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    5 <title>dos2unix 7.4.2 - DOS/MAC to UNIX and vice versa text file format converter</title>
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   11 
   12 
   13 
   14 <ul id="index">
   15   <li><a href="#NAME">NAME</a></li>
   16   <li><a href="#SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</a></li>
   17   <li><a href="#DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</a></li>
   18   <li><a href="#OPTIONS">OPTIONS</a></li>
   19   <li><a href="#MAC-MODE">MAC MODE</a></li>
   20   <li><a href="#CONVERSION-MODES">CONVERSION MODES</a></li>
   21   <li><a href="#UNICODE">UNICODE</a>
   22     <ul>
   23       <li><a href="#Encodings">Encodings</a></li>
   24       <li><a href="#Conversion">Conversion</a></li>
   25       <li><a href="#Byte-Order-Mark">Byte Order Mark</a></li>
   26       <li><a href="#Unicode-file-names-on-Windows">Unicode file names on Windows</a></li>
   27       <li><a href="#Unicode-examples">Unicode examples</a></li>
   28     </ul>
   29   </li>
   30   <li><a href="#GB18030">GB18030</a></li>
   31   <li><a href="#EXAMPLES">EXAMPLES</a></li>
   32   <li><a href="#RECURSIVE-CONVERSION">RECURSIVE CONVERSION</a></li>
   33   <li><a href="#LOCALIZATION">LOCALIZATION</a></li>
   34   <li><a href="#RETURN-VALUE">RETURN VALUE</a></li>
   35   <li><a href="#STANDARDS">STANDARDS</a></li>
   36   <li><a href="#AUTHORS">AUTHORS</a></li>
   37   <li><a href="#SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</a></li>
   38 </ul>
   39 
   40 <h1 id="NAME">NAME</h1>
   41 
   42 <p>dos2unix - DOS/Mac to Unix and vice versa text file format converter</p>
   43 
   44 <h1 id="SYNOPSIS">SYNOPSIS</h1>
   45 
   46 <pre><code>    dos2unix [options] [FILE ...] [-n INFILE OUTFILE ...]
   47     unix2dos [options] [FILE ...] [-n INFILE OUTFILE ...]</code></pre>
   48 
   49 <h1 id="DESCRIPTION">DESCRIPTION</h1>
   50 
   51 <p>The Dos2unix package includes utilities <code>dos2unix</code> and <code>unix2dos</code> to convert plain text files in DOS or Mac format to Unix format and vice versa.</p>
   52 
   53 <p>In DOS/Windows text files a line break, also known as newline, is a combination of two characters: a Carriage Return (CR) followed by a Line Feed (LF). In Unix text files a line break is a single character: the Line Feed (LF). In Mac text files, prior to Mac OS X, a line break was single Carriage Return (CR) character. Nowadays Mac OS uses Unix style (LF) line breaks.</p>
   54 
   55 <p>Besides line breaks Dos2unix can also convert the encoding of files. A few DOS code pages can be converted to Unix Latin-1. And Windows Unicode (UTF-16) files can be converted to Unix Unicode (UTF-8) files.</p>
   56 
   57 <p>Binary files are automatically skipped, unless conversion is forced.</p>
   58 
   59 <p>Non-regular files, such as directories and FIFOs, are automatically skipped.</p>
   60 
   61 <p>Symbolic links and their targets are by default kept untouched. Symbolic links can optionally be replaced, or the output can be written to the symbolic link target. Writing to a symbolic link target is not supported on Windows.</p>
   62 
   63 <p>Dos2unix was modelled after dos2unix under SunOS/Solaris. There is one important difference with the original SunOS/Solaris version. This version does by default in-place conversion (old file mode), while the original SunOS/Solaris version only supports paired conversion (new file mode). See also options <code>-o</code> and <code>-n</code>. Another difference is that the SunOS/Solaris version uses by default <i>iso</i> mode conversion while this version uses by default <i>ascii</i> mode conversion.</p>
   64 
   65 <h1 id="OPTIONS">OPTIONS</h1>
   66 
   67 <dl>
   68 
   69 <dt id="pod"><b>--</b></dt>
   70 <dd>
   71 
   72 <p>Treat all following options as file names. Use this option if you want to convert files whose names start with a dash. For instance to convert a file named &quot;-foo&quot;, you can use this command:</p>
   73 
   74 <pre><code>    dos2unix -- -foo</code></pre>
   75 
   76 <p>Or in new file mode:</p>
   77 
   78 <pre><code>    dos2unix -n -- -foo out.txt</code></pre>
   79 
   80 </dd>
   81 <dt id="allow-chown"><b>--allow-chown</b></dt>
   82 <dd>
   83 
   84 <p>Allow file ownership change in old file mode.</p>
   85 
   86 <p>When this option is used, the conversion will not be aborted when the user and/or group ownership of the original file can&#39;t be preserved in old file mode. Conversion will continue and the converted file will get the same new ownership as if it was converted in new file mode. See also options <code>-o</code> and <code>-n</code>. This option is only available if dos2unix has support for preserving the user and group ownership of files.</p>
   87 
   88 </dd>
   89 <dt id="ascii"><b>-ascii</b></dt>
   90 <dd>
   91 
   92 <p>Convert only line breaks. This is the default conversion mode.</p>
   93 
   94 </dd>
   95 <dt id="iso"><b>-iso</b></dt>
   96 <dd>
   97 
   98 <p>Conversion between DOS and ISO-8859-1 character set. See also section CONVERSION MODES.</p>
   99 
  100 </dd>
  101 <dt id="pod-1252"><b>-1252</b></dt>
  102 <dd>
  103 
  104 <p>Use Windows code page 1252 (Western European).</p>
  105 
  106 </dd>
  107 <dt id="pod-437"><b>-437</b></dt>
  108 <dd>
  109 
  110 <p>Use DOS code page 437 (US). This is the default code page used for ISO conversion.</p>
  111 
  112 </dd>
  113 <dt id="pod-850"><b>-850</b></dt>
  114 <dd>
  115 
  116 <p>Use DOS code page 850 (Western European).</p>
  117 
  118 </dd>
  119 <dt id="pod-860"><b>-860</b></dt>
  120 <dd>
  121 
  122 <p>Use DOS code page 860 (Portuguese).</p>
  123 
  124 </dd>
  125 <dt id="pod-863"><b>-863</b></dt>
  126 <dd>
  127 
  128 <p>Use DOS code page 863 (French Canadian).</p>
  129 
  130 </dd>
  131 <dt id="pod-865"><b>-865</b></dt>
  132 <dd>
  133 
  134 <p>Use DOS code page 865 (Nordic).</p>
  135 
  136 </dd>
  137 <dt id="pod-7"><b>-7</b></dt>
  138 <dd>
  139 
  140 <p>Convert 8 bit characters to 7 bit space.</p>
  141 
  142 </dd>
  143 <dt id="b---keep-bom"><b>-b, --keep-bom</b></dt>
  144 <dd>
  145 
  146 <p>Keep Byte Order Mark (BOM). When the input file has a BOM, write a BOM in the output file. This is the default behavior when converting to DOS line breaks. See also option <code>-r</code>.</p>
  147 
  148 </dd>
  149 <dt id="c---convmode-CONVMODE"><b>-c, --convmode CONVMODE</b></dt>
  150 <dd>
  151 
  152 <p>Set conversion mode. Where CONVMODE is one of: <i>ascii</i>, <i>7bit</i>, <i>iso</i>, <i>mac</i> with ascii being the default.</p>
  153 
  154 </dd>
  155 <dt id="D---display-enc-ENCODING"><b>-D, --display-enc ENCODING</b></dt>
  156 <dd>
  157 
  158 <p>Set encoding of displayed text. Where ENCODING is one of: <i>ansi</i>, <i>unicode</i>, <i>unicodebom</i>, <i>utf8</i>, <i>utf8bom</i> with ansi being the default.</p>
  159 
  160 <p>This option is only available in dos2unix for Windows with Unicode file name support. This option has no effect on the actual file names read and written, only on how they are displayed.</p>
  161 
  162 <p>There are several methods for displaying text in a Windows console based on the encoding of the text. They all have their own advantages and disadvantages.</p>
  163 
  164 <dl>
  165 
  166 <dt id="ansi"><b>ansi</b></dt>
  167 <dd>
  168 
  169 <p>Dos2unix&#39;s default method is to use ANSI encoded text. The advantage is that it is backwards compatible. It works with raster and TrueType fonts. In some regions you may need to change the active DOS OEM code page to the Windows system ANSI code page using the <code>chcp</code> command, because dos2unix uses the Windows system code page.</p>
  170 
  171 <p>The disadvantage of ansi is that international file names with characters not inside the system default code page are not displayed properly. You will see a question mark, or a wrong symbol instead. When you don&#39;t work with foreign file names this method is OK.</p>
  172 
  173 </dd>
  174 <dt id="unicode-unicodebom"><b>unicode, unicodebom</b></dt>
  175 <dd>
  176 
  177 <p>The advantage of unicode (the Windows name for UTF-16) encoding is that text is usually properly displayed. There is no need to change the active code page. You may need to set the console&#39;s font to a TrueType font to have international characters displayed properly. When a character is not included in the TrueType font you usually see a small square, sometimes with a question mark in it.</p>
  178 
  179 <p>When you use the ConEmu console all text is displayed properly, because ConEmu automatically selects a good font.</p>
  180 
  181 <p>The disadvantage of unicode is that it is not compatible with ASCII. The output is not easy to handle when you redirect it to another program.</p>
  182 
  183 <p>When method <code>unicodebom</code> is used the Unicode text will be preceded with a BOM (Byte Order Mark). A BOM is required for correct redirection or piping in PowerShell.</p>
  184 
  185 </dd>
  186 <dt id="utf8-utf8bom"><b>utf8, utf8bom</b></dt>
  187 <dd>
  188 
  189 <p>The advantage of utf8 is that it is compatible with ASCII. You need to set the console&#39;s font to a TrueType font. With a TrueType font the text is displayed similar as with the <code>unicode</code> encoding.</p>
  190 
  191 <p>The disadvantage is that when you use the default raster font all non-ASCII characters are displayed wrong. Not only unicode file names, but also translated messages become unreadable. On Windows configured for an East-Asian region you may see a lot of flickering of the console when the messages are displayed.</p>
  192 
  193 <p>In a ConEmu console the utf8 encoding method works well.</p>
  194 
  195 <p>When method <code>utf8bom</code> is used the UTF-8 text will be preceded with a BOM (Byte Order Mark). A BOM is required for correct redirection or piping in PowerShell.</p>
  196 
  197 </dd>
  198 </dl>
  199 
  200 <p>The default encoding can be changed with environment variable DOS2UNIX_DISPLAY_ENC by setting it to <code>unicode</code>, <code>unicodebom</code>, <code>utf8</code>, or <code>utf8bom</code>.</p>
  201 
  202 </dd>
  203 <dt id="f---force"><b>-f, --force</b></dt>
  204 <dd>
  205 
  206 <p>Force conversion of binary files.</p>
  207 
  208 </dd>
  209 <dt id="gb---gb18030"><b>-gb, --gb18030</b></dt>
  210 <dd>
  211 
  212 <p>On Windows UTF-16 files are by default converted to UTF-8, regardless of the locale setting. Use this option to convert UTF-16 files to GB18030. This option is only available on Windows. See also section GB18030.</p>
  213 
  214 </dd>
  215 <dt id="h---help"><b>-h, --help</b></dt>
  216 <dd>
  217 
  218 <p>Display help and exit.</p>
  219 
  220 </dd>
  221 <dt id="i-FLAGS---info-FLAGS-FILE"><b>-i[FLAGS], --info[=FLAGS] FILE ...</b></dt>
  222 <dd>
  223 
  224 <p>Display file information. No conversion is done.</p>
  225 
  226 <p>The following information is printed, in this order: number of DOS line breaks, number of Unix line breaks, number of Mac line breaks, byte order mark, text or binary, file name.</p>
  227 
  228 <p>Example output:</p>
  229 
  230 <pre><code>     6       0       0  no_bom    text    dos.txt
  231      0       6       0  no_bom    text    unix.txt
  232      0       0       6  no_bom    text    mac.txt
  233      6       6       6  no_bom    text    mixed.txt
  234     50       0       0  UTF-16LE  text    utf16le.txt
  235      0      50       0  no_bom    text    utf8unix.txt
  236     50       0       0  UTF-8     text    utf8dos.txt
  237      2     418     219  no_bom    binary  dos2unix.exe</code></pre>
  238 
  239 <p>Note that sometimes a binary file can be mistaken for a text file. See also option <code>-s</code>.</p>
  240 
  241 <p>Optionally extra flags can be set to change the output. One or more flags can be added.</p>
  242 
  243 <dl>
  244 
  245 <dt id="pod0"><b>0</b></dt>
  246 <dd>
  247 
  248 <p>Print the file information lines followed by a null character instead of a newline character. This enables correct interpretation of file names with spaces or quotes when flag c is used. Use this flag in combination with xargs(1) option <code>-0</code> or <code>--null</code>.</p>
  249 
  250 </dd>
  251 <dt id="d"><b>d</b></dt>
  252 <dd>
  253 
  254 <p>Print number of DOS line breaks.</p>
  255 
  256 </dd>
  257 <dt id="u"><b>u</b></dt>
  258 <dd>
  259 
  260 <p>Print number of Unix line breaks.</p>
  261 
  262 </dd>
  263 <dt id="m"><b>m</b></dt>
  264 <dd>
  265 
  266 <p>Print number of Mac line breaks.</p>
  267 
  268 </dd>
  269 <dt id="b"><b>b</b></dt>
  270 <dd>
  271 
  272 <p>Print the byte order mark.</p>
  273 
  274 </dd>
  275 <dt id="t"><b>t</b></dt>
  276 <dd>
  277 
  278 <p>Print if file is text or binary.</p>
  279 
  280 </dd>
  281 <dt id="c"><b>c</b></dt>
  282 <dd>
  283 
  284 <p>Print only the files that would be converted.</p>
  285 
  286 <p>With the <code>c</code> flag dos2unix will print only the files that contain DOS line breaks, unix2dos will print only file names that have Unix line breaks.</p>
  287 
  288 </dd>
  289 <dt id="h"><b>h</b></dt>
  290 <dd>
  291 
  292 <p>Print a header.</p>
  293 
  294 </dd>
  295 <dt id="p"><b>p</b></dt>
  296 <dd>
  297 
  298 <p>Show file names without path.</p>
  299 
  300 </dd>
  301 </dl>
  302 
  303 <p>Examples:</p>
  304 
  305 <p>Show information for all *.txt files:</p>
  306 
  307 <pre><code>    dos2unix -i *.txt</code></pre>
  308 
  309 <p>Show only the number of DOS line breaks and Unix line breaks:</p>
  310 
  311 <pre><code>    dos2unix -idu *.txt</code></pre>
  312 
  313 <p>Show only the byte order mark:</p>
  314 
  315 <pre><code>    dos2unix --info=b *.txt</code></pre>
  316 
  317 <p>List the files that have DOS line breaks:</p>
  318 
  319 <pre><code>    dos2unix -ic *.txt</code></pre>
  320 
  321 <p>List the files that have Unix line breaks:</p>
  322 
  323 <pre><code>    unix2dos -ic *.txt</code></pre>
  324 
  325 <p>Convert only files that have DOS line breaks and leave the other files untouched:</p>
  326 
  327 <pre><code>    dos2unix -ic0 *.txt | xargs -0 dos2unix</code></pre>
  328 
  329 <p>Find text files that have DOS line breaks:</p>
  330 
  331 <pre><code>    find -name &#39;*.txt&#39; -print0 | xargs -0 dos2unix -ic</code></pre>
  332 
  333 </dd>
  334 <dt id="k---keepdate"><b>-k, --keepdate</b></dt>
  335 <dd>
  336 
  337 <p>Keep the date stamp of output file same as input file.</p>
  338 
  339 </dd>
  340 <dt id="L---license"><b>-L, --license</b></dt>
  341 <dd>
  342 
  343 <p>Display program&#39;s license.</p>
  344 
  345 </dd>
  346 <dt id="l---newline"><b>-l, --newline</b></dt>
  347 <dd>
  348 
  349 <p>Add additional newline.</p>
  350 
  351 <p><b>dos2unix</b>: Only DOS line breaks are changed to two Unix line breaks. In Mac mode only Mac line breaks are changed to two Unix line breaks.</p>
  352 
  353 <p><b>unix2dos</b>: Only Unix line breaks are changed to two DOS line breaks. In Mac mode Unix line breaks are changed to two Mac line breaks.</p>
  354 
  355 </dd>
  356 <dt id="m---add-bom"><b>-m, --add-bom</b></dt>
  357 <dd>
  358 
  359 <p>Write a Byte Order Mark (BOM) in the output file. By default an UTF-8 BOM is written.</p>
  360 
  361 <p>When the input file is UTF-16, and the option <code>-u</code> is used, an UTF-16 BOM will be written.</p>
  362 
  363 <p>Never use this option when the output encoding is other than UTF-8, UTF-16, or GB18030. See also section UNICODE.</p>
  364 
  365 </dd>
  366 <dt id="n---newfile-INFILE-OUTFILE"><b>-n, --newfile INFILE OUTFILE ...</b></dt>
  367 <dd>
  368 
  369 <p>New file mode. Convert file INFILE and write output to file OUTFILE. File names must be given in pairs and wildcard names should <i>not</i> be used or you <i>will</i> lose your files.</p>
  370 
  371 <p>The person who starts the conversion in new file (paired) mode will be the owner of the converted file. The read/write permissions of the new file will be the permissions of the original file minus the umask(1) of the person who runs the conversion.</p>
  372 
  373 </dd>
  374 <dt id="no-allow-chown"><b>--no-allow-chown</b></dt>
  375 <dd>
  376 
  377 <p>Don&#39;t allow file ownership change in old file mode (default).</p>
  378 
  379 <p>Abort conversion when the user and/or group ownership of the original file can&#39;t be preserved in old file mode. See also options <code>-o</code> and <code>-n</code>. This option is only available if dos2unix has support for preserving the user and group ownership of files.</p>
  380 
  381 </dd>
  382 <dt id="o---oldfile-FILE"><b>-o, --oldfile FILE ...</b></dt>
  383 <dd>
  384 
  385 <p>Old file mode. Convert file FILE and overwrite output to it. The program defaults to run in this mode. Wildcard names may be used.</p>
  386 
  387 <p>In old file (in-place) mode the converted file gets the same owner, group, and read/write permissions as the original file. Also when the file is converted by another user who has write permissions on the file (e.g. user root). The conversion will be aborted when it is not possible to preserve the original values. Change of owner could mean that the original owner is not able to read the file any more. Change of group could be a security risk, the file could be made readable for persons for whom it is not intended. Preservation of owner, group, and read/write permissions is only supported on Unix.</p>
  388 
  389 <p>To check if dos2unix has support for preserving the user and group ownership of files type <code>dos2unix -V</code>.</p>
  390 
  391 <p>Conversion is always done via a temporary file. When an error occurs halfway the conversion, the temporary file is deleted and the original file stays intact. When the conversion is successful, the original file is replaced with the temporary file. You may have write permission on the original file, but no permission to put the same user and/or group ownership properties on the temporary file as the original file has. This means you are not able to preserve the user and/or group ownership of the original file. In this case you can use option <code>--allow-chown</code> to continue with the conversion:</p>
  392 
  393 <pre><code>    dos2unix --allow-chown foo.txt</code></pre>
  394 
  395 <p>Another option is to use new file mode:</p>
  396 
  397 <pre><code>    dos2unix -n foo.txt foo.txt</code></pre>
  398 
  399 <p>The advantage of the <code>--allow-chown</code> option is that you can use wildcards, and the ownership properties will be preserved when possible.</p>
  400 
  401 </dd>
  402 <dt id="q---quiet"><b>-q, --quiet</b></dt>
  403 <dd>
  404 
  405 <p>Quiet mode. Suppress all warnings and messages. The return value is zero. Except when wrong command-line options are used.</p>
  406 
  407 </dd>
  408 <dt id="r---remove-bom"><b>-r, --remove-bom</b></dt>
  409 <dd>
  410 
  411 <p>Remove Byte Order Mark (BOM). Do not write a BOM in the output file. This is the default behavior when converting to Unix line breaks. See also option <code>-b</code>.</p>
  412 
  413 </dd>
  414 <dt id="s---safe"><b>-s, --safe</b></dt>
  415 <dd>
  416 
  417 <p>Skip binary files (default).</p>
  418 
  419 <p>The skipping of binary files is done to avoid accidental mistakes. Be aware that the detection of binary files is not 100% foolproof. Input files are scanned for binary symbols which are typically not found in text files. It is possible that a binary file contains only normal text characters. Such a binary file will mistakenly be seen as a text file.</p>
  420 
  421 </dd>
  422 <dt id="u---keep-utf16"><b>-u, --keep-utf16</b></dt>
  423 <dd>
  424 
  425 <p>Keep the original UTF-16 encoding of the input file. The output file will be written in the same UTF-16 encoding, little or big endian, as the input file. This prevents transformation to UTF-8. An UTF-16 BOM will be written accordingly. This option can be disabled with the <code>-ascii</code> option.</p>
  426 
  427 </dd>
  428 <dt id="ul---assume-utf16le"><b>-ul, --assume-utf16le</b></dt>
  429 <dd>
  430 
  431 <p>Assume that the input file format is UTF-16LE.</p>
  432 
  433 <p>When there is a Byte Order Mark in the input file the BOM has priority over this option.</p>
  434 
  435 <p>When you made a wrong assumption (the input file was not in UTF-16LE format) and the conversion succeeded, you will get an UTF-8 output file with wrong text. You can undo the wrong conversion with iconv(1) by converting the UTF-8 output file back to UTF-16LE. This will bring back the original file.</p>
  436 
  437 <p>The assumption of UTF-16LE works as a <i>conversion mode</i>. By switching to the default <i>ascii</i> mode the UTF-16LE assumption is turned off.</p>
  438 
  439 </dd>
  440 <dt id="ub---assume-utf16be"><b>-ub, --assume-utf16be</b></dt>
  441 <dd>
  442 
  443 <p>Assume that the input file format is UTF-16BE.</p>
  444 
  445 <p>This option works the same as option <code>-ul</code>.</p>
  446 
  447 </dd>
  448 <dt id="v---verbose"><b>-v, --verbose</b></dt>
  449 <dd>
  450 
  451 <p>Display verbose messages. Extra information is displayed about Byte Order Marks and the amount of converted line breaks.</p>
  452 
  453 </dd>
  454 <dt id="F---follow-symlink"><b>-F, --follow-symlink</b></dt>
  455 <dd>
  456 
  457 <p>Follow symbolic links and convert the targets.</p>
  458 
  459 </dd>
  460 <dt id="R---replace-symlink"><b>-R, --replace-symlink</b></dt>
  461 <dd>
  462 
  463 <p>Replace symbolic links with converted files (original target files remain unchanged).</p>
  464 
  465 </dd>
  466 <dt id="S---skip-symlink"><b>-S, --skip-symlink</b></dt>
  467 <dd>
  468 
  469 <p>Keep symbolic links and targets unchanged (default).</p>
  470 
  471 </dd>
  472 <dt id="V---version"><b>-V, --version</b></dt>
  473 <dd>
  474 
  475 <p>Display version information and exit.</p>
  476 
  477 </dd>
  478 </dl>
  479 
  480 <h1 id="MAC-MODE">MAC MODE</h1>
  481 
  482 <p>In normal mode line breaks are converted from DOS to Unix and vice versa. Mac line breaks are not converted.</p>
  483 
  484 <p>In Mac mode line breaks are converted from Mac to Unix and vice versa. DOS line breaks are not changed.</p>
  485 
  486 <p>To run in Mac mode use the command-line option <code>-c mac</code> or use the commands <code>mac2unix</code> or <code>unix2mac</code>.</p>
  487 
  488 <h1 id="CONVERSION-MODES">CONVERSION MODES</h1>
  489 
  490 <dl>
  491 
  492 <dt id="ascii1"><b>ascii</b></dt>
  493 <dd>
  494 
  495 <p>In mode <code>ascii</code> only line breaks are converted. This is the default conversion mode.</p>
  496 
  497 <p>Although the name of this mode is ASCII, which is a 7 bit standard, the actual mode is 8 bit. Use always this mode when converting Unicode UTF-8 files.</p>
  498 
  499 </dd>
  500 <dt id="bit"><b>7bit</b></dt>
  501 <dd>
  502 
  503 <p>In this mode all 8 bit non-ASCII characters (with values from 128 to 255) are converted to a 7 bit space.</p>
  504 
  505 </dd>
  506 <dt id="iso1"><b>iso</b></dt>
  507 <dd>
  508 
  509 <p>Characters are converted between a DOS character set (code page) and ISO character set ISO-8859-1 (Latin-1) on Unix. DOS characters without ISO-8859-1 equivalent, for which conversion is not possible, are converted to a dot. The same counts for ISO-8859-1 characters without DOS counterpart.</p>
  510 
  511 <p>When only option <code>-iso</code> is used dos2unix will try to determine the active code page. When this is not possible dos2unix will use default code page CP437, which is mainly used in the USA. To force a specific code page use options <code>-437</code> (US), <code>-850</code> (Western European), <code>-860</code> (Portuguese), <code>-863</code> (French Canadian), or <code>-865</code> (Nordic). Windows code page CP1252 (Western European) is also supported with option <code>-1252</code>. For other code pages use dos2unix in combination with iconv(1). Iconv can convert between a long list of character encodings.</p>
  512 
  513 <p>Never use ISO conversion on Unicode text files. It will corrupt UTF-8 encoded files.</p>
  514 
  515 <p>Some examples:</p>
  516 
  517 <p>Convert from DOS default code page to Unix Latin-1:</p>
  518 
  519 <pre><code>    dos2unix -iso -n in.txt out.txt</code></pre>
  520 
  521 <p>Convert from DOS CP850 to Unix Latin-1:</p>
  522 
  523 <pre><code>    dos2unix -850 -n in.txt out.txt</code></pre>
  524 
  525 <p>Convert from Windows CP1252 to Unix Latin-1:</p>
  526 
  527 <pre><code>    dos2unix -1252 -n in.txt out.txt</code></pre>
  528 
  529 <p>Convert from Windows CP1252 to Unix UTF-8 (Unicode):</p>
  530 
  531 <pre><code>    iconv -f CP1252 -t UTF-8 in.txt | dos2unix &gt; out.txt</code></pre>
  532 
  533 <p>Convert from Unix Latin-1 to DOS default code page:</p>
  534 
  535 <pre><code>    unix2dos -iso -n in.txt out.txt</code></pre>
  536 
  537 <p>Convert from Unix Latin-1 to DOS CP850:</p>
  538 
  539 <pre><code>    unix2dos -850 -n in.txt out.txt</code></pre>
  540 
  541 <p>Convert from Unix Latin-1 to Windows CP1252:</p>
  542 
  543 <pre><code>    unix2dos -1252 -n in.txt out.txt</code></pre>
  544 
  545 <p>Convert from Unix UTF-8 (Unicode) to Windows CP1252:</p>
  546 
  547 <pre><code>    unix2dos &lt; in.txt | iconv -f UTF-8 -t CP1252 &gt; out.txt</code></pre>
  548 
  549 <p>See also <a href="http://czyborra.com/charsets/codepages.html">http://czyborra.com/charsets/codepages.html</a> and <a href="http://czyborra.com/charsets/iso8859.html">http://czyborra.com/charsets/iso8859.html</a>.</p>
  550 
  551 </dd>
  552 </dl>
  553 
  554 <h1 id="UNICODE">UNICODE</h1>
  555 
  556 <h2 id="Encodings">Encodings</h2>
  557 
  558 <p>There exist different Unicode encodings. On Unix and Linux Unicode files are typically encoded in UTF-8 encoding. On Windows Unicode text files can be encoded in UTF-8, UTF-16, or UTF-16 big endian, but are mostly encoded in UTF-16 format.</p>
  559 
  560 <h2 id="Conversion">Conversion</h2>
  561 
  562 <p>Unicode text files can have DOS, Unix or Mac line breaks, like regular text files.</p>
  563 
  564 <p>All versions of dos2unix and unix2dos can convert UTF-8 encoded files, because UTF-8 was designed for backward compatibility with ASCII.</p>
  565 
  566 <p>Dos2unix and unix2dos with Unicode UTF-16 support, can read little and big endian UTF-16 encoded text files. To see if dos2unix was built with UTF-16 support type <code>dos2unix -V</code>.</p>
  567 
  568 <p>On Unix/Linux UTF-16 encoded files are converted to the locale character encoding. Use the locale(1) command to find out what the locale character encoding is. When conversion is not possible a conversion error will occur and the file will be skipped.</p>
  569 
  570 <p>On Windows UTF-16 files are by default converted to UTF-8. UTF-8 formatted text files are well supported on both Windows and Unix/Linux.</p>
  571 
  572 <p>UTF-16 and UTF-8 encoding are fully compatible, there will no text be lost in the conversion. When an UTF-16 to UTF-8 conversion error occurs, for instance when the UTF-16 input file contains an error, the file will be skipped.</p>
  573 
  574 <p>When option <code>-u</code> is used, the output file will be written in the same UTF-16 encoding as the input file. Option <code>-u</code> prevents conversion to UTF-8.</p>
  575 
  576 <p>Dos2unix and unix2dos have no option to convert UTF-8 files to UTF-16.</p>
  577 
  578 <p>ISO and 7-bit mode conversion do not work on UTF-16 files.</p>
  579 
  580 <h2 id="Byte-Order-Mark">Byte Order Mark</h2>
  581 
  582 <p>On Windows Unicode text files typically have a Byte Order Mark (BOM), because many Windows programs (including Notepad) add BOMs by default. See also <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byte_order_mark">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byte_order_mark</a>.</p>
  583 
  584 <p>On Unix Unicode files typically don&#39;t have a BOM. It is assumed that text files are encoded in the locale character encoding.</p>
  585 
  586 <p>Dos2unix can only detect if a file is in UTF-16 format if the file has a BOM. When an UTF-16 file doesn&#39;t have a BOM, dos2unix will see the file as a binary file.</p>
  587 
  588 <p>Use option <code>-ul</code> or <code>-ub</code> to convert an UTF-16 file without BOM.</p>
  589 
  590 <p>Dos2unix writes by default no BOM in the output file. With option <code>-b</code> Dos2unix writes a BOM when the input file has a BOM.</p>
  591 
  592 <p>Unix2dos writes by default a BOM in the output file when the input file has a BOM. Use option <code>-r</code> to remove the BOM.</p>
  593 
  594 <p>Dos2unix and unix2dos write always a BOM when option <code>-m</code> is used.</p>
  595 
  596 <h2 id="Unicode-file-names-on-Windows">Unicode file names on Windows</h2>
  597 
  598 <p>Dos2unix has optional support for reading and writing Unicode file names in the Windows Command Prompt. That means that dos2unix can open files that have characters in the name that are not part of the default system ANSI code page. To see if dos2unix for Windows was built with Unicode file name support type <code>dos2unix -V</code>.</p>
  599 
  600 <p>There are some issues with displaying Unicode file names in a Windows console. See option <code>-D</code>, <code>--display-enc</code>. The file names may be displayed wrongly in the console, but the files will be written with the correct name.</p>
  601 
  602 <h2 id="Unicode-examples">Unicode examples</h2>
  603 
  604 <p>Convert from Windows UTF-16 (with BOM) to Unix UTF-8:</p>
  605 
  606 <pre><code>    dos2unix -n in.txt out.txt</code></pre>
  607 
  608 <p>Convert from Windows UTF-16LE (without BOM) to Unix UTF-8:</p>
  609 
  610 <pre><code>    dos2unix -ul -n in.txt out.txt</code></pre>
  611 
  612 <p>Convert from Unix UTF-8 to Windows UTF-8 with BOM:</p>
  613 
  614 <pre><code>    unix2dos -m -n in.txt out.txt</code></pre>
  615 
  616 <p>Convert from Unix UTF-8 to Windows UTF-16:</p>
  617 
  618 <pre><code>    unix2dos &lt; in.txt | iconv -f UTF-8 -t UTF-16 &gt; out.txt</code></pre>
  619 
  620 <h1 id="GB18030">GB18030</h1>
  621 
  622 <p>GB18030 is a Chinese government standard. A mandatory subset of the GB18030 standard is officially required for all software products sold in China. See also <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GB_18030">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/GB_18030</a>.</p>
  623 
  624 <p>GB18030 is fully compatible with Unicode, and can be considered an unicode transformation format. Like UTF-8, GB18030 is compatible with ASCII. GB18030 is also compatible with Windows code page 936, also known as GBK.</p>
  625 
  626 <p>On Unix/Linux UTF-16 files are converted to GB18030 when the locale encoding is set to GB18030. Note that this will only work if the locale is supported by the system. Use command <code>locale -a</code> to get the list of supported locales.</p>
  627 
  628 <p>On Windows you need to use option <code>-gb</code> to convert UTF-16 files to GB18030.</p>
  629 
  630 <p>GB18030 encoded files can have a Byte Order Mark, like Unicode files.</p>
  631 
  632 <h1 id="EXAMPLES">EXAMPLES</h1>
  633 
  634 <p>Read input from &#39;stdin&#39; and write output to &#39;stdout&#39;:</p>
  635 
  636 <pre><code>    dos2unix &lt; a.txt
  637     cat a.txt | dos2unix</code></pre>
  638 
  639 <p>Convert and replace a.txt. Convert and replace b.txt:</p>
  640 
  641 <pre><code>    dos2unix a.txt b.txt
  642     dos2unix -o a.txt b.txt</code></pre>
  643 
  644 <p>Convert and replace a.txt in ascii conversion mode:</p>
  645 
  646 <pre><code>    dos2unix a.txt</code></pre>
  647 
  648 <p>Convert and replace a.txt in ascii conversion mode, convert and replace b.txt in 7bit conversion mode:</p>
  649 
  650 <pre><code>    dos2unix a.txt -c 7bit b.txt
  651     dos2unix -c ascii a.txt -c 7bit b.txt
  652     dos2unix -ascii a.txt -7 b.txt</code></pre>
  653 
  654 <p>Convert a.txt from Mac to Unix format:</p>
  655 
  656 <pre><code>    dos2unix -c mac a.txt
  657     mac2unix a.txt</code></pre>
  658 
  659 <p>Convert a.txt from Unix to Mac format:</p>
  660 
  661 <pre><code>    unix2dos -c mac a.txt
  662     unix2mac a.txt</code></pre>
  663 
  664 <p>Convert and replace a.txt while keeping original date stamp:</p>
  665 
  666 <pre><code>    dos2unix -k a.txt
  667     dos2unix -k -o a.txt</code></pre>
  668 
  669 <p>Convert a.txt and write to e.txt:</p>
  670 
  671 <pre><code>    dos2unix -n a.txt e.txt</code></pre>
  672 
  673 <p>Convert a.txt and write to e.txt, keep date stamp of e.txt same as a.txt:</p>
  674 
  675 <pre><code>    dos2unix -k -n a.txt e.txt</code></pre>
  676 
  677 <p>Convert and replace a.txt, convert b.txt and write to e.txt:</p>
  678 
  679 <pre><code>    dos2unix a.txt -n b.txt e.txt
  680     dos2unix -o a.txt -n b.txt e.txt</code></pre>
  681 
  682 <p>Convert c.txt and write to e.txt, convert and replace a.txt, convert and replace b.txt, convert d.txt and write to f.txt:</p>
  683 
  684 <pre><code>    dos2unix -n c.txt e.txt -o a.txt b.txt -n d.txt f.txt</code></pre>
  685 
  686 <h1 id="RECURSIVE-CONVERSION">RECURSIVE CONVERSION</h1>
  687 
  688 <p>In a Unix shell the find(1) and xargs(1) commands can be used to run dos2unix recursively over all text files in a directory tree. For instance to convert all .txt files in the directory tree under the current directory type:</p>
  689 
  690 <pre><code>    find . -name &#39;*.txt&#39; -print0 |xargs -0 dos2unix</code></pre>
  691 
  692 <p>The find(1) option <code>-print0</code> and corresponding xargs(1) option <code>-0</code> are needed when there are files with spaces or quotes in the name. Otherwise these options can be omitted. Another option is to use find(1) with the <code>-exec</code> option:</p>
  693 
  694 <pre><code>    find . -name &#39;*.txt&#39; -exec dos2unix {} \;</code></pre>
  695 
  696 <p>In a Windows Command Prompt the following command can be used:</p>
  697 
  698 <pre><code>    for /R %G in (*.txt) do dos2unix &quot;%G&quot;</code></pre>
  699 
  700 <p>PowerShell users can use the following command in Windows PowerShell:</p>
  701 
  702 <pre><code>    get-childitem -path . -filter &#39;*.txt&#39; -recurse | foreach-object {dos2unix $_.Fullname}</code></pre>
  703 
  704 <h1 id="LOCALIZATION">LOCALIZATION</h1>
  705 
  706 <dl>
  707 
  708 <dt id="LANG"><b>LANG</b></dt>
  709 <dd>
  710 
  711 <p>The primary language is selected with the environment variable LANG. The LANG variable consists out of several parts. The first part is in small letters the language code. The second is optional and is the country code in capital letters, preceded with an underscore. There is also an optional third part: character encoding, preceded with a dot. A few examples for POSIX standard type shells:</p>
  712 
  713 <pre><code>    export LANG=nl               Dutch
  714     export LANG=nl_NL            Dutch, The Netherlands
  715     export LANG=nl_BE            Dutch, Belgium
  716     export LANG=es_ES            Spanish, Spain
  717     export LANG=es_MX            Spanish, Mexico
  718     export LANG=en_US.iso88591   English, USA, Latin-1 encoding
  719     export LANG=en_GB.UTF-8      English, UK, UTF-8 encoding</code></pre>
  720 
  721 <p>For a complete list of language and country codes see the gettext manual: <a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/manual/html_node/Usual-Language-Codes.html">http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/manual/html_node/Usual-Language-Codes.html</a></p>
  722 
  723 <p>On Unix systems you can use the command locale(1) to get locale specific information.</p>
  724 
  725 </dd>
  726 <dt id="LANGUAGE"><b>LANGUAGE</b></dt>
  727 <dd>
  728 
  729 <p>With the LANGUAGE environment variable you can specify a priority list of languages, separated by colons. Dos2unix gives preference to LANGUAGE over LANG. For instance, first Dutch and then German: <code>LANGUAGE=nl:de</code>. You have to first enable localization, by setting LANG (or LC_ALL) to a value other than &quot;C&quot;, before you can use a language priority list through the LANGUAGE variable. See also the gettext manual: <a href="http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/manual/html_node/The-LANGUAGE-variable.html">http://www.gnu.org/software/gettext/manual/html_node/The-LANGUAGE-variable.html</a></p>
  730 
  731 <p>If you select a language which is not available you will get the standard English messages.</p>
  732 
  733 </dd>
  734 <dt id="DOS2UNIX_LOCALEDIR"><b>DOS2UNIX_LOCALEDIR</b></dt>
  735 <dd>
  736 
  737 <p>With the environment variable DOS2UNIX_LOCALEDIR the LOCALEDIR set during compilation can be overruled. LOCALEDIR is used to find the language files. The GNU default value is <code>/usr/local/share/locale</code>. Option <b>--version</b> will display the LOCALEDIR that is used.</p>
  738 
  739 <p>Example (POSIX shell):</p>
  740 
  741 <pre><code>    export DOS2UNIX_LOCALEDIR=$HOME/share/locale</code></pre>
  742 
  743 </dd>
  744 </dl>
  745 
  746 <h1 id="RETURN-VALUE">RETURN VALUE</h1>
  747 
  748 <p>On success, zero is returned. When a system error occurs the last system error will be returned. For other errors 1 is returned.</p>
  749 
  750 <p>The return value is always zero in quiet mode, except when wrong command-line options are used.</p>
  751 
  752 <h1 id="STANDARDS">STANDARDS</h1>
  753 
  754 <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Text_file">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Text_file</a></p>
  755 
  756 <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carriage_return">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carriage_return</a></p>
  757 
  758 <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newline">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newline</a></p>
  759 
  760 <p><a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unicode">http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unicode</a></p>
  761 
  762 <h1 id="AUTHORS">AUTHORS</h1>
  763 
  764 <p>Benjamin Lin - &lt;blin@socs.uts.edu.au&gt;, Bernd Johannes Wuebben (mac2unix mode) - &lt;wuebben@kde.org&gt;, Christian Wurll (add extra newline) - &lt;wurll@ira.uka.de&gt;, Erwin Waterlander - &lt;waterlan@xs4all.nl&gt; (maintainer)</p>
  765 
  766 <p>Project page: <a href="http://waterlan.home.xs4all.nl/dos2unix.html">http://waterlan.home.xs4all.nl/dos2unix.html</a></p>
  767 
  768 <p>SourceForge page: <a href="http://sourceforge.net/projects/dos2unix/">http://sourceforge.net/projects/dos2unix/</a></p>
  769 
  770 <h1 id="SEE-ALSO">SEE ALSO</h1>
  771 
  772 <p>file(1) find(1) iconv(1) locale(1) xargs(1)</p>
  773 
  774 
  775 </body>
  776 
  777 </html>
  778 
  779