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    1 git-interpret-trailers(1)
    2 =========================
    3 
    4 NAME
    5 ----
    6 git-interpret-trailers - Add or parse structured information in commit messages
    7 
    8 SYNOPSIS
    9 --------
   10 [verse]
   11 'git interpret-trailers' [<options>] [(--trailer <token>[(=|:)<value>])...] [<file>...]
   12 'git interpret-trailers' [<options>] [--parse] [<file>...]
   13 
   14 DESCRIPTION
   15 -----------
   16 Help parsing or adding 'trailers' lines, that look similar to RFC 822 e-mail
   17 headers, at the end of the otherwise free-form part of a commit
   18 message.
   19 
   20 This command reads some patches or commit messages from either the
   21 <file> arguments or the standard input if no <file> is specified. If
   22 `--parse` is specified, the output consists of the parsed trailers.
   23 
   24 Otherwise, this command applies the arguments passed using the
   25 `--trailer` option, if any, to the commit message part of each input
   26 file. The result is emitted on the standard output.
   27 
   28 Some configuration variables control the way the `--trailer` arguments
   29 are applied to each commit message and the way any existing trailer in
   30 the commit message is changed. They also make it possible to
   31 automatically add some trailers.
   32 
   33 By default, a '<token>=<value>' or '<token>:<value>' argument given
   34 using `--trailer` will be appended after the existing trailers only if
   35 the last trailer has a different (<token>, <value>) pair (or if there
   36 is no existing trailer). The <token> and <value> parts will be trimmed
   37 to remove starting and trailing whitespace, and the resulting trimmed
   38 <token> and <value> will appear in the message like this:
   39 
   40 ------------------------------------------------
   41 token: value
   42 ------------------------------------------------
   43 
   44 This means that the trimmed <token> and <value> will be separated by
   45 `': '` (one colon followed by one space).
   46 
   47 By default the new trailer will appear at the end of all the existing
   48 trailers. If there is no existing trailer, the new trailer will appear
   49 after the commit message part of the output, and, if there is no line
   50 with only spaces at the end of the commit message part, one blank line
   51 will be added before the new trailer.
   52 
   53 Existing trailers are extracted from the input message by looking for
   54 a group of one or more lines that (i) is all trailers, or (ii) contains at
   55 least one Git-generated or user-configured trailer and consists of at
   56 least 25% trailers.
   57 The group must be preceded by one or more empty (or whitespace-only) lines.
   58 The group must either be at the end of the message or be the last
   59 non-whitespace lines before a line that starts with '---' (followed by a
   60 space or the end of the line). Such three minus signs start the patch
   61 part of the message. See also `--no-divider` below.
   62 
   63 When reading trailers, there can be whitespaces after the
   64 token, the separator and the value. There can also be whitespaces
   65 inside the token and the value. The value may be split over multiple lines with
   66 each subsequent line starting with whitespace, like the "folding" in RFC 822.
   67 
   68 Note that 'trailers' do not follow and are not intended to follow many
   69 rules for RFC 822 headers. For example they do not follow
   70 the encoding rules and probably many other rules.
   71 
   72 OPTIONS
   73 -------
   74 --in-place::
   75 	Edit the files in place.
   76 
   77 --trim-empty::
   78 	If the <value> part of any trailer contains only whitespace,
   79 	the whole trailer will be removed from the resulting message.
   80 	This applies to existing trailers as well as new trailers.
   81 
   82 --trailer <token>[(=|:)<value>]::
   83 	Specify a (<token>, <value>) pair that should be applied as a
   84 	trailer to the input messages. See the description of this
   85 	command.
   86 
   87 --where <placement>::
   88 --no-where::
   89 	Specify where all new trailers will be added.  A setting
   90 	provided with '--where' overrides all configuration variables
   91 	and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
   92 	'--where' or '--no-where'. Possible values are `after`, `before`,
   93 	`end` or `start`.
   94 
   95 --if-exists <action>::
   96 --no-if-exists::
   97 	Specify what action will be performed when there is already at
   98 	least one trailer with the same <token> in the message.  A setting
   99 	provided with '--if-exists' overrides all configuration variables
  100 	and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
  101 	'--if-exists' or '--no-if-exists'. Possible actions are `addIfDifferent`,
  102 	`addIfDifferentNeighbor`, `add`, `replace` and `doNothing`.
  103 
  104 --if-missing <action>::
  105 --no-if-missing::
  106 	Specify what action will be performed when there is no other
  107 	trailer with the same <token> in the message.  A setting
  108 	provided with '--if-missing' overrides all configuration variables
  109 	and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
  110 	'--if-missing' or '--no-if-missing'. Possible actions are `doNothing`
  111 	or `add`.
  112 
  113 --only-trailers::
  114 	Output only the trailers, not any other parts of the input.
  115 
  116 --only-input::
  117 	Output only trailers that exist in the input; do not add any
  118 	from the command-line or by following configured `trailer.*`
  119 	rules.
  120 
  121 --unfold::
  122 	Remove any whitespace-continuation in trailers, so that each
  123 	trailer appears on a line by itself with its full content.
  124 
  125 --parse::
  126 	A convenience alias for `--only-trailers --only-input
  127 	--unfold`.
  128 
  129 --no-divider::
  130 	Do not treat `---` as the end of the commit message. Use this
  131 	when you know your input contains just the commit message itself
  132 	(and not an email or the output of `git format-patch`).
  133 
  134 CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
  135 -----------------------
  136 
  137 trailer.separators::
  138 	This option tells which characters are recognized as trailer
  139 	separators. By default only ':' is recognized as a trailer
  140 	separator, except that '=' is always accepted on the command
  141 	line for compatibility with other git commands.
  142 +
  143 The first character given by this option will be the default character
  144 used when another separator is not specified in the config for this
  145 trailer.
  146 +
  147 For example, if the value for this option is "%=$", then only lines
  148 using the format '<token><sep><value>' with <sep> containing '%', '='
  149 or '$' and then spaces will be considered trailers. And '%' will be
  150 the default separator used, so by default trailers will appear like:
  151 '<token>% <value>' (one percent sign and one space will appear between
  152 the token and the value).
  153 
  154 trailer.where::
  155 	This option tells where a new trailer will be added.
  156 +
  157 This can be `end`, which is the default, `start`, `after` or `before`.
  158 +
  159 If it is `end`, then each new trailer will appear at the end of the
  160 existing trailers.
  161 +
  162 If it is `start`, then each new trailer will appear at the start,
  163 instead of the end, of the existing trailers.
  164 +
  165 If it is `after`, then each new trailer will appear just after the
  166 last trailer with the same <token>.
  167 +
  168 If it is `before`, then each new trailer will appear just before the
  169 first trailer with the same <token>.
  170 
  171 trailer.ifexists::
  172 	This option makes it possible to choose what action will be
  173 	performed when there is already at least one trailer with the
  174 	same <token> in the message.
  175 +
  176 The valid values for this option are: `addIfDifferentNeighbor` (this
  177 is the default), `addIfDifferent`, `add`, `replace` or `doNothing`.
  178 +
  179 With `addIfDifferentNeighbor`, a new trailer will be added only if no
  180 trailer with the same (<token>, <value>) pair is above or below the line
  181 where the new trailer will be added.
  182 +
  183 With `addIfDifferent`, a new trailer will be added only if no trailer
  184 with the same (<token>, <value>) pair is already in the message.
  185 +
  186 With `add`, a new trailer will be added, even if some trailers with
  187 the same (<token>, <value>) pair are already in the message.
  188 +
  189 With `replace`, an existing trailer with the same <token> will be
  190 deleted and the new trailer will be added. The deleted trailer will be
  191 the closest one (with the same <token>) to the place where the new one
  192 will be added.
  193 +
  194 With `doNothing`, nothing will be done; that is no new trailer will be
  195 added if there is already one with the same <token> in the message.
  196 
  197 trailer.ifmissing::
  198 	This option makes it possible to choose what action will be
  199 	performed when there is not yet any trailer with the same
  200 	<token> in the message.
  201 +
  202 The valid values for this option are: `add` (this is the default) and
  203 `doNothing`.
  204 +
  205 With `add`, a new trailer will be added.
  206 +
  207 With `doNothing`, nothing will be done.
  208 
  209 trailer.<token>.key::
  210 	This `key` will be used instead of <token> in the trailer. At
  211 	the end of this key, a separator can appear and then some
  212 	space characters. By default the only valid separator is ':',
  213 	but this can be changed using the `trailer.separators` config
  214 	variable.
  215 +
  216 If there is a separator, then the key will be used instead of both the
  217 <token> and the default separator when adding the trailer.
  218 
  219 trailer.<token>.where::
  220 	This option takes the same values as the 'trailer.where'
  221 	configuration variable and it overrides what is specified by
  222 	that option for trailers with the specified <token>.
  223 
  224 trailer.<token>.ifexists::
  225 	This option takes the same values as the 'trailer.ifexists'
  226 	configuration variable and it overrides what is specified by
  227 	that option for trailers with the specified <token>.
  228 
  229 trailer.<token>.ifmissing::
  230 	This option takes the same values as the 'trailer.ifmissing'
  231 	configuration variable and it overrides what is specified by
  232 	that option for trailers with the specified <token>.
  233 
  234 trailer.<token>.command::
  235 	This option can be used to specify a shell command that will
  236 	be called to automatically add or modify a trailer with the
  237 	specified <token>.
  238 +
  239 When this option is specified, the behavior is as if a special
  240 '<token>=<value>' argument were added at the beginning of the command
  241 line, where <value> is taken to be the standard output of the
  242 specified command with any leading and trailing whitespace trimmed
  243 off.
  244 +
  245 If the command contains the `$ARG` string, this string will be
  246 replaced with the <value> part of an existing trailer with the same
  247 <token>, if any, before the command is launched.
  248 +
  249 If some '<token>=<value>' arguments are also passed on the command
  250 line, when a 'trailer.<token>.command' is configured, the command will
  251 also be executed for each of these arguments. And the <value> part of
  252 these arguments, if any, will be used to replace the `$ARG` string in
  253 the command.
  254 
  255 EXAMPLES
  256 --------
  257 
  258 * Configure a 'sign' trailer with a 'Signed-off-by' key, and then
  259   add two of these trailers to a message:
  260 +
  261 ------------
  262 $ git config trailer.sign.key "Signed-off-by"
  263 $ cat msg.txt
  264 subject
  265 
  266 message
  267 $ cat msg.txt | git interpret-trailers --trailer 'sign: Alice <alice@example.com>' --trailer 'sign: Bob <bob@example.com>'
  268 subject
  269 
  270 message
  271 
  272 Signed-off-by: Alice <alice@example.com>
  273 Signed-off-by: Bob <bob@example.com>
  274 ------------
  275 
  276 * Use the `--in-place` option to edit a message file in place:
  277 +
  278 ------------
  279 $ cat msg.txt
  280 subject
  281 
  282 message
  283 
  284 Signed-off-by: Bob <bob@example.com>
  285 $ git interpret-trailers --trailer 'Acked-by: Alice <alice@example.com>' --in-place msg.txt
  286 $ cat msg.txt
  287 subject
  288 
  289 message
  290 
  291 Signed-off-by: Bob <bob@example.com>
  292 Acked-by: Alice <alice@example.com>
  293 ------------
  294 
  295 * Extract the last commit as a patch, and add a 'Cc' and a
  296   'Reviewed-by' trailer to it:
  297 +
  298 ------------
  299 $ git format-patch -1
  300 0001-foo.patch
  301 $ git interpret-trailers --trailer 'Cc: Alice <alice@example.com>' --trailer 'Reviewed-by: Bob <bob@example.com>' 0001-foo.patch >0001-bar.patch
  302 ------------
  303 
  304 * Configure a 'sign' trailer with a command to automatically add a
  305   'Signed-off-by: ' with the author information only if there is no
  306   'Signed-off-by: ' already, and show how it works:
  307 +
  308 ------------
  309 $ git config trailer.sign.key "Signed-off-by: "
  310 $ git config trailer.sign.ifmissing add
  311 $ git config trailer.sign.ifexists doNothing
  312 $ git config trailer.sign.command 'echo "$(git config user.name) <$(git config user.email)>"'
  313 $ git interpret-trailers <<EOF
  314 > EOF
  315 
  316 Signed-off-by: Bob <bob@example.com>
  317 $ git interpret-trailers <<EOF
  318 > Signed-off-by: Alice <alice@example.com>
  319 > EOF
  320 
  321 Signed-off-by: Alice <alice@example.com>
  322 ------------
  323 
  324 * Configure a 'fix' trailer with a key that contains a '#' and no
  325   space after this character, and show how it works:
  326 +
  327 ------------
  328 $ git config trailer.separators ":#"
  329 $ git config trailer.fix.key "Fix #"
  330 $ echo "subject" | git interpret-trailers --trailer fix=42
  331 subject
  332 
  333 Fix #42
  334 ------------
  335 
  336 * Configure a 'see' trailer with a command to show the subject of a
  337   commit that is related, and show how it works:
  338 +
  339 ------------
  340 $ git config trailer.see.key "See-also: "
  341 $ git config trailer.see.ifExists "replace"
  342 $ git config trailer.see.ifMissing "doNothing"
  343 $ git config trailer.see.command "git log -1 --oneline --format=\"%h (%s)\" --abbrev-commit --abbrev=14 \$ARG"
  344 $ git interpret-trailers <<EOF
  345 > subject
  346 > 
  347 > message
  348 > 
  349 > see: HEAD~2
  350 > EOF
  351 subject
  352 
  353 message
  354 
  355 See-also: fe3187489d69c4 (subject of related commit)
  356 ------------
  357 
  358 * Configure a commit template with some trailers with empty values
  359   (using sed to show and keep the trailing spaces at the end of the
  360   trailers), then configure a commit-msg hook that uses
  361   'git interpret-trailers' to remove trailers with empty values and
  362   to add a 'git-version' trailer:
  363 +
  364 ------------
  365 $ sed -e 's/ Z$/ /' >commit_template.txt <<EOF
  366 > ***subject***
  367 > 
  368 > ***message***
  369 > 
  370 > Fixes: Z
  371 > Cc: Z
  372 > Reviewed-by: Z
  373 > Signed-off-by: Z
  374 > EOF
  375 $ git config commit.template commit_template.txt
  376 $ cat >.git/hooks/commit-msg <<EOF
  377 > #!/bin/sh
  378 > git interpret-trailers --trim-empty --trailer "git-version: \$(git describe)" "\$1" > "\$1.new"
  379 > mv "\$1.new" "\$1"
  380 > EOF
  381 $ chmod +x .git/hooks/commit-msg
  382 ------------
  383 
  384 SEE ALSO
  385 --------
  386 linkgit:git-commit[1], linkgit:git-format-patch[1], linkgit:git-config[1]
  387 
  388 GIT
  389 ---
  390 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite