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    1 git-commit(1)
    2 =============
    3 
    4 NAME
    5 ----
    6 git-commit - Record changes to the repository
    7 
    8 SYNOPSIS
    9 --------
   10 [verse]
   11 'git commit' [-a | --interactive | --patch] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend]
   12 	   [--dry-run] [(-c | -C | --fixup | --squash) <commit>]
   13 	   [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
   14 	   [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
   15 	   [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status]
   16 	   [-i | -o] [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<file>...]
   17 
   18 DESCRIPTION
   19 -----------
   20 Create a new commit containing the current contents of the index and
   21 the given log message describing the changes. The new commit is a
   22 direct child of HEAD, usually the tip of the current branch, and the
   23 branch is updated to point to it (unless no branch is associated with
   24 the working tree, in which case HEAD is "detached" as described in
   25 linkgit:git-checkout[1]).
   26 
   27 The content to be committed can be specified in several ways:
   28 
   29 1. by using linkgit:git-add[1] to incrementally "add" changes to the
   30    index before using the 'commit' command (Note: even modified files
   31    must be "added");
   32 
   33 2. by using linkgit:git-rm[1] to remove files from the working tree
   34    and the index, again before using the 'commit' command;
   35 
   36 3. by listing files as arguments to the 'commit' command
   37    (without --interactive or --patch switch), in which
   38    case the commit will ignore changes staged in the index, and instead
   39    record the current content of the listed files (which must already
   40    be known to Git);
   41 
   42 4. by using the -a switch with the 'commit' command to automatically
   43    "add" changes from all known files (i.e. all files that are already
   44    listed in the index) and to automatically "rm" files in the index
   45    that have been removed from the working tree, and then perform the
   46    actual commit;
   47 
   48 5. by using the --interactive or --patch switches with the 'commit' command
   49    to decide one by one which files or hunks should be part of the commit
   50    in addition to contents in the index,
   51    before finalizing the operation. See the ``Interactive Mode'' section of
   52    linkgit:git-add[1] to learn how to operate these modes.
   53 
   54 The `--dry-run` option can be used to obtain a
   55 summary of what is included by any of the above for the next
   56 commit by giving the same set of parameters (options and paths).
   57 
   58 If you make a commit and then find a mistake immediately after
   59 that, you can recover from it with 'git reset'.
   60 
   61 
   62 OPTIONS
   63 -------
   64 -a::
   65 --all::
   66 	Tell the command to automatically stage files that have
   67 	been modified and deleted, but new files you have not
   68 	told Git about are not affected.
   69 
   70 -p::
   71 --patch::
   72 	Use the interactive patch selection interface to chose
   73 	which changes to commit. See linkgit:git-add[1] for
   74 	details.
   75 
   76 -C <commit>::
   77 --reuse-message=<commit>::
   78 	Take an existing commit object, and reuse the log message
   79 	and the authorship information (including the timestamp)
   80 	when creating the commit.
   81 
   82 -c <commit>::
   83 --reedit-message=<commit>::
   84 	Like '-C', but with `-c` the editor is invoked, so that
   85 	the user can further edit the commit message.
   86 
   87 --fixup=<commit>::
   88 	Construct a commit message for use with `rebase --autosquash`.
   89 	The commit message will be the subject line from the specified
   90 	commit with a prefix of "fixup! ".  See linkgit:git-rebase[1]
   91 	for details.
   92 
   93 --squash=<commit>::
   94 	Construct a commit message for use with `rebase --autosquash`.
   95 	The commit message subject line is taken from the specified
   96 	commit with a prefix of "squash! ".  Can be used with additional
   97 	commit message options (`-m`/`-c`/`-C`/`-F`). See
   98 	linkgit:git-rebase[1] for details.
   99 
  100 --reset-author::
  101 	When used with -C/-c/--amend options, or when committing after a
  102 	conflicting cherry-pick, declare that the authorship of the
  103 	resulting commit now belongs to the committer. This also renews
  104 	the author timestamp.
  105 
  106 --short::
  107 	When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See
  108 	linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies `--dry-run`.
  109 
  110 --branch::
  111 	Show the branch and tracking info even in short-format.
  112 
  113 --porcelain::
  114 	When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready
  115 	format. See linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies
  116 	`--dry-run`.
  117 
  118 --long::
  119 	When doing a dry-run, give the output in the long-format.
  120 	Implies `--dry-run`.
  121 
  122 -z::
  123 --null::
  124 	When showing `short` or `porcelain` status output, print the
  125 	filename verbatim and terminate the entries with NUL, instead of LF.
  126 	If no format is given, implies the `--porcelain` output format.
  127 	Without the `-z` option, filenames with "unusual" characters are
  128 	quoted as explained for the configuration variable `core.quotePath`
  129 	(see linkgit:git-config[1]).
  130 
  131 -F <file>::
  132 --file=<file>::
  133 	Take the commit message from the given file.  Use '-' to
  134 	read the message from the standard input.
  135 
  136 --author=<author>::
  137 	Override the commit author. Specify an explicit author using the
  138 	standard `A U Thor <author@example.com>` format. Otherwise <author>
  139 	is assumed to be a pattern and is used to search for an existing
  140 	commit by that author (i.e. rev-list --all -i --author=<author>);
  141 	the commit author is then copied from the first such commit found.
  142 
  143 --date=<date>::
  144 	Override the author date used in the commit.
  145 
  146 -m <msg>::
  147 --message=<msg>::
  148 	Use the given <msg> as the commit message.
  149 	If multiple `-m` options are given, their values are
  150 	concatenated as separate paragraphs.
  151 +
  152 The `-m` option is mutually exclusive with `-c`, `-C`, and `-F`.
  153 
  154 -t <file>::
  155 --template=<file>::
  156 	When editing the commit message, start the editor with the
  157 	contents in the given file.  The `commit.template` configuration
  158 	variable is often used to give this option implicitly to the
  159 	command.  This mechanism can be used by projects that want to
  160 	guide participants with some hints on what to write in the message
  161 	in what order.  If the user exits the editor without editing the
  162 	message, the commit is aborted.  This has no effect when a message
  163 	is given by other means, e.g. with the `-m` or `-F` options.
  164 
  165 -s::
  166 --signoff::
  167 	Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
  168 	log message.  The meaning of a signoff depends on the project,
  169 	but it typically certifies that committer has
  170 	the rights to submit this work under the same license and
  171 	agrees to a Developer Certificate of Origin
  172 	(see http://developercertificate.org/ for more information).
  173 
  174 -n::
  175 --no-verify::
  176 	This option bypasses the pre-commit and commit-msg hooks.
  177 	See also linkgit:githooks[5].
  178 
  179 --allow-empty::
  180 	Usually recording a commit that has the exact same tree as its
  181 	sole parent commit is a mistake, and the command prevents you
  182 	from making such a commit.  This option bypasses the safety, and
  183 	is primarily for use by foreign SCM interface scripts.
  184 
  185 --allow-empty-message::
  186        Like --allow-empty this command is primarily for use by foreign
  187        SCM interface scripts. It allows you to create a commit with an
  188        empty commit message without using plumbing commands like
  189        linkgit:git-commit-tree[1].
  190 
  191 --cleanup=<mode>::
  192 	This option determines how the supplied commit message should be
  193 	cleaned up before committing.  The '<mode>' can be `strip`,
  194 	`whitespace`, `verbatim`, `scissors` or `default`.
  195 +
  196 --
  197 strip::
  198 	Strip leading and trailing empty lines, trailing whitespace,
  199 	commentary and collapse consecutive empty lines.
  200 whitespace::
  201 	Same as `strip` except #commentary is not removed.
  202 verbatim::
  203 	Do not change the message at all.
  204 scissors::
  205 	Same as `whitespace` except that everything from (and including)
  206 	the line found below is truncated, if the message is to be edited.
  207 	"`#`" can be customized with core.commentChar.
  208 
  209 		# ------------------------ >8 ------------------------
  210 
  211 default::
  212 	Same as `strip` if the message is to be edited.
  213 	Otherwise `whitespace`.
  214 --
  215 +
  216 The default can be changed by the `commit.cleanup` configuration
  217 variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
  218 
  219 -e::
  220 --edit::
  221 	The message taken from file with `-F`, command line with
  222 	`-m`, and from commit object with `-C` are usually used as
  223 	the commit log message unmodified. This option lets you
  224 	further edit the message taken from these sources.
  225 
  226 --no-edit::
  227 	Use the selected commit message without launching an editor.
  228 	For example, `git commit --amend --no-edit` amends a commit
  229 	without changing its commit message.
  230 
  231 --amend::
  232 	Replace the tip of the current branch by creating a new
  233 	commit. The recorded tree is prepared as usual (including
  234 	the effect of the `-i` and `-o` options and explicit
  235 	pathspec), and the message from the original commit is used
  236 	as the starting point, instead of an empty message, when no
  237 	other message is specified from the command line via options
  238 	such as `-m`, `-F`, `-c`, etc.  The new commit has the same
  239 	parents and author as the current one (the `--reset-author`
  240 	option can countermand this).
  241 +
  242 --
  243 It is a rough equivalent for:
  244 ------
  245 	$ git reset --soft HEAD^
  246 	$ ... do something else to come up with the right tree ...
  247 	$ git commit -c ORIG_HEAD
  248 
  249 ------
  250 but can be used to amend a merge commit.
  251 --
  252 +
  253 You should understand the implications of rewriting history if you
  254 amend a commit that has already been published.  (See the "RECOVERING
  255 FROM UPSTREAM REBASE" section in linkgit:git-rebase[1].)
  256 
  257 --no-post-rewrite::
  258 	Bypass the post-rewrite hook.
  259 
  260 -i::
  261 --include::
  262 	Before making a commit out of staged contents so far,
  263 	stage the contents of paths given on the command line
  264 	as well.  This is usually not what you want unless you
  265 	are concluding a conflicted merge.
  266 
  267 -o::
  268 --only::
  269 	Make a commit by taking the updated working tree contents
  270 	of the paths specified on the
  271 	command line, disregarding any contents that have been
  272 	staged for other paths. This is the default mode of operation of
  273 	'git commit' if any paths are given on the command line,
  274 	in which case this option can be omitted.
  275 	If this option is specified together with `--amend`, then
  276 	no paths need to be specified, which can be used to amend
  277 	the last commit without committing changes that have
  278 	already been staged. If used together with `--allow-empty`
  279 	paths are also not required, and an empty commit will be created.
  280 
  281 -u[<mode>]::
  282 --untracked-files[=<mode>]::
  283 	Show untracked files.
  284 +
  285 The mode parameter is optional (defaults to 'all'), and is used to
  286 specify the handling of untracked files; when -u is not used, the
  287 default is 'normal', i.e. show untracked files and directories.
  288 +
  289 The possible options are:
  290 +
  291 	- 'no'     - Show no untracked files
  292 	- 'normal' - Shows untracked files and directories
  293 	- 'all'    - Also shows individual files in untracked directories.
  294 +
  295 The default can be changed using the status.showUntrackedFiles
  296 configuration variable documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
  297 
  298 -v::
  299 --verbose::
  300 	Show unified diff between the HEAD commit and what
  301 	would be committed at the bottom of the commit message
  302 	template to help the user describe the commit by reminding
  303 	what changes the commit has.
  304 	Note that this diff output doesn't have its
  305 	lines prefixed with '#'. This diff will not be a part
  306 	of the commit message. See the `commit.verbose` configuration
  307 	variable in linkgit:git-config[1].
  308 +
  309 If specified twice, show in addition the unified diff between
  310 what would be committed and the worktree files, i.e. the unstaged
  311 changes to tracked files.
  312 
  313 -q::
  314 --quiet::
  315 	Suppress commit summary message.
  316 
  317 --dry-run::
  318 	Do not create a commit, but show a list of paths that are
  319 	to be committed, paths with local changes that will be left
  320 	uncommitted and paths that are untracked.
  321 
  322 --status::
  323 	Include the output of linkgit:git-status[1] in the commit
  324 	message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
  325 	message.  Defaults to on, but can be used to override
  326 	configuration variable commit.status.
  327 
  328 --no-status::
  329 	Do not include the output of linkgit:git-status[1] in the
  330 	commit message template when using an editor to prepare the
  331 	default commit message.
  332 
  333 -S[<keyid>]::
  334 --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
  335 	GPG-sign commits. The `keyid` argument is optional and
  336 	defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be
  337 	stuck to the option without a space.
  338 
  339 --no-gpg-sign::
  340 	Countermand `commit.gpgSign` configuration variable that is
  341 	set to force each and every commit to be signed.
  342 
  343 \--::
  344 	Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
  345 
  346 <file>...::
  347 	When files are given on the command line, the command
  348 	commits the contents of the named files, without
  349 	recording the changes already staged.  The contents of
  350 	these files are also staged for the next commit on top
  351 	of what have been staged before.
  352 
  353 :git-commit: 1
  354 include::date-formats.txt[]
  355 
  356 EXAMPLES
  357 --------
  358 When recording your own work, the contents of modified files in
  359 your working tree are temporarily stored to a staging area
  360 called the "index" with 'git add'.  A file can be
  361 reverted back, only in the index but not in the working tree,
  362 to that of the last commit with `git restore --staged <file>`,
  363 which effectively reverts 'git add' and prevents the changes to
  364 this file from participating in the next commit.  After building
  365 the state to be committed incrementally with these commands,
  366 `git commit` (without any pathname parameter) is used to record what
  367 has been staged so far.  This is the most basic form of the
  368 command.  An example:
  369 
  370 ------------
  371 $ edit hello.c
  372 $ git rm goodbye.c
  373 $ git add hello.c
  374 $ git commit
  375 ------------
  376 
  377 Instead of staging files after each individual change, you can
  378 tell `git commit` to notice the changes to the files whose
  379 contents are tracked in
  380 your working tree and do corresponding `git add` and `git rm`
  381 for you.  That is, this example does the same as the earlier
  382 example if there is no other change in your working tree:
  383 
  384 ------------
  385 $ edit hello.c
  386 $ rm goodbye.c
  387 $ git commit -a
  388 ------------
  389 
  390 The command `git commit -a` first looks at your working tree,
  391 notices that you have modified hello.c and removed goodbye.c,
  392 and performs necessary `git add` and `git rm` for you.
  393 
  394 After staging changes to many files, you can alter the order the
  395 changes are recorded in, by giving pathnames to `git commit`.
  396 When pathnames are given, the command makes a commit that
  397 only records the changes made to the named paths:
  398 
  399 ------------
  400 $ edit hello.c hello.h
  401 $ git add hello.c hello.h
  402 $ edit Makefile
  403 $ git commit Makefile
  404 ------------
  405 
  406 This makes a commit that records the modification to `Makefile`.
  407 The changes staged for `hello.c` and `hello.h` are not included
  408 in the resulting commit.  However, their changes are not lost --
  409 they are still staged and merely held back.  After the above
  410 sequence, if you do:
  411 
  412 ------------
  413 $ git commit
  414 ------------
  415 
  416 this second commit would record the changes to `hello.c` and
  417 `hello.h` as expected.
  418 
  419 After a merge (initiated by 'git merge' or 'git pull') stops
  420 because of conflicts, cleanly merged
  421 paths are already staged to be committed for you, and paths that
  422 conflicted are left in unmerged state.  You would have to first
  423 check which paths are conflicting with 'git status'
  424 and after fixing them manually in your working tree, you would
  425 stage the result as usual with 'git add':
  426 
  427 ------------
  428 $ git status | grep unmerged
  429 unmerged: hello.c
  430 $ edit hello.c
  431 $ git add hello.c
  432 ------------
  433 
  434 After resolving conflicts and staging the result, `git ls-files -u`
  435 would stop mentioning the conflicted path.  When you are done,
  436 run `git commit` to finally record the merge:
  437 
  438 ------------
  439 $ git commit
  440 ------------
  441 
  442 As with the case to record your own changes, you can use `-a`
  443 option to save typing.  One difference is that during a merge
  444 resolution, you cannot use `git commit` with pathnames to
  445 alter the order the changes are committed, because the merge
  446 should be recorded as a single commit.  In fact, the command
  447 refuses to run when given pathnames (but see `-i` option).
  448 
  449 
  450 DISCUSSION
  451 ----------
  452 
  453 Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message
  454 with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
  455 change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description.
  456 The text up to the first blank line in a commit message is treated
  457 as the commit title, and that title is used throughout Git.
  458 For example, linkgit:git-format-patch[1] turns a commit into email, and it uses
  459 the title on the Subject line and the rest of the commit in the body.
  460 
  461 include::i18n.txt[]
  462 
  463 ENVIRONMENT AND CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
  464 ---------------------------------------
  465 The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the
  466 `GIT_EDITOR` environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable, the
  467 `VISUAL` environment variable, or the `EDITOR` environment variable (in that
  468 order).  See linkgit:git-var[1] for details.
  469 
  470 HOOKS
  471 -----
  472 This command can run `commit-msg`, `prepare-commit-msg`, `pre-commit`,
  473 `post-commit` and `post-rewrite` hooks.  See linkgit:githooks[5] for more
  474 information.
  475 
  476 FILES
  477 -----
  478 
  479 `$GIT_DIR/COMMIT_EDITMSG`::
  480 	This file contains the commit message of a commit in progress.
  481 	If `git commit` exits due to an error before creating a commit,
  482 	any commit message that has been provided by the user (e.g., in
  483 	an editor session) will be available in this file, but will be
  484 	overwritten by the next invocation of `git commit`.
  485 
  486 SEE ALSO
  487 --------
  488 linkgit:git-add[1],
  489 linkgit:git-rm[1],
  490 linkgit:git-mv[1],
  491 linkgit:git-merge[1],
  492 linkgit:git-commit-tree[1]
  493 
  494 GIT
  495 ---
  496 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite