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    1 Git 2.14 Release Notes
    2 ======================
    3 
    4 Backward compatibility notes and other notable changes.
    5 
    6  * Use of an empty string as a pathspec element that is used for
    7    'everything matches' is still warned and Git asks users to use a
    8    more explicit '.' for that instead.  The hope is that existing
    9    users will not mind this change, and eventually the warning can be
   10    turned into a hard error, upgrading the deprecation into removal of
   11    this (mis)feature.  That is not scheduled to happen in the upcoming
   12    release (yet).
   13 
   14  * Git now avoids blindly falling back to ".git" when the setup
   15    sequence said we are _not_ in Git repository.  A corner case that
   16    happens to work right now may be broken by a call to die("BUG").
   17    We've tried hard to locate such cases and fixed them, but there
   18    might still be cases that need to be addressed--bug reports are
   19    greatly appreciated.
   20 
   21  * The experiment to improve the hunk-boundary selection of textual
   22    diff output has finished, and the "indent heuristics" has now
   23    become the default.
   24 
   25  * Git can now be built with PCRE v2 instead of v1 of the PCRE
   26    library. Replace USE_LIBPCRE=YesPlease with USE_LIBPCRE2=YesPlease
   27    in existing build scripts to build against the new version.  As the
   28    upstream PCRE maintainer has abandoned v1 maintenance for all but
   29    the most critical bug fixes, use of v2 is recommended.
   30 
   31 
   32 Updates since v2.13
   33 -------------------
   34 
   35 UI, Workflows & Features
   36 
   37  * The colors in which "git status --short --branch" showed the names
   38    of the current branch and its remote-tracking branch are now
   39    configurable.
   40 
   41  * "git clone" learned the "--no-tags" option not to fetch all tags
   42    initially, and also set up the tagopt not to follow any tags in
   43    subsequent fetches.
   44 
   45  * "git archive --format=zip" learned to use zip64 extension when
   46    necessary to go beyond the 4GB limit.
   47 
   48  * "git reset" learned "--recurse-submodules" option.
   49 
   50  * "git diff --submodule=diff" now recurses into nested submodules.
   51 
   52  * "git repack" learned to accept the --threads=<n> option and pass it
   53    to pack-objects.
   54 
   55  * "git send-email" learned to run sendemail-validate hook to inspect
   56    and reject a message before sending it out.
   57 
   58  * There is no good reason why "git fetch $there $sha1" should fail
   59    when the $sha1 names an object at the tip of an advertised ref,
   60    even when the other side hasn't enabled allowTipSHA1InWant.
   61 
   62  * The "[includeIf "gitdir:$dir"] path=..." mechanism introduced in
   63    2.13.0 would canonicalize the path of the gitdir being matched,
   64    and did not match e.g. "gitdir:~/work/*" against a repo in
   65    "~/work/main" if "~/work" was a symlink to "/mnt/storage/work".
   66    Now we match both the resolved canonical path and what "pwd" would
   67    show. The include will happen if either one matches.
   68 
   69  * The "indent" heuristics is now the default in "diff". The
   70    diff.indentHeuristic configuration variable can be set to "false"
   71    for those who do not want it.
   72 
   73  * Many commands learned to pay attention to submodule.recurse
   74    configuration.
   75 
   76  * The convention for a command line is to follow "git cmdname
   77    --options" with revisions followed by an optional "--"
   78    disambiguator and then finally pathspecs.  When "--" is not there,
   79    we make sure early ones are all interpretable as revs (and do not
   80    look like paths) and later ones are the other way around.  A
   81    pathspec with "magic" (e.g. ":/p/a/t/h" that matches p/a/t/h from
   82    the top-level of the working tree, no matter what subdirectory you
   83    are working from) are conservatively judged as "not a path", which
   84    required disambiguation more often.  The command line parser
   85    learned to say "it's a pathspec" a bit more often when the syntax
   86    looks like so.
   87 
   88  * Update "perl-compatible regular expression" support to enable JIT
   89    and also allow linking with the newer PCRE v2 library.
   90 
   91  * "filter-branch" learned a pseudo filter "--setup" that can be used
   92    to define common functions/variables that can be used by other
   93    filters.
   94 
   95  * Using "git add d/i/r" when d/i/r is the top of the working tree of
   96    a separate repository would create a gitlink in the index, which
   97    would appear as a not-quite-initialized submodule to others.  We
   98    learned to give warnings when this happens.
   99 
  100  * "git status" learned to optionally give how many stash entries there
  101    are in its output.
  102 
  103  * "git status" has long shown essentially the same message as "git
  104    commit"; the message it gives while preparing for the root commit,
  105    i.e. "Initial commit", was hard to understand for some new users.
  106    Now it says "No commits yet" to stress more on the current status
  107    (rather than the commit the user is preparing for, which is more in
  108    line with the focus of "git commit").
  109 
  110  * "git send-email" now has --batch-size and --relogin-delay options
  111     which can be used to overcome limitations on SMTP servers that
  112     restrict on how many of e-mails can be sent in a single session.
  113 
  114  * An old message shown in the commit log template was removed, as it
  115    has outlived its usefulness.
  116 
  117  * "git pull --rebase --recurse-submodules" learns to rebase the
  118    branch in the submodules to an updated base.
  119 
  120  * "git log" learned -P as a synonym for --perl-regexp, "git grep"
  121    already had such a synonym.
  122 
  123  * "git log" didn't understand --regexp-ignore-case when combined with
  124    --perl-regexp. This has been fixed.
  125 
  126 Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
  127 
  128  * The default packed-git limit value has been raised on larger
  129    platforms to save "git fetch" from a (recoverable) failure while
  130    "gc" is running in parallel.
  131 
  132  * Code to update the cache-tree has been tightened so that we won't
  133    accidentally write out any 0{40} entry in the tree object.
  134 
  135  * Attempt to allow us notice "fishy" situation where we fail to
  136    remove the temporary directory used during the test.
  137 
  138  * Travis CI gained a task to format the documentation with both
  139    AsciiDoc and AsciiDoctor.
  140 
  141  * Some platforms have ulong that is smaller than time_t, and our
  142    historical use of ulong for timestamp would mean they cannot
  143    represent some timestamp that the platform allows.  Invent a
  144    separate and dedicated timestamp_t (so that we can distingiuish
  145    timestamps and a vanilla ulongs, which along is already a good
  146    move), and then declare uintmax_t is the type to be used as the
  147    timestamp_t.
  148 
  149  * We can trigger Windows auto-build tester (credits: Dscho &
  150    Microsoft) from our existing Travis CI tester now.
  151 
  152  * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
  153 
  154  * Simplify parse_pathspec() codepath and stop it from looking at the
  155    default in-core index.
  156 
  157  * Add perf-test for wildmatch.
  158 
  159  * Code from "conversion using external process" codepath has been
  160    extracted to a separate sub-process.[ch] module.
  161 
  162  * When "git checkout", "git merge", etc. manipulates the in-core
  163    index, various pieces of information in the index extensions are
  164    discarded from the original state, as it is usually not the case
  165    that they are kept up-to-date and in-sync with the operation on the
  166    main index.  The untracked cache extension is copied across these
  167    operations now, which would speed up "git status" (as long as the
  168    cache is properly invalidated).
  169 
  170  * The internal implementation of "git grep" has seen some clean-up.
  171 
  172  * Update the C style recommendation for notes for translators, as
  173    recent versions of gettext tools can work with our style of
  174    multi-line comments.
  175 
  176  * The implementation of "ref" API around the "packed refs" have been
  177    cleaned up, in preparation for further changes.
  178 
  179  * The internal logic used in "git blame" has been libified to make it
  180    easier to use by cgit.
  181 
  182  * Our code often opens a path to an optional file, to work on its
  183    contents when we can successfully open it.  We can ignore a failure
  184    to open if such an optional file does not exist, but we do want to
  185    report a failure in opening for other reasons (e.g. we got an I/O
  186    error, or the file is there, but we lack the permission to open).
  187 
  188    The exact errors we need to ignore are ENOENT (obviously) and
  189    ENOTDIR (less obvious).  Instead of repeating comparison of errno
  190    with these two constants, introduce a helper function to do so.
  191 
  192  * We often try to open a file for reading whose existence is
  193    optional, and silently ignore errors from open/fopen; report such
  194    errors if they are not due to missing files.
  195 
  196  * When an existing repository is used for t/perf testing, we first
  197    create bit-for-bit copy of it, which may grab a transient state of
  198    the repository and freeze it into the repository used for testing,
  199    which then may cause Git operations to fail.  Single out "the index
  200    being locked" case and forcibly drop the lock from the copy.
  201 
  202  * Three instances of the same helper function have been consolidated
  203    to one.
  204 
  205  * "fast-import" uses a default pack chain depth that is consistent
  206    with other parts of the system.
  207 
  208  * A new test to show the interaction between the pattern [^a-z]
  209    (which matches '/') and a slash in a path has been added.  The
  210    pattern should not match the slash with "pathmatch", but should
  211    with "wildmatch".
  212 
  213  * The 'diff-highlight' program (in contrib/) has been restructured
  214    for easier reuse by an external project 'diff-so-fancy'.
  215 
  216  * A common pattern to free a piece of memory and assign NULL to the
  217    pointer that used to point at it has been replaced with a new
  218    FREE_AND_NULL() macro.
  219 
  220  * Traditionally, the default die() routine had a code to prevent it
  221    from getting called multiple times, which interacted badly when a
  222    threaded program used it (one downside is that the real error may
  223    be hidden and instead the only error message given to the user may
  224    end up being "die recursion detected", which is not very useful).
  225 
  226  * Introduce a "repository" object to eventually make it easier to
  227    work in multiple repositories (the primary focus is to work with
  228    the superproject and its submodules) in a single process.
  229 
  230  * Optimize "what are the object names already taken in an alternate
  231    object database?" query that is used to derive the length of prefix
  232    an object name is uniquely abbreviated to.
  233 
  234  * The hashmap API has been updated so that data to customize the
  235    behaviour of the comparison function can be specified at the time a
  236    hashmap is initialized.
  237 
  238  * The "collision detecting" SHA-1 implementation shipped with 2.13 is
  239    now integrated into git.git as a submodule (the first submodule to
  240    ship with git.git). Clone git.git with --recurse-submodules to get
  241    it. For now a non-submodule copy of the same code is also shipped
  242    as part of the tree.
  243 
  244  * A recent update made it easier to use "-fsanitize=" option while
  245    compiling but supported only one sanitize option.  Allow more than
  246    one to be combined, joined with a comma, like "make SANITIZE=foo,bar".
  247 
  248  * Use "p4 -G" to make "p4 changes" output more Python-friendly
  249    to parse.
  250 
  251  * We started using "%" PRItime, imitating "%" PRIuMAX and friends, as
  252    a way to format the internal timestamp value, but this does not
  253    play well with gettext(1) i18n framework, and causes "make pot"
  254    that is run by the l10n coordinator to create a broken po/git.pot
  255    file.  This is a possible workaround for that problem.
  256 
  257  * It turns out that Cygwin also needs the fopen() wrapper that
  258    returns failure when a directory is opened for reading.
  259 
  260 Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
  261 
  262 
  263 Fixes since v2.13
  264 -----------------
  265 
  266 Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.13 in the maintenance
  267 track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
  268 notes for details).
  269 
  270  * "git gc" did not interact well with "git worktree"-managed
  271    per-worktree refs.
  272 
  273  * "git cherry-pick" and other uses of the sequencer machinery
  274    mishandled a trailer block whose last line is an incomplete line.
  275    This has been fixed so that an additional sign-off etc. are added
  276    after completing the existing incomplete line.
  277 
  278  * The codepath in "git am" that is used when running "git rebase"
  279    leaked memory held for the log message of the commits being rebased.
  280 
  281  * "git clone --config var=val" is a way to populate the
  282    per-repository configuration file of the new repository, but it did
  283    not work well when val is an empty string.  This has been fixed.
  284 
  285  * Setting "log.decorate=false" in the configuration file did not take
  286    effect in v2.13, which has been corrected.
  287 
  288  * A few codepaths in "checkout" and "am" working on an unborn branch
  289    tried to access an uninitialized piece of memory.
  290 
  291  * The Web interface to gmane news archive is long gone, even though
  292    the articles are still accessible via NTTP.  Replace the links with
  293    ones to public-inbox.org.  Because their message identification is
  294    based on the actual message-id, it is likely that it will be easier
  295    to migrate away from it if/when necessary.
  296 
  297  * The receive-pack program now makes sure that the push certificate
  298    records the same set of push options used for pushing.
  299 
  300  * Tests have been updated to pass under GETTEXT_POISON (a mechanism
  301    to ensure that output strings that should not be translated are
  302    not translated by mistake), and TravisCI is told to run them.
  303 
  304  * "git checkout --recurse-submodules" did not quite work with a
  305    submodule that itself has submodules.
  306 
  307  * "pack-objects" can stream a slice of an existing packfile out when
  308    the pack bitmap can tell that the reachable objects are all needed
  309    in the output, without inspecting individual objects.  This
  310    strategy however would not work well when "--local" and other
  311    options are in use, and need to be disabled.
  312 
  313  * Fix memory leaks pointed out by Coverity (and people).
  314 
  315  * "git read-tree -m" (no tree-ish) gave a nonsense suggestion "use
  316    --empty if you want to clear the index".  With "-m", such a request
  317    will still fail anyway, as you'd need to name at least one tree-ish
  318    to be merged.
  319 
  320  * Make sure our tests would pass when the sources are checked out
  321    with "platform native" line ending convention by default on
  322    Windows.  Some "text" files out tests use and the test scripts
  323    themselves that are meant to be run with /bin/sh, ought to be
  324    checked out with eol=LF even on Windows.
  325 
  326  * Introduce the BUG() macro to improve die("BUG: ...").
  327 
  328  * Clarify documentation for include.path and includeIf.<condition>.path
  329    configuration variables.
  330 
  331  * Git sometimes gives an advice in a rhetorical question that does
  332    not require an answer, which can confuse new users and non native
  333    speakers.  Attempt to rephrase them.
  334 
  335  * A few http:// links that are redirected to https:// in the
  336    documentation have been updated to https:// links.
  337 
  338  * "git for-each-ref --format=..." with %(HEAD) in the format used to
  339    resolve the HEAD symref as many times as it had processed refs,
  340    which was wasteful, and "git branch" shared the same problem.
  341 
  342  * Regression fix to topic recently merged to 'master'.
  343 
  344  * The shell completion script (in contrib/) learned "git stash" has
  345    a new "push" subcommand.
  346 
  347  * "git interpret-trailers", when used as GIT_EDITOR for "git commit
  348    -v", looked for and appended to a trailer block at the very end,
  349    i.e. at the end of the "diff" output.  The command has been
  350    corrected to pay attention to the cut-mark line "commit -v" adds to
  351    the buffer---the real trailer block should appear just before it.
  352 
  353  * A test allowed both "git push" and "git receive-pack" on the other
  354    end write their traces into the same file.  This is OK on platforms
  355    that allows atomically appending to a file opened with O_APPEND,
  356    but on other platforms led to a mangled output, causing
  357    intermittent test failures.  This has been fixed by disabling
  358    traces from "receive-pack" in the test.
  359 
  360  * Tag objects, which are not reachable from any ref, that point at
  361    missing objects were mishandled by "git gc" and friends (they
  362    should silently be ignored instead)
  363 
  364  * "git describe --contains" penalized light-weight tags so much that
  365    they were almost never considered.  Instead, give them about the
  366    same chance to be considered as an annotated tag that is the same
  367    age as the underlying commit would.
  368 
  369  * The "run-command" API implementation has been made more robust
  370    against dead-locking in a threaded environment.
  371 
  372  * A recent update to t5545-push-options.sh started skipping all the
  373    tests in the script when a web server testing is disabled or
  374    unavailable, not just the ones that require a web server.  Non HTTP
  375    tests have been salvaged to always run in this script.
  376 
  377  * "git send-email" now uses Net::SMTP::SSL, which is obsolete, only
  378    when needed.  Recent versions of Net::SMTP can do TLS natively.
  379 
  380  * "foo\bar\baz" in "git fetch foo\bar\baz", even though there is no
  381    slashes in it, cannot be a nickname for a remote on Windows, as
  382    that is likely to be a pathname on a local filesystem.
  383 
  384  * "git clean -d" used to clean directories that has ignored files,
  385    even though the command should not lose ignored ones without "-x".
  386    "git status --ignored"  did not list ignored and untracked files
  387    without "-uall".  These have been corrected.
  388 
  389  * The result from "git diff" that compares two blobs, e.g. "git diff
  390    $commit1:$path $commit2:$path", used to be shown with the full
  391    object name as given on the command line, but it is more natural to
  392    use the $path in the output and use it to look up .gitattributes.
  393 
  394  * The "collision detecting" SHA-1 implementation shipped with 2.13
  395    was quite broken on some big-endian platforms and/or platforms that
  396    do not like unaligned fetches.  Update to the upstream code which
  397    has already fixed these issues.
  398 
  399  * "git am -h" triggered a BUG().
  400 
  401  * The interaction of "url.*.insteadOf" and custom URL scheme's
  402    whitelisting is now documented better.
  403 
  404  * The timestamp of the index file is now taken after the file is
  405    closed, to help Windows, on which a stale timestamp is reported by
  406    fstat() on a file that is opened for writing and data was written
  407    but not yet closed.
  408 
  409  * "git pull --rebase --autostash" didn't auto-stash when the local history
  410    fast-forwards to the upstream.
  411 
  412  * A flaky test has been corrected.
  413 
  414  * "git $cmd -h" for builtin commands calls the implementation of the
  415    command (i.e. cmd_$cmd() function) without doing any repository
  416    set-up, and the commands that expect RUN_SETUP is done by the Git
  417    potty needs to be prepared to show the help text without barfing.
  418    (merge d691551192 jk/consistent-h later to maint).
  419 
  420  * Help contributors that visit us at GitHub.
  421 
  422  * "git stash push <pathspec>" did not work from a subdirectory at all.
  423    Bugfix for a topic in v2.13
  424 
  425  * As there is no portable way to pass timezone information to
  426    strftime, some output format from "git log" and friends are
  427    impossible to produce.  Teach our own strbuf_addftime to replace %z
  428    and %Z with caller-supplied values to help working around this.
  429    (merge 6eced3ec5e rs/strbuf-addftime-zZ later to maint).
  430 
  431  * "git mergetool" learned to work around a wrapper MacOS X adds
  432    around underlying meld.
  433 
  434  * An example in documentation that does not work in multi worktree
  435    configuration has been corrected.
  436 
  437  * The pretty-format specifiers like '%h', '%t', etc. had an
  438    optimization that no longer works correctly.  In preparation/hope
  439    of getting it correctly implemented, first discard the optimization
  440    that is broken.
  441 
  442  * The code to pick up and execute command alias definition from the
  443    configuration used to switch to the top of the working tree and
  444    then come back when the expanded alias was executed, which was
  445    unnecessarilyl complex.  Attempt to simplify the logic by using the
  446    early-config mechanism that does not chdir around.
  447 
  448  * Fix configuration codepath to pay proper attention to commondir
  449    that is used in multi-worktree situation, and isolate config API
  450    into its own header file.
  451    (merge dc8441fdb4 bw/config-h later to maint).
  452 
  453  * "git add -p" were updated in 2.12 timeframe to cope with custom
  454    core.commentchar but the implementation was buggy and a
  455    metacharacter like $ and * did not work.
  456 
  457  * A recent regression in "git rebase -i" has been fixed and tests
  458    that would have caught it and others have been added.
  459 
  460  * An unaligned 32-bit access in pack-bitmap code has been corrected.
  461 
  462  * Tighten error checks for invalid "git apply" input.
  463 
  464  * The split index code did not honor core.sharedRepository setting
  465    correctly.
  466 
  467  * The Makefile rule in contrib/subtree for building documentation
  468    learned to honour USE_ASCIIDOCTOR just like the main documentation
  469    set does.
  470 
  471  * Code clean-up to fix possible buffer over-reading.
  472 
  473  * A few tests that tried to verify the contents of push certificates
  474    did not use 'git rev-parse' to formulate the line to look for in
  475    the certificate correctly.
  476 
  477  * Update the character width tables.
  478 
  479  * After "git branch --move" of the currently checked out branch, the
  480    code to walk the reflog of HEAD via "log -g" and friends
  481    incorrectly stopped at the reflog entry that records the renaming
  482    of the branch.
  483 
  484  * The rewrite of "git branch --list" using for-each-ref's internals
  485    that happened in v2.13 regressed its handling of color.branch.local;
  486    this has been fixed.
  487 
  488  * The build procedure has been improved to allow building and testing
  489    Git with address sanitizer more easily.
  490    (merge 425ca6710b jk/build-with-asan later to maint).
  491 
  492  * On Cygwin, similar to Windows, "git push //server/share/repository"
  493    ought to mean a repository on a network share that can be accessed
  494    locally, but this did not work correctly due to stripping the double
  495    slashes at the beginning.
  496 
  497  * The progress meter did not give a useful output when we haven't had
  498    0.5 seconds to measure the throughput during the interval.  Instead
  499    show the overall throughput rate at the end, which is a much more
  500    useful number.
  501 
  502  * Code clean-up, that makes us in sync with Debian by one patch.
  503 
  504  * We run an early part of "git gc" that deals with refs before
  505    daemonising (and not under lock) even when running a background
  506    auto-gc, which caused multiple gc processes attempting to run the
  507    early part at the same time.  This is now prevented by running the
  508    early part also under the GC lock.
  509 
  510  * A recent update broke an alias that contained an uppercase letter.
  511 
  512  * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
  513    (merge 5053313562 rs/urlmatch-cleanup later to maint).
  514    (merge 42c78a216e rs/use-div-round-up later to maint).
  515    (merge 5e8d2729ae rs/wt-status-cleanup later to maint).
  516    (merge bc9b7e207f as/diff-options-grammofix later to maint).
  517    (merge ac05222b31 ah/patch-id-doc later to maint).