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    1 Git v1.8.5 Release Notes
    2 ========================
    3 
    4 Backward compatibility notes (for Git 2.0)
    5 ------------------------------------------
    6 
    7 When "git push [$there]" does not say what to push, we have used the
    8 traditional "matching" semantics so far (all your branches were sent
    9 to the remote as long as there already are branches of the same name
   10 over there).  In Git 2.0, the default will change to the "simple"
   11 semantics, which pushes:
   12 
   13  - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, and only
   14    when the current branch is set to integrate with that remote
   15    branch, if you are pushing to the same remote as you fetch from; or
   16 
   17  - only the current branch to the branch with the same name, if you
   18    are pushing to a remote that is not where you usually fetch from.
   19 
   20 Use the user preference configuration variable "push.default" to
   21 change this.  If you are an old-timer who is used to the "matching"
   22 semantics, you can set the variable to "matching" to keep the
   23 traditional behaviour.  If you want to live in the future early, you
   24 can set it to "simple" today without waiting for Git 2.0.
   25 
   26 When "git add -u" (and "git add -A") is run inside a subdirectory and
   27 does not specify which paths to add on the command line, it
   28 will operate on the entire tree in Git 2.0 for consistency
   29 with "git commit -a" and other commands.  There will be no
   30 mechanism to make plain "git add -u" behave like "git add -u .".
   31 Current users of "git add -u" (without a pathspec) should start
   32 training their fingers to explicitly say "git add -u ."
   33 before Git 2.0 comes.  A warning is issued when these commands are
   34 run without a pathspec and when you have local changes outside the
   35 current directory, because the behaviour in Git 2.0 will be different
   36 from today's version in such a situation.
   37 
   38 In Git 2.0, "git add <path>" will behave as "git add -A <path>", so
   39 that "git add dir/" will notice paths you removed from the directory
   40 and record the removal.  Versions before Git 2.0, including this
   41 release, will keep ignoring removals, but the users who rely on this
   42 behaviour are encouraged to start using "git add --ignore-removal <path>"
   43 now before 2.0 is released.
   44 
   45 The default prefix for "git svn" will change in Git 2.0.  For a long
   46 time, "git svn" created its remote-tracking branches directly under
   47 refs/remotes, but it will place them under refs/remotes/origin/ unless
   48 it is told otherwise with its --prefix option.
   49 
   50 
   51 Updates since v1.8.4
   52 --------------------
   53 
   54 Foreign interfaces, subsystems and ports.
   55 
   56  * "git-svn" has been taught to use the serf library, which is the
   57    only option SVN 1.8.0 offers us when talking the HTTP protocol.
   58 
   59  * "git-svn" talking over an https:// connection using the serf library
   60    dumped core due to a bug in the serf library that SVN uses.  Work
   61    around it on our side, even though the SVN side is being fixed.
   62 
   63  * On MacOS X, we detected if the filesystem needs the "pre-composed
   64    unicode strings" workaround, but did not automatically enable it.
   65    Now we do.
   66 
   67  * remote-hg remote helper misbehaved when interacting with a local Hg
   68    repository relative to the home directory, e.g. "clone hg::~/there".
   69 
   70  * imap-send ported to OS X uses Apple's security framework instead of
   71    OpenSSL's.
   72 
   73  * "git fast-import" treats an empty path given to "ls" as the root of
   74    the tree.
   75 
   76 
   77 UI, Workflows & Features
   78 
   79  * xdg-open can be used as a browser backend for "git web-browse"
   80    (hence to show "git help -w" output), when available.
   81 
   82  * "git grep" and "git show" pay attention to the "--textconv" option
   83    when these commands are told to operate on blob objects (e.g. "git
   84    grep -e pattern --textconv HEAD:Makefile").
   85 
   86  * "git replace" helper no longer allows an object to be replaced with
   87    another object of a different type to avoid confusion (you can
   88    still manually craft such a replacement using "git update-ref", as an
   89    escape hatch).
   90 
   91  * "git status" no longer prints the dirty status information of
   92    submodules for which submodule.$name.ignore is set to "all".
   93 
   94  * "git rebase -i" honours core.abbrev when preparing the insn sheet
   95    for editing.
   96 
   97  * "git status" during a cherry-pick shows which original commit is
   98    being picked.
   99 
  100  * Instead of typing four capital letters "HEAD", you can say "@" now,
  101    e.g. "git log @".
  102 
  103  * "git check-ignore" follows the same rule as "git add" and "git
  104    status" in that the ignore/exclude mechanism does not take effect
  105    on paths that are already tracked.  With the "--no-index" option, it
  106    can be used to diagnose which paths that should have been ignored
  107    have been mistakenly added to the index.
  108 
  109  * Some irrelevant "advice" messages that are shared with "git status"
  110    output have been removed from the commit log template.
  111 
  112  * "update-refs" learned a "--stdin" option to read multiple update
  113    requests and perform them in an all-or-none fashion.
  114 
  115  * Just like "make -C <directory>", "git -C <directory> ..." tells Git
  116    to go there before doing anything else.
  117 
  118  * Just like "git checkout -" knows to check out, and "git merge -"
  119    knows to merge, the branch you were previously on, "git cherry-pick"
  120    now understands "git cherry-pick -" to pick from the previous
  121    branch.
  122 
  123  * "git status" now omits the prefix to make its output a comment in a
  124    commit log editor, which is not necessary for human consumption.
  125    Scripts that parse the output of "git status" are advised to use
  126    "git status --porcelain" instead, as its format is stable and easier
  127    to parse.
  128 
  129  * The ref syntax "foo^{tag}" (with the literal string "{tag}") peels a
  130    tag ref to itself, i.e. it's a no-op., and fails if
  131    "foo" is not a tag.  "git rev-parse --verify v1.0^{tag}" is
  132    a more convenient way than "test $(git cat-file -t v1.0) = tag" to
  133    check if v1.0 is a tag.
  134 
  135  * "git branch -v -v" (and "git status") did not distinguish among a
  136    branch that is not based on any other branch, a branch that is in
  137    sync with its upstream branch, and a branch that is configured with an
  138    upstream branch that no longer exists.
  139 
  140  * Earlier we started rejecting any attempt to add the 0{40} object name to
  141    the index and to tree objects, but it sometimes is necessary to
  142    allow this to be able to use tools like filter-branch to correct such
  143    broken tree objects.  "filter-branch" can again be used to do this.
  144 
  145  * "git config" did not provide a way to set or access numbers larger
  146    than a native "int" on the platform; it now provides 64-bit signed
  147    integers on all platforms.
  148 
  149  * "git pull --rebase" always chose to do the bog-standard flattening
  150    rebase.  You can tell it to run "rebase --preserve-merges" with
  151    "git pull --rebase=preserve" or by
  152    setting "pull.rebase" configuration to "preserve".
  153 
  154  * "git push --no-thin" actually disables the "thin pack transfer"
  155    optimization.
  156 
  157  * Magic pathspecs like ":(icase)makefile" (matches both Makefile
  158    and makefile) and ":(glob)foo/**/bar" (matches "bar" in "foo"
  159    and any subdirectory of "foo") can be used in more places.
  160 
  161  * The "http.*" variables can now be specified for individual URLs.
  162    For example,
  163 
  164    [http]
  165        sslVerify = true
  166    [http "https://weak.example.com/"]
  167        sslVerify = false
  168 
  169    would flip http.sslVerify off only when talking to that specific
  170    site.
  171 
  172  * "git mv A B" when moving a submodule has been taught to
  173    relocate the submodule's working tree and to adjust the paths in the
  174    .gitmodules file.
  175 
  176  * "git blame" can now take more than one -L option to discover the
  177    origin of multiple blocks of lines.
  178 
  179  * The http transport clients can optionally ask to save cookies
  180    with the http.savecookies configuration variable.
  181 
  182  * "git push" learned a more fine grained control over a blunt
  183    "--force" when requesting a non-fast-forward update with the
  184    "--force-with-lease=<refname>:<expected object name>" option.
  185 
  186  * "git diff --diff-filter=<classes of changes>" can now take
  187    lowercase letters (e.g. "--diff-filter=d") to mean "show
  188    everything but these classes".  "git diff-files -q" is now a
  189    deprecated synonym for "git diff-files --diff-filter=d".
  190 
  191  * "git fetch" (hence "git pull" as well) learned to check
  192    "fetch.prune" and "remote.*.prune" configuration variables and
  193    to behave as if the "--prune" command line option was given.
  194 
  195  * "git check-ignore -z" applied the NUL termination to both its input
  196    (with --stdin) and its output, but "git check-attr -z" ignored the
  197    option on the output side. Make both honor -z on the input and
  198    output side the same way.
  199 
  200  * "git whatchanged" may still be used by old timers, but mention of
  201    it in documents meant for new users will only waste readers' time
  202    wondering what the difference is between it and "git log".  Make it
  203    less prominent in the general part of the documentation and explain
  204    that it is merely a "git log" with different default behaviour in
  205    its own document.
  206 
  207 
  208 Performance, Internal Implementation, etc.
  209 
  210  * "git for-each-ref" when asking for merely the object name does not
  211    have to parse the object pointed at by the refs; the codepath has
  212    been optimized.
  213 
  214  * The HTTP transport will try to use TCP keepalive when able.
  215 
  216  * "git repack" is now written in C.
  217 
  218  * Build procedure for MSVC has been updated.
  219 
  220  * If a build-time fallback is set to "cat" instead of "less", we
  221    should apply the same "no subprocess or pipe" optimization as we
  222    apply to user-supplied GIT_PAGER=cat.
  223 
  224  * Many commands use a --dashed-option as an operation mode selector
  225    (e.g. "git tag --delete") that excludes other operation modes
  226    (e.g. "git tag --delete --verify" is nonsense) and that cannot be
  227    negated (e.g. "git tag --no-delete" is nonsense).  The parse-options
  228    API learned a new OPT_CMDMODE macro to make it easier to implement
  229    such a set of options.
  230 
  231  * OPT_BOOLEAN() in the parse-options API was misdesigned to be "counting
  232    up" but many subcommands expect it to behave as "on/off". Update
  233    them to use OPT_BOOL() which is a proper boolean.
  234 
  235  * "git gc" exits early without doing any work when it detects
  236    that another instance of itself is already running.
  237 
  238  * Under memory pressure and/or file descriptor pressure, we used to
  239    close pack windows that are not used and also closed filehandles to
  240    open but unused packfiles. These are now controlled separately
  241    to better cope with the load.
  242 
  243 Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
  244 
  245 
  246 Fixes since v1.8.4
  247 ------------------
  248 
  249 Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.8.4 in the maintenance
  250 track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases' notes for
  251 details).
  252 
  253  * An ancient How-To on serving Git repositories on an HTTP server
  254    lacked a warning that it has been mostly superseded with a more
  255    modern way.
  256    (merge 6d52bc3 sc/doc-howto-dumb-http later to maint).
  257 
  258  * The interaction between the use of Perl in our test suite and NO_PERL
  259    has been clarified a bit.
  260    (merge f8fc0ee jn/test-prereq-perl-doc later to maint).
  261 
  262  * The synopsis section of the "git unpack-objects" documentation has been
  263    clarified a bit.
  264    (merge 61e2e22 vd/doc-unpack-objects later to maint).
  265 
  266  * We did not generate the HTML version of the documentation to "git subtree"
  267    in contrib/.
  268    (merge 95c62fb jk/subtree-install-fix later to maint).
  269 
  270  * A fast-import stream expresses a pathname with funny characters by
  271    quoting them in C style; the remote-hg remote helper forgot to unquote
  272    such a path.
  273    (merge 1136265 ap/remote-hg-unquote-cquote later to maint).
  274 
  275  * "git reset -p HEAD" has a codepath to special-case it to behave
  276    differently from resetting to contents of other commits, but a
  277    recent change broke it.
  278 
  279  * Coloring around octopus merges in "log --graph" output was screwy.
  280    (merge 339c17b hn/log-graph-color-octopus later to maint).
  281 
  282  * "git checkout topic", when there is not yet a local "topic" branch
  283    but there is a unique remote-tracking branch for a remote "topic"
  284    branch, pretended as if "git checkout -t -b topic remote/$r/topic"
  285    (for that unique remote $r) was run. This hack however was not
  286    implemented for "git checkout topic --".
  287    (merge bca3969 mm/checkout-auto-track-fix later to maint).
  288 
  289  * One long-standing flaw in the pack transfer protocol used by "git
  290    clone" was that there was no way to tell the other end which branch
  291    "HEAD" points at, and the receiving end needed to guess.  A new
  292    capability has been defined in the pack protocol to convey this
  293    information so that cloning from a repository with more than one
  294    branch pointing at the same commit where the HEAD is at now
  295    reliably sets the initial branch in the resulting repository.
  296    (merge 360a326 jc/upload-pack-send-symref later to maint).
  297 
  298  * We did not handle cases where the http transport gets redirected during
  299    the authorization request (e.g. from http:// to https://).
  300    (merge 70900ed jk/http-auth-redirects later to maint).
  301 
  302  * Bash prompting code to deal with an SVN remote as an upstream
  303    was coded in a way unsupported by older Bash versions (3.x).
  304    (merge 52ec889 sg/prompt-svn-remote-fix later to maint).
  305 
  306  * The fall-back parsing of commit objects with broken author or
  307    committer lines was less robust than ideal in picking up the
  308    timestamps.
  309    (merge 03818a4 jk/split-broken-ident later to maint).
  310 
  311  * "git rev-list --objects ^v1.0^ v1.0" gave the v1.0 tag itself in the
  312    output, but "git rev-list --objects v1.0^..v1.0" did not.
  313    (merge 895c5ba jc/revision-range-unpeel later to maint).
  314 
  315  * "git clone" wrote some progress messages to standard output, not
  316    to standard error, and did not suppress them with the
  317    --no-progress option.
  318    (merge 643f918 jk/clone-progress-to-stderr later to maint).
  319 
  320  * "format-patch --from=<whom>" forgot to omit an unnecessary in-body
  321    from line, i.e. when <whom> is the same as the real author.
  322    (merge 662cc30 jk/format-patch-from later to maint).
  323 
  324  * "git shortlog" used to choke and die when there is a malformed
  325    commit (e.g. missing authors); it now simply ignores such a commit
  326    and keeps going.
  327    (merge cd4f09e jk/shortlog-tolerate-broken-commit later to maint).
  328 
  329  * "git merge-recursive" did not parse its "--diff-algorithm=" command
  330    line option correctly.
  331    (merge 6562928 jk/diff-algo later to maint).
  332 
  333  * When running "fetch -q", a long silence while the sender side
  334    computes the set of objects to send can be mistaken by proxies as
  335    dropped connection.  The server side has been taught to send a
  336    small empty messages to keep the connection alive.
  337    (merge 115dedd jk/upload-pack-keepalive later to maint).
  338 
  339  * "git rebase" had a portability regression in v1.8.4 that triggered a
  340    bug in some BSD shell implementations.
  341    (merge 99855dd mm/rebase-continue-freebsd-WB later to maint).
  342 
  343  * "git branch --track" had a minor regression in v1.8.3.2 and later
  344    that made it impossible to base your local work on anything but a
  345    local branch of the upstream repository you are tracking.
  346    (merge b0f49ff jh/checkout-auto-tracking later to maint).
  347 
  348  * When the web server responds with "405 Method Not Allowed", "git
  349    http-backend" should tell the client what methods are allowed with
  350    the "Allow" header.
  351    (merge 9247be0 bc/http-backend-allow-405 later to maint).
  352 
  353  * When there is no sufficient overlap between old and new history
  354    during a "git fetch" into a shallow repository, objects that the
  355    sending side knows the receiving end has were unnecessarily sent.
  356    (merge f21d2a7 nd/fetch-into-shallow later to maint).
  357 
  358  * "git cvsserver" computed the permission mode bits incorrectly for
  359    executable files.
  360    (merge 1b48d56 jc/cvsserver-perm-bit-fix later to maint).
  361 
  362  * When send-email obtains an error message to die with upon
  363    failure to start an SSL session, it tried to read the error string
  364    from a wrong place.
  365    (merge 6cb0c88 bc/send-email-ssl-die-message-fix later to maint).
  366 
  367  * The implementation of "add -i" has some crippling code to work around an
  368    ActiveState Perl limitation but it by mistake also triggered on Git
  369    for Windows where MSYS perl is used.
  370    (merge df17e77 js/add-i-mingw later to maint).
  371 
  372  * We made sure that we notice when the user-supplied GIT_DIR is actually a
  373    gitfile, but did not do the same when the default ".git" is a
  374    gitfile.
  375    (merge 487a2b7 nd/git-dir-pointing-at-gitfile later to maint).
  376 
  377  * When an object is not found after checking the packfiles and the
  378    loose object directory, read_sha1_file() re-checks the packfiles to
  379    prevent racing with a concurrent repacker; teach the same logic to
  380    has_sha1_file().
  381    (merge 45e8a74 jk/has-sha1-file-retry-packed later to maint).
  382 
  383  * "git commit --author=$name", when $name is not in the canonical
  384    "A. U. Thor <au.thor@example.xz>" format, looks for a matching name
  385    from existing history, but did not consult mailmap to grab the
  386    preferred author name.
  387    (merge ea16794 ap/commit-author-mailmap later to maint).
  388 
  389  * "git ls-files -k" needs to crawl only the part of the working tree
  390    that may overlap the paths in the index to find killed files, but
  391    shared code with the logic to find all the untracked files, which
  392    made it unnecessarily inefficient.
  393    (merge 680be04 jc/ls-files-killed-optim later to maint).
  394 
  395  * The shortened commit object names in the insn sheet that is prepared at the
  396    beginning of a "rebase -i" session can become ambiguous as the
  397    rebasing progresses and the repository gains more commits. Make
  398    sure the internal record is kept with full 40-hex object names.
  399    (merge 75c6976 es/rebase-i-no-abbrev later to maint).
  400 
  401  * "git rebase --preserve-merges" internally used the merge machinery
  402    and as a side effect left the merge summary message in the log, but
  403    when rebasing there is no need for the merge summary.
  404    (merge a9f739c rt/rebase-p-no-merge-summary later to maint).
  405 
  406  * A call to xread() was used without a loop around it to cope with short
  407    reads in the codepath to stream new contents to a pack.
  408    (merge e92527c js/xread-in-full later to maint).
  409 
  410  * "git rebase -i" forgot that the comment character is
  411    configurable while reading its insn sheet.
  412    (merge 7bca7af es/rebase-i-respect-core-commentchar later to maint).
  413 
  414  * The mailmap support code read past the allocated buffer when the
  415    mailmap file ended with an incomplete line.
  416    (merge f972a16 jk/mailmap-incomplete-line later to maint).
  417 
  418  * We used to send a large request to read(2)/write(2) as a single
  419    system call, which was bad from the latency point of view when
  420    the operation needs to be killed, and also triggered an error on
  421    broken 64-bit systems that refuse to read or write more than 2GB
  422    in one go.
  423    (merge a487916 sp/clip-read-write-to-8mb later to maint).
  424 
  425  * "git fetch" that auto-followed tags incorrectly reused the
  426    connection with Git-aware transport helper (like the sample "ext::"
  427    helper shipped with Git).
  428    (merge 0f73f8b jc/transport-do-not-use-connect-twice-in-fetch later to maint).
  429 
  430  * "git log --full-diff -- <pathspec>" showed a huge diff for paths
  431    outside the given <pathspec> for each commit, instead of showing
  432    the change relative to the parent of the commit.  "git reflog -p"
  433    had a similar problem.
  434    (merge 838f9a1 tr/log-full-diff-keep-true-parents later to maint).
  435 
  436  * Setting a submodule.*.path configuration variable to true (without
  437    giving "= value") caused Git to segfault.
  438    (merge 4b05440 jl/some-submodule-config-are-not-boolean later to maint).
  439 
  440  * "git rebase -i" (there could be others, as the root cause is pretty
  441    generic) fed a random, data dependent string to 'echo' and
  442    expected it to come out literally, corrupting its error message.
  443    (merge 89b0230 mm/no-shell-escape-in-die-message later to maint).
  444 
  445  * Some people still use rather old versions of bash, which cannot
  446    grok some constructs like 'printf -v varname' which the prompt and
  447    completion code started to use recently.
  448    (merge a44aa69 bc/completion-for-bash-3.0 later to maint).
  449 
  450  * Code to read configuration from a blob object did not compile on
  451    platforms with fgetc() etc. implemented as macros.
  452    (merge 49d6cfa hv/config-from-blob later to maint-1.8.3).
  453 
  454  * The recent "short-cut clone connectivity check" topic broke a
  455    shallow repository when a fetch operation tries to auto-follow tags.
  456    (merge 6da8bdc nd/fetch-pack-shallow-fix later to maint-1.8.3).