a umask of at most 027, so that the directories
  114 they create are writable and searchable by other group members.
  115 
  116 Importing a CVS archive
  117 -----------------------
  118 
  119 NOTE: These instructions use the `git-cvsimport` script which ships with
  120 git, but other importers may provide better results. See the note in
  121 linkgit:git-cvsimport[1] for other options.
  122 
  123 First, install version 2.1 or higher of cvsps from
  124 https://github.com/andreyvit/cvsps[https://github.com/andreyvit/cvsps] and make
  125 sure it is in your path.  Then cd to a checked out CVS working directory
  126 of the project you are interested in and run linkgit:git-cvsimport[1]:
  127 
  128 -------------------------------------------
  129 $ git cvsimport -C <destination> <module>
  130 -------------------------------------------
  131 
  132 This puts a Git archive of the named CVS module in the directory
  133 <destination>, which will be created if necessary.
  134 
  135 The import checks out from CVS every revision of every file.  Reportedly
  136 cvsimport can average some twenty revisions per second, so for a
  137 medium-sized project this should not take more than a couple of minutes.
  138 Larger projects or remote repositories may take longer.
  139 
  140 The main trunk is stored in the Git branch named `origin`, and additional
  141 CVS branches are stored in Git branches with the same names.  The most
  142 recent version of the main trunk is also left checked out on the `master`
  143 branch, so you can start adding your own changes right away.
  144 
  145 The import is incremental, so if you call it again next month it will
  146 fetch any CVS updates that have been made in the meantime.  For this to
  147 work, you must not modify the imported branches; instead, create new
  148 branches for your own changes, and merge in the imported branches as
  149 necessary.
  150 
  151 If you want a shared repository, you will need to make a bare clone
  152 of the imported directory, as described above. Then treat the imported
  153 directory as another development clone for purposes of merging
  154 incremental imports.
  155 
  156 Advanced Shared Repository Management
  157 -------------------------------------
  158 
  159 Git allows you to specify scripts called "hooks" to be run at certain
  160 points.  You can use these, for example, to send all commits to the shared
  161 repository to a mailing list.  See linkgit:githooks[5].
  162 
  163 You can enforce finer grained permissions using update hooks.  See
  164 link:howto/update-hook-example.html[Controlling access to branches using
  165 update hooks].
  166 
  167 Providing CVS Access to a Git Repository
  168 ----------------------------------------
  169 
  170 It is also possible to provide true CVS access to a Git repository, so
  171 that developers can still use CVS; see linkgit:git-cvsserver[1] for
  172 details.
  173 
  174 Alternative Development Models
  175 ------------------------------
  176 
  177 CVS users are accustomed to giving a group of developers commit access to
  178 a common repository.  As we've seen, this is also possible with Git.
  179 However, the distributed nature of Git allows other development models,
  180 and you may want to first consider whether one of them might be a better
  181 fit for your project.
  182 
  183 For example, you can choose a single person to maintain the project's
  184 primary public repository.  Other developers then clone this repository
  185 and each work in their own clone.  When they have a series of changes that
  186 they're happy with, they ask the maintainer to pull from the branch
  187 containing the changes.  The maintainer reviews their changes and pulls
  188 them into the primary repository, which other developers pull from as
  189 necessary to stay coordinated.  The Linux kernel and other projects use
  190 variants of this model.
  191 
  192 With a small group, developers may just pull changes from each other's
  193 repositories without the need for a central maintainer.
  194 
  195 SEE ALSO
  196 --------
  197 linkgit:gittutorial[7],
  198 linkgit:gittutorial-2[7],
  199 linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7],
  200 linkgit:gitglossary[7],
  201 linkgit:giteveryday[7],
  202 link:user-manual.html[The Git User's Manual]
  203 
  204 GIT
  205 ---
  206 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite