"""
Objects for dealing with Laguerre series.
This module provides a number of objects (mostly functions) useful for
dealing with Laguerre series, including a `Laguerre` class that
encapsulates the usual arithmetic operations. (General information
on how this module represents and works with such polynomials is in the
docstring for its "parent" sub-package, `numpy.polynomial`).
Constants
---------
- `lagdomain` -- Laguerre series default domain, [-1,1].
- `lagzero` -- Laguerre series that evaluates identically to 0.
- `lagone` -- Laguerre series that evaluates identically to 1.
- `lagx` -- Laguerre series for the identity map, ``f(x) = x``.
Arithmetic
----------
- `lagmulx` -- multiply a Laguerre series in ``P_i(x)`` by ``x``.
- `lagadd` -- add two Laguerre series.
- `lagsub` -- subtract one Laguerre series from another.
- `lagmul` -- multiply two Laguerre series.
- `lagdiv` -- divide one Laguerre series by another.
- `lagval` -- evaluate a Laguerre series at given points.
- `lagval2d` -- evaluate a 2D Laguerre series at given points.
- `lagval3d` -- evaluate a 3D Laguerre series at given points.
- `laggrid2d` -- evaluate a 2D Laguerre series on a Cartesian product.
- `laggrid3d` -- evaluate a 3D Laguerre series on a Cartesian product.
Calculus
--------
- `lagder` -- differentiate a Laguerre series.
- `lagint` -- integrate a Laguerre series.
Misc Functions
--------------
- `lagfromroots` -- create a Laguerre series with specified roots.
- `lagroots` -- find the roots of a Laguerre series.
- `lagvander` -- Vandermonde-like matrix for Laguerre polynomials.
- `lagvander2d` -- Vandermonde-like matrix for 2D power series.
- `lagvander3d` -- Vandermonde-like matrix for 3D power series.
- `laggauss` -- Gauss-Laguerre quadrature, points and weights.
- `lagweight` -- Laguerre weight function.
- `lagcompanion` -- symmetrized companion matrix in Laguerre form.
- `lagfit` -- least-squares fit returning a Laguerre series.
- `lagtrim` -- trim leading coefficients from a Laguerre series.
- `lagline` -- Laguerre series of given straight line.
- `lag2poly` -- convert a Laguerre series to a polynomial.
- `poly2lag` -- convert a polynomial to a Laguerre series.
Classes
-------
- `Laguerre` -- A Laguerre series class.
See also
--------
`numpy.polynomial`
"""
from __future__ import division, absolute_import, print_function
import warnings
import numpy as np
import numpy.linalg as la
from . import polyutils as pu
from ._polybase import ABCPolyBase
__all__ = [
'lagzero', 'lagone', 'lagx', 'lagdomain', 'lagline', 'lagadd',
'lagsub', 'lagmulx', 'lagmul', 'lagdiv', 'lagpow', 'lagval', 'lagder',
'lagint', 'lag2poly', 'poly2lag', 'lagfromroots', 'lagvander',
'lagfit', 'lagtrim', 'lagroots', 'Laguerre', 'lagval2d', 'lagval3d',
'laggrid2d', 'laggrid3d', 'lagvander2d', 'lagvander3d', 'lagcompanion',
'laggauss', 'lagweight']
lagtrim = pu.trimcoef
def poly2lag(pol):
"""
poly2lag(pol)
Convert a polynomial to a Laguerre series.
Convert an array representing the coefficients of a polynomial (relative
to the "standard" basis) ordered from lowest degree to highest, to an
array of the coefficients of the equivalent Laguerre series, ordered
from lowest to highest degree.
Parameters
----------
pol : array_like
1-D array containing the polynomial coefficients
Returns
-------
c : ndarray
1-D array containing the coefficients of the equivalent Laguerre
series.
See Also
--------
lag2poly
Notes
-----
The easy way to do conversions between polynomial basis sets
is to use the convert method of a class instance.
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.polynomial.laguerre import poly2lag
>>> poly2lag(np.arange(4))
array([ 23., -63., 58., -18.])
"""
[pol] = pu.as_series([pol])
deg = len(pol) - 1
res = 0
for i in range(deg, -1, -1):
res = lagadd(lagmulx(res), pol[i])
return res
def lag2poly(c):
"""
Convert a Laguerre series to a polynomial.
Convert an array representing the coefficients of a Laguerre series,
ordered from lowest degree to highest, to an array of the coefficients
of the equivalent polynomial (relative to the "standard" basis) ordered
from lowest to highest degree.
Parameters
----------
c : array_like
1-D array containing the Laguerre series coefficients, ordered
from lowest order term to highest.
Returns
-------
pol : ndarray
1-D array containing the coefficients of the equivalent polynomial
(relative to the "standard" basis) ordered from lowest order term
to highest.
See Also
--------
poly2lag
Notes
-----
The easy way to do conversions between polynomial basis sets
is to use the convert method of a class instance.
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.polynomial.laguerre import lag2poly
>>> lag2poly([ 23., -63., 58., -18.])
array([ 0., 1., 2., 3.])
"""
from .polynomial import polyadd, polysub, polymulx
[c] = pu.as_series([c])
n = len(c)
if n == 1:
return c
else:
c0 = c[-2]
c1 = c[-1]
# i is the current degree of c1
for i in range(n - 1, 1, -1):
tmp = c0
c0 = polysub(c[i - 2], (c1*(i - 1))/i)
c1 = polyadd(tmp, polysub((2*i - 1)*c1, polymulx(c1))/i)
return polyadd(c0, polysub(c1, polymulx(c1)))
#
# These are constant arrays are of integer type so as to be compatible
# with the widest range of other types, such as Decimal.
#
# Laguerre
lagdomain = np.array([0, 1])
# Laguerre coefficients representing zero.
lagzero = np.array([0])
# Laguerre coefficients representing one.
lagone = np.array([1])
# Laguerre coefficients representing the identity x.
lagx = np.array([1, -1])
def lagline(off, scl):
"""
Laguerre series whose graph is a straight line.
Parameters
----------
off, scl : scalars
The specified line is given by ``off + scl*x``.
Returns
-------
y : ndarray
This module's representation of the Laguerre series for
``off + scl*x``.
See Also
--------
polyline, chebline
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.polynomial.laguerre import lagline, lagval
>>> lagval(0,lagline(3, 2))
3.0
>>> lagval(1,lagline(3, 2))
5.0
"""
if scl != 0:
return np.array([off + scl, -scl])
else:
return np.array([off])
def lagfromroots(roots):
"""
Generate a Laguerre series with given roots.
The function returns the coefficients of the polynomial
.. math:: p(x) = (x - r_0) * (x - r_1) * ... * (x - r_n),
in Laguerre form, where the `r_n` are the roots specified in `roots`.
If a zero has multiplicity n, then it must appear in `roots` n times.
For instance, if 2 is a root of multiplicity three and 3 is a root of
multiplicity 2, then `roots` looks something like [2, 2, 2, 3, 3]. The
roots can appear in any order.
If the returned coefficients are `c`, then
.. math:: p(x) = c_0 + c_1 * L_1(x) + ... + c_n * L_n(x)
The coefficient of the last term is not generally 1 for monic
polynomials in Laguerre form.
Parameters
----------
roots : array_like
Sequence containing the roots.
Returns
-------
out : ndarray
1-D array of coefficients. If all roots are real then `out` is a
real array, if some of the roots are complex, then `out` is complex
even if all the coefficients in the result are real (see Examples
below).
See Also
--------
polyfromroots, legfromroots, chebfromroots, hermfromroots,
hermefromroots.
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.polynomial.laguerre import lagfromroots, lagval
>>> coef = lagfromroots((-1, 0, 1))
>>> lagval((-1, 0, 1), coef)
array([ 0., 0., 0.])
>>> coef = lagfromroots((-1j, 1j))
>>> lagval((-1j, 1j), coef)
array([ 0.+0.j, 0.+0.j])
"""
if len(roots) == 0:
return np.ones(1)
else:
[roots] = pu.as_series([roots], trim=False)
roots.sort()
p = [lagline(-r, 1) for r in roots]
n = len(p)
while n > 1:
m, r = divmod(n, 2)
tmp = [lagmul(p[i], p[i+m]) for i in range(m)]
if r:
tmp[0] = lagmul(tmp[0], p[-1])
p = tmp
n = m
return p[0]
def lagadd(c1, c2):
"""
Add one Laguerre series to another.
Returns the sum of two Laguerre series `c1` + `c2`. The arguments
are sequences of coefficients ordered from lowest order term to
highest, i.e., [1,2,3] represents the series ``P_0 + 2*P_1 + 3*P_2``.
Parameters
----------
c1, c2 : array_like
1-D arrays of Laguerre series coefficients ordered from low to
high.
Returns
-------
out : ndarray
Array representing the Laguerre series of their sum.
See Also
--------
lagsub, lagmul, lagdiv, lagpow
Notes
-----
Unlike multiplication, division, etc., the sum of two Laguerre series
is a Laguerre series (without having to "reproject" the result onto
the basis set) so addition, just like that of "standard" polynomials,
is simply "component-wise."
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.polynomial.laguerre import lagadd
>>> lagadd([1, 2, 3], [1, 2, 3, 4])
array([ 2., 4., 6., 4.])
"""
# c1, c2 are trimmed copies
[c1, c2] = pu.as_series([c1, c2])
if len(c1) > len(c2):
c1[:c2.size] += c2
ret = c1
else:
c2[:c1.size] += c1
ret = c2
return pu.trimseq(ret)
def lagsub(c1, c2):
"""
Subtract one Laguerre series from another.
Returns the difference of two Laguerre series `c1` - `c2`. The
sequences of coefficients are from lowest order term to highest, i.e.,
[1,2,3] represents the series ``P_0 + 2*P_1 + 3*P_2``.
Parameters
----------
c1, c2 : array_like
1-D arrays of Laguerre series coefficients ordered from low to
high.
Returns
-------
out : ndarray
Of Laguerre series coefficients representing their difference.
See Also
--------
lagadd, lagmul, lagdiv, lagpow
Notes
-----
Unlike multiplication, division, etc., the difference of two Laguerre
series is a Laguerre series (without having to "reproject" the result
onto the basis set) so subtraction, just like that of "standard"
polynomials, is simply "component-wise."
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.polynomial.laguerre import lagsub
>>> lagsub([1, 2, 3, 4], [1, 2, 3])
array([ 0., 0., 0., 4.])
"""
# c1, c2 are trimmed copies
[c1, c2] = pu.as_series([c1, c2])
if len(c1) > len(c2):
c1[:c2.size] -= c2
ret = c1
else:
c2 = -c2
c2[:c1.size] += c1
ret = c2
return pu.trimseq(ret)
def lagmulx(c):
"""Multiply a Laguerre series by x.
Multiply the Laguerre series `c` by x, where x is the independent
variable.
Parameters
----------
c : array_like
1-D array of Laguerre series coefficients ordered from low to
high.
Returns
-------
out : ndarray
Array representing the result of the multiplication.
Notes
-----
The multiplication uses the recursion relationship for Laguerre
polynomials in the form
.. math::
xP_i(x) = (-(i + 1)*P_{i + 1}(x) + (2i + 1)P_{i}(x) - iP_{i - 1}(x))
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.polynomial.laguerre import lagmulx
>>> lagmulx([1, 2, 3])
array([ -1., -1., 11., -9.])
"""
# c is a trimmed copy
[c] = pu.as_series([c])
# The zero series needs special treatment
if len(c) == 1 and c[0] == 0:
return c
prd = np.empty(len(c) + 1, dtype=c.dtype)
prd[0] = c[0]
prd[1] = -c[0]
for i in range(1, len(c)):
prd[i + 1] = -c[i]*(i + 1)
prd[i] += c[i]*(2*i + 1)
prd[i - 1] -= c[i]*i
return prd
def lagmul(c1, c2):
"""
Multiply one Laguerre series by another.
Returns the product of two Laguerre series `c1` * `c2`. The arguments
are sequences of coefficients, from lowest order "term" to highest,
e.g., [1,2,3] represents the series ``P_0 + 2*P_1 + 3*P_2``.
Parameters
----------
c1, c2 : array_like
1-D arrays of Laguerre series coefficients ordered from low to
high.
Returns
-------
out : ndarray
Of Laguerre series coefficients representing their product.
See Also
--------
lagadd, lagsub, lagdiv, lagpow
Notes
-----
In general, the (polynomial) product of two C-series results in terms
that are not in the Laguerre polynomial basis set. Thus, to express
the product as a Laguerre series, it is necessary to "reproject" the
product onto said basis set, which may produce "unintuitive" (but
correct) results; see Examples section below.
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.polynomial.laguerre import lagmul
>>> lagmul([1, 2, 3], [0, 1, 2])
array([ 8., -13., 38., -51., 36.])
"""
# s1, s2 are trimmed copies
[c1, c2] = pu.as_series([c1, c2])
if len(c1) > len(c2):
c = c2
xs = c1
else:
c = c1
xs = c2
if len(c) == 1:
c0 = c[0]*xs
c1 = 0
elif len(c) == 2:
c0 = c[0]*xs
c1 = c[1]*xs
else:
nd = len(c)
c0 = c[-2]*xs
c1 = c[-1]*xs
for i in range(3, len(c) + 1):
tmp = c0
nd = nd - 1
c0 = lagsub(c[-i]*xs, (c1*(nd - 1))/nd)
c1 = lagadd(tmp, lagsub((2*nd - 1)*c1, lagmulx(c1))/nd)
return lagadd(c0, lagsub(c1, lagmulx(c1)))
def lagdiv(c1, c2):
"""
Divide one Laguerre series by another.
Returns the quotient-with-remainder of two Laguerre series
`c1` / `c2`. The arguments are sequences of coefficients from lowest
order "term" to highest, e.g., [1,2,3] represents the series
``P_0 + 2*P_1 + 3*P_2``.
Parameters
----------
c1, c2 : array_like
1-D arrays of Laguerre series coefficients ordered from low to
high.
Returns
-------
[quo, rem] : ndarrays
Of Laguerre series coefficients representing the quotient and
remainder.
See Also
--------
lagadd, lagsub, lagmul, lagpow
Notes
-----
In general, the (polynomial) division of one Laguerre series by another
results in quotient and remainder terms that are not in the Laguerre
polynomial basis set. Thus, to express these results as a Laguerre
series, it is necessary to "reproject" the results onto the Laguerre
basis set, which may produce "unintuitive" (but correct) results; see
Examples section below.
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.polynomial.laguerre import lagdiv
>>> lagdiv([ 8., -13., 38., -51., 36.], [0, 1, 2])
(array([ 1., 2., 3.]), array([ 0.]))
>>> lagdiv([ 9., -12., 38., -51., 36.], [0, 1, 2])
(array([ 1., 2., 3.]), array([ 1., 1.]))
"""
# c1, c2 are trimmed copies
[c1, c2] = pu.as_series([c1, c2])
if c2[-1] == 0:
raise ZeroDivisionError()
lc1 = len(c1)
lc2 = len(c2)
if lc1 < lc2:
return c1[:1]*0, c1
elif lc2 == 1:
return c1/c2[-1], c1[:1]*0
else:
quo = np.empty(lc1 - lc2 + 1, dtype=c1.dtype)
rem = c1
for i in range(lc1 - lc2, - 1, -1):
p = lagmul([0]*i + [1], c2)
q = rem[-1]/p[-1]
rem = rem[:-1] - q*p[:-1]
quo[i] = q
return quo, pu.trimseq(rem)
def lagpow(c, pow, maxpower=16):
"""Raise a Laguerre series to a power.
Returns the Laguerre series `c` raised to the power `pow`. The
argument `c` is a sequence of coefficients ordered from low to high.
i.e., [1,2,3] is the series ``P_0 + 2*P_1 + 3*P_2.``
Parameters
----------
c : array_like
1-D array of Laguerre series coefficients ordered from low to
high.
pow : integer
Power to which the series will be raised
maxpower : integer, optional
Maximum power allowed. This is mainly to limit growth of the series
to unmanageable size. Default is 16
Returns
-------
coef : ndarray
Laguerre series of power.
See Also
--------
lagadd, lagsub, lagmul, lagdiv
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.polynomial.laguerre import lagpow
>>> lagpow([1, 2, 3], 2)
array([ 14., -16., 56., -72., 54.])
"""
# c is a trimmed copy
[c] = pu.as_series([c])
power = int(pow)
if power != pow or power < 0:
raise ValueError("Power must be a non-negative integer.")
elif maxpower is not None and power > maxpower:
raise ValueError("Power is too large")
elif power == 0:
return np.array([1], dtype=c.dtype)
elif power == 1:
return c
else:
# This can be made more efficient by using powers of two
# in the usual way.
prd = c
for i in range(2, power + 1):
prd = lagmul(prd, c)
return prd
def lagder(c, m=1, scl=1, axis=0):
"""
Differentiate a Laguerre series.
Returns the Laguerre series coefficients `c` differentiated `m` times
along `axis`. At each iteration the result is multiplied by `scl` (the
scaling factor is for use in a linear change of variable). The argument
`c` is an array of coefficients from low to high degree along each
axis, e.g., [1,2,3] represents the series ``1*L_0 + 2*L_1 + 3*L_2``
while [[1,2],[1,2]] represents ``1*L_0(x)*L_0(y) + 1*L_1(x)*L_0(y) +
2*L_0(x)*L_1(y) + 2*L_1(x)*L_1(y)`` if axis=0 is ``x`` and axis=1 is
``y``.
Parameters
----------
c : array_like
Array of Laguerre series coefficients. If `c` is multidimensional
the different axis correspond to different variables with the
degree in each axis given by the corresponding index.
m : int, optional
Number of derivatives taken, must be non-negative. (Default: 1)
scl : scalar, optional
Each differentiation is multiplied by `scl`. The end result is
multiplication by ``scl**m``. This is for use in a linear change of
variable. (Default: 1)
axis : int, optional
Axis over which the derivative is taken. (Default: 0).
.. versionadded:: 1.7.0
Returns
-------
der : ndarray
Laguerre series of the derivative.
See Also
--------
lagint
Notes
-----
In general, the result of differentiating a Laguerre series does not
resemble the same operation on a power series. Thus the result of this
function may be "unintuitive," albeit correct; see Examples section
below.
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.polynomial.laguerre import lagder
>>> lagder([ 1., 1., 1., -3.])
array([ 1., 2., 3.])
>>> lagder([ 1., 0., 0., -4., 3.], m=2)
array([ 1., 2., 3.])
"""
c = np.array(c, ndmin=1, copy=1)
if c.dtype.char in '?bBhHiIlLqQpP':
c = c.astype(np.double)
cnt, iaxis = [int(t) for t in [m, axis]]
if cnt != m:
raise ValueError("The order of derivation must be integer")
if cnt < 0:
raise ValueError("The order of derivation must be non-negative")
if iaxis != axis:
raise ValueError("The axis must be integer")
if not -c.ndim <= iaxis < c.ndim:
raise ValueError("The axis is out of range")
if iaxis < 0:
iaxis += c.ndim
if cnt == 0:
return c
c = np.rollaxis(c, iaxis)
n = len(c)
if cnt >= n:
c = c[:1]*0
else:
for i in range(cnt):
n = n - 1
c *= scl
der = np.empty((n,) + c.shape[1:], dtype=c.dtype)
for j in range(n, 1, -1):
der[j - 1] = -c[j]
c[j - 1] += c[j]
der[0] = -c[1]
c = der
c = np.rollaxis(c, 0, iaxis + 1)
return c
def lagint(c, m=1, k=[], lbnd=0, scl=1, axis=0):
"""
Integrate a Laguerre series.
Returns the Laguerre series coefficients `c` integrated `m` times from
`lbnd` along `axis`. At each iteration the resulting series is
**multiplied** by `scl` and an integration constant, `k`, is added.
The scaling factor is for use in a linear change of variable. ("Buyer
beware": note that, depending on what one is doing, one may want `scl`
to be the reciprocal of what one might expect; for more information,
see the Notes section below.) The argument `c` is an array of
coefficients from low to high degree along each axis, e.g., [1,2,3]
represents the series ``L_0 + 2*L_1 + 3*L_2`` while [[1,2],[1,2]]
represents ``1*L_0(x)*L_0(y) + 1*L_1(x)*L_0(y) + 2*L_0(x)*L_1(y) +
2*L_1(x)*L_1(y)`` if axis=0 is ``x`` and axis=1 is ``y``.
Parameters
----------
c : array_like
Array of Laguerre series coefficients. If `c` is multidimensional
the different axis correspond to different variables with the
degree in each axis given by the corresponding index.
m : int, optional
Order of integration, must be positive. (Default: 1)
k : {[], list, scalar}, optional
Integration constant(s). The value of the first integral at
``lbnd`` is the first value in the list, the value of the second
integral at ``lbnd`` is the second value, etc. If ``k == []`` (the
default), all constants are set to zero. If ``m == 1``, a single
scalar can be given instead of a list.
lbnd : scalar, optional
The lower bound of the integral. (Default: 0)
scl : scalar, optional
Following each integration the result is *multiplied* by `scl`
before the integration constant is added. (Default: 1)
axis : int, optional
Axis over which the integral is taken. (Default: 0).
.. versionadded:: 1.7.0
Returns
-------
S : ndarray
Laguerre series coefficients of the integral.
Raises
------
ValueError
If ``m < 0``, ``len(k) > m``, ``np.isscalar(lbnd) == False``, or
``np.isscalar(scl) == False``.
See Also
--------
lagder
Notes
-----
Note that the result of each integration is *multiplied* by `scl`.
Why is this important to note? Say one is making a linear change of
variable :math:`u = ax + b` in an integral relative to `x`. Then
.. math::`dx = du/a`, so one will need to set `scl` equal to
:math:`1/a` - perhaps not what one would have first thought.
Also note that, in general, the result of integrating a C-series needs
to be "reprojected" onto the C-series basis set. Thus, typically,
the result of this function is "unintuitive," albeit correct; see
Examples section below.
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.polynomial.laguerre import lagint
>>> lagint([1,2,3])
array([ 1., 1., 1., -3.])
>>> lagint([1,2,3], m=2)
array([ 1., 0., 0., -4., 3.])
>>> lagint([1,2,3], k=1)
array([ 2., 1., 1., -3.])
>>> lagint([1,2,3], lbnd=-1)
array([ 11.5, 1. , 1. , -3. ])
>>> lagint([1,2], m=2, k=[1,2], lbnd=-1)
array([ 11.16666667, -5. , -3. , 2. ])
"""
c = np.array(c, ndmin=1, copy=1)
if c.dtype.char in '?bBhHiIlLqQpP':
c = c.astype(np.double)
if not np.iterable(k):
k = [k]
cnt, iaxis = [int(t) for t in [m, axis]]
if cnt != m:
raise ValueError("The order of integration must be integer")
if cnt < 0:
raise ValueError("The order of integration must be non-negative")
if len(k) > cnt:
raise ValueError("Too many integration constants")
if iaxis != axis:
raise ValueError("The axis must be integer")
if not -c.ndim <= iaxis < c.ndim:
raise ValueError("The axis is out of range")
if iaxis < 0:
iaxis += c.ndim
if cnt == 0:
return c
c = np.rollaxis(c, iaxis)
k = list(k) + [0]*(cnt - len(k))
for i in range(cnt):
n = len(c)
c *= scl
if n == 1 and np.all(c[0] == 0):
c[0] += k[i]
else:
tmp = np.empty((n + 1,) + c.shape[1:], dtype=c.dtype)
tmp[0] = c[0]
tmp[1] = -c[0]
for j in range(1, n):
tmp[j] += c[j]
tmp[j + 1] = -c[j]
tmp[0] += k[i] - lagval(lbnd, tmp)
c = tmp
c = np.rollaxis(c, 0, iaxis + 1)
return c
def lagval(x, c, tensor=True):
"""
Evaluate a Laguerre series at points x.
If `c` is of length `n + 1`, this function returns the value:
.. math:: p(x) = c_0 * L_0(x) + c_1 * L_1(x) + ... + c_n * L_n(x)
The parameter `x` is converted to an array only if it is a tuple or a
list, otherwise it is treated as a scalar. In either case, either `x`
or its elements must support multiplication and addition both with
themselves and with the elements of `c`.
If `c` is a 1-D array, then `p(x)` will have the same shape as `x`. If
`c` is multidimensional, then the shape of the result depends on the
value of `tensor`. If `tensor` is true the shape will be c.shape[1:] +
x.shape. If `tensor` is false the shape will be c.shape[1:]. Note that
scalars have shape (,).
Trailing zeros in the coefficients will be used in the evaluation, so
they should be avoided if efficiency is a concern.
Parameters
----------
x : array_like, compatible object
If `x` is a list or tuple, it is converted to an ndarray, otherwise
it is left unchanged and treated as a scalar. In either case, `x`
or its elements must support addition and multiplication with
with themselves and with the elements of `c`.
c : array_like
Array of coefficients ordered so that the coefficients for terms of
degree n are contained in c[n]. If `c` is multidimensional the
remaining indices enumerate multiple polynomials. In the two
dimensional case the coefficients may be thought of as stored in
the columns of `c`.
tensor : boolean, optional
If True, the shape of the coefficient array is extended with ones
on the right, one for each dimension of `x`. Scalars have dimension 0
for this action. The result is that every column of coefficients in
`c` is evaluated for every element of `x`. If False, `x` is broadcast
over the columns of `c` for the evaluation. This keyword is useful
when `c` is multidimensional. The default value is True.
.. versionadded:: 1.7.0
Returns
-------
values : ndarray, algebra_like
The shape of the return value is described above.
See Also
--------
lagval2d, laggrid2d, lagval3d, laggrid3d
Notes
-----
The evaluation uses Clenshaw recursion, aka synthetic division.
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.polynomial.laguerre import lagval
>>> coef = [1,2,3]
>>> lagval(1, coef)
-0.5
>>> lagval([[1,2],[3,4]], coef)
array([[-0.5, -4. ],
[-4.5, -2. ]])
"""
c = np.array(c, ndmin=1, copy=0)
if c.dtype.char in '?bBhHiIlLqQpP':
c = c.astype(np.double)
if isinstance(x, (tuple, list)):
x = np.asarray(x)
if isinstance(x, np.ndarray) and tensor:
c = c.reshape(c.shape + (1,)*x.ndim)
if len(c) == 1:
c0 = c[0]
c1 = 0
elif len(c) == 2:
c0 = c[0]
c1 = c[1]
else:
nd = len(c)
c0 = c[-2]
c1 = c[-1]
for i in range(3, len(c) + 1):
tmp = c0
nd = nd - 1
c0 = c[-i] - (c1*(nd - 1))/nd
c1 = tmp + (c1*((2*nd - 1) - x))/nd
return c0 + c1*(1 - x)
def lagval2d(x, y, c):
"""
Evaluate a 2-D Laguerre series at points (x, y).
This function returns the values:
.. math:: p(x,y) = \\sum_{i,j} c_{i,j} * L_i(x) * L_j(y)
The parameters `x` and `y` are converted to arrays only if they are
tuples or a lists, otherwise they are treated as a scalars and they
must have the same shape after conversion. In either case, either `x`
and `y` or their elements must support multiplication and addition both
with themselves and with the elements of `c`.
If `c` is a 1-D array a one is implicitly appended to its shape to make
it 2-D. The shape of the result will be c.shape[2:] + x.shape.
Parameters
----------
x, y : array_like, compatible objects
The two dimensional series is evaluated at the points `(x, y)`,
where `x` and `y` must have the same shape. If `x` or `y` is a list
or tuple, it is first converted to an ndarray, otherwise it is left
unchanged and if it isn't an ndarray it is treated as a scalar.
c : array_like
Array of coefficients ordered so that the coefficient of the term
of multi-degree i,j is contained in ``c[i,j]``. If `c` has
dimension greater than two the remaining indices enumerate multiple
sets of coefficients.
Returns
-------
values : ndarray, compatible object
The values of the two dimensional polynomial at points formed with
pairs of corresponding values from `x` and `y`.
See Also
--------
lagval, laggrid2d, lagval3d, laggrid3d
Notes
-----
.. versionadded::1.7.0
"""
try:
x, y = np.array((x, y), copy=0)
except:
raise ValueError('x, y are incompatible')
c = lagval(x, c)
c = lagval(y, c, tensor=False)
return c
def laggrid2d(x, y, c):
"""
Evaluate a 2-D Laguerre series on the Cartesian product of x and y.
This function returns the values:
.. math:: p(a,b) = \sum_{i,j} c_{i,j} * L_i(a) * L_j(b)
where the points `(a, b)` consist of all pairs formed by taking
`a` from `x` and `b` from `y`. The resulting points form a grid with
`x` in the first dimension and `y` in the second.
The parameters `x` and `y` are converted to arrays only if they are
tuples or a lists, otherwise they are treated as a scalars. In either
case, either `x` and `y` or their elements must support multiplication
and addition both with themselves and with the elements of `c`.
If `c` has fewer than two dimensions, ones are implicitly appended to
its shape to make it 2-D. The shape of the result will be c.shape[2:] +
x.shape + y.shape.
Parameters
----------
x, y : array_like, compatible objects
The two dimensional series is evaluated at the points in the
Cartesian product of `x` and `y`. If `x` or `y` is a list or
tuple, it is first converted to an ndarray, otherwise it is left
unchanged and, if it isn't an ndarray, it is treated as a scalar.
c : array_like
Array of coefficients ordered so that the coefficient of the term of
multi-degree i,j is contained in `c[i,j]`. If `c` has dimension
greater than two the remaining indices enumerate multiple sets of
coefficients.
Returns
-------
values : ndarray, compatible object
The values of the two dimensional Chebyshev series at points in the
Cartesian product of `x` and `y`.
See Also
--------
lagval, lagval2d, lagval3d, laggrid3d
Notes
-----
.. versionadded::1.7.0
"""
c = lagval(x, c)
c = lagval(y, c)
return c
def lagval3d(x, y, z, c):
"""
Evaluate a 3-D Laguerre series at points (x, y, z).
This function returns the values:
.. math:: p(x,y,z) = \\sum_{i,j,k} c_{i,j,k} * L_i(x) * L_j(y) * L_k(z)
The parameters `x`, `y`, and `z` are converted to arrays only if
they are tuples or a lists, otherwise they are treated as a scalars and
they must have the same shape after conversion. In either case, either
`x`, `y`, and `z` or their elements must support multiplication and
addition both with themselves and with the elements of `c`.
If `c` has fewer than 3 dimensions, ones are implicitly appended to its
shape to make it 3-D. The shape of the result will be c.shape[3:] +
x.shape.
Parameters
----------
x, y, z : array_like, compatible object
The three dimensional series is evaluated at the points
`(x, y, z)`, where `x`, `y`, and `z` must have the same shape. If
any of `x`, `y`, or `z` is a list or tuple, it is first converted
to an ndarray, otherwise it is left unchanged and if it isn't an
ndarray it is treated as a scalar.
c : array_like
Array of coefficients ordered so that the coefficient of the term of
multi-degree i,j,k is contained in ``c[i,j,k]``. If `c` has dimension
greater than 3 the remaining indices enumerate multiple sets of
coefficients.
Returns
-------
values : ndarray, compatible object
The values of the multidimension polynomial on points formed with
triples of corresponding values from `x`, `y`, and `z`.
See Also
--------
lagval, lagval2d, laggrid2d, laggrid3d
Notes
-----
.. versionadded::1.7.0
"""
try:
x, y, z = np.array((x, y, z), copy=0)
except:
raise ValueError('x, y, z are incompatible')
c = lagval(x, c)
c = lagval(y, c, tensor=False)
c = lagval(z, c, tensor=False)
return c
def laggrid3d(x, y, z, c):
"""
Evaluate a 3-D Laguerre series on the Cartesian product of x, y, and z.
This function returns the values:
.. math:: p(a,b,c) = \\sum_{i,j,k} c_{i,j,k} * L_i(a) * L_j(b) * L_k(c)
where the points `(a, b, c)` consist of all triples formed by taking
`a` from `x`, `b` from `y`, and `c` from `z`. The resulting points form
a grid with `x` in the first dimension, `y` in the second, and `z` in
the third.
The parameters `x`, `y`, and `z` are converted to arrays only if they
are tuples or a lists, otherwise they are treated as a scalars. In
either case, either `x`, `y`, and `z` or their elements must support
multiplication and addition both with themselves and with the elements
of `c`.
If `c` has fewer than three dimensions, ones are implicitly appended to
its shape to make it 3-D. The shape of the result will be c.shape[3:] +
x.shape + y.shape + z.shape.
Parameters
----------
x, y, z : array_like, compatible objects
The three dimensional series is evaluated at the points in the
Cartesian product of `x`, `y`, and `z`. If `x`,`y`, or `z` is a
list or tuple, it is first converted to an ndarray, otherwise it is
left unchanged and, if it isn't an ndarray, it is treated as a
scalar.
c : array_like
Array of coefficients ordered so that the coefficients for terms of
degree i,j are contained in ``c[i,j]``. If `c` has dimension
greater than two the remaining indices enumerate multiple sets of
coefficients.
Returns
-------
values : ndarray, compatible object
The values of the two dimensional polynomial at points in the Cartesian
product of `x` and `y`.
See Also
--------
lagval, lagval2d, laggrid2d, lagval3d
Notes
-----
.. versionadded::1.7.0
"""
c = lagval(x, c)
c = lagval(y, c)
c = lagval(z, c)
return c
def lagvander(x, deg):
"""Pseudo-Vandermonde matrix of given degree.
Returns the pseudo-Vandermonde matrix of degree `deg` and sample points
`x`. The pseudo-Vandermonde matrix is defined by
.. math:: V[..., i] = L_i(x)
where `0 <= i <= deg`. The leading indices of `V` index the elements of
`x` and the last index is the degree of the Laguerre polynomial.
If `c` is a 1-D array of coefficients of length `n + 1` and `V` is the
array ``V = lagvander(x, n)``, then ``np.dot(V, c)`` and
``lagval(x, c)`` are the same up to roundoff. This equivalence is
useful both for least squares fitting and for the evaluation of a large
number of Laguerre series of the same degree and sample points.
Parameters
----------
x : array_like
Array of points. The dtype is converted to float64 or complex128
depending on whether any of the elements are complex. If `x` is
scalar it is converted to a 1-D array.
deg : int
Degree of the resulting matrix.
Returns
-------
vander : ndarray
The pseudo-Vandermonde matrix. The shape of the returned matrix is
``x.shape + (deg + 1,)``, where The last index is the degree of the
corresponding Laguerre polynomial. The dtype will be the same as
the converted `x`.
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.polynomial.laguerre import lagvander
>>> x = np.array([0, 1, 2])
>>> lagvander(x, 3)
array([[ 1. , 1. , 1. , 1. ],
[ 1. , 0. , -0.5 , -0.66666667],
[ 1. , -1. , -1. , -0.33333333]])
"""
ideg = int(deg)
if ideg != deg:
raise ValueError("deg must be integer")
if ideg < 0:
raise ValueError("deg must be non-negative")
x = np.array(x, copy=0, ndmin=1) + 0.0
dims = (ideg + 1,) + x.shape
dtyp = x.dtype
v = np.empty(dims, dtype=dtyp)
v[0] = x*0 + 1
if ideg > 0:
v[1] = 1 - x
for i in range(2, ideg + 1):
v[i] = (v[i-1]*(2*i - 1 - x) - v[i-2]*(i - 1))/i
return np.rollaxis(v, 0, v.ndim)
def lagvander2d(x, y, deg):
"""Pseudo-Vandermonde matrix of given degrees.
Returns the pseudo-Vandermonde matrix of degrees `deg` and sample
points `(x, y)`. The pseudo-Vandermonde matrix is defined by
.. math:: V[..., deg[1]*i + j] = L_i(x) * L_j(y),
where `0 <= i <= deg[0]` and `0 <= j <= deg[1]`. The leading indices of
`V` index the points `(x, y)` and the last index encodes the degrees of
the Laguerre polynomials.
If ``V = lagvander2d(x, y, [xdeg, ydeg])``, then the columns of `V`
correspond to the elements of a 2-D coefficient array `c` of shape
(xdeg + 1, ydeg + 1) in the order
.. math:: c_{00}, c_{01}, c_{02} ... , c_{10}, c_{11}, c_{12} ...
and ``np.dot(V, c.flat)`` and ``lagval2d(x, y, c)`` will be the same
up to roundoff. This equivalence is useful both for least squares
fitting and for the evaluation of a large number of 2-D Laguerre
series of the same degrees and sample points.
Parameters
----------
x, y : array_like
Arrays of point coordinates, all of the same shape. The dtypes
will be converted to either float64 or complex128 depending on
whether any of the elements are complex. Scalars are converted to
1-D arrays.
deg : list of ints
List of maximum degrees of the form [x_deg, y_deg].
Returns
-------
vander2d : ndarray
The shape of the returned matrix is ``x.shape + (order,)``, where
:math:`order = (deg[0]+1)*(deg([1]+1)`. The dtype will be the same
as the converted `x` and `y`.
See Also
--------
lagvander, lagvander3d. lagval2d, lagval3d
Notes
-----
.. versionadded::1.7.0
"""
ideg = [int(d) for d in deg]
is_valid = [id == d and id >= 0 for id, d in zip(ideg, deg)]
if is_valid != [1, 1]:
raise ValueError("degrees must be non-negative integers")
degx, degy = ideg
x, y = np.array((x, y), copy=0) + 0.0
vx = lagvander(x, degx)
vy = lagvander(y, degy)
v = vx[..., None]*vy[..., None,:]
return v.reshape(v.shape[:-2] + (-1,))
def lagvander3d(x, y, z, deg):
"""Pseudo-Vandermonde matrix of given degrees.
Returns the pseudo-Vandermonde matrix of degrees `deg` and sample
points `(x, y, z)`. If `l, m, n` are the given degrees in `x, y, z`,
then The pseudo-Vandermonde matrix is defined by
.. math:: V[..., (m+1)(n+1)i + (n+1)j + k] = L_i(x)*L_j(y)*L_k(z),
where `0 <= i <= l`, `0 <= j <= m`, and `0 <= j <= n`. The leading
indices of `V` index the points `(x, y, z)` and the last index encodes
the degrees of the Laguerre polynomials.
If ``V = lagvander3d(x, y, z, [xdeg, ydeg, zdeg])``, then the columns
of `V` correspond to the elements of a 3-D coefficient array `c` of
shape (xdeg + 1, ydeg + 1, zdeg + 1) in the order
.. math:: c_{000}, c_{001}, c_{002},... , c_{010}, c_{011}, c_{012},...
and ``np.dot(V, c.flat)`` and ``lagval3d(x, y, z, c)`` will be the
same up to roundoff. This equivalence is useful both for least squares
fitting and for the evaluation of a large number of 3-D Laguerre
series of the same degrees and sample points.
Parameters
----------
x, y, z : array_like
Arrays of point coordinates, all of the same shape. The dtypes will
be converted to either float64 or complex128 depending on whether
any of the elements are complex. Scalars are converted to 1-D
arrays.
deg : list of ints
List of maximum degrees of the form [x_deg, y_deg, z_deg].
Returns
-------
vander3d : ndarray
The shape of the returned matrix is ``x.shape + (order,)``, where
:math:`order = (deg[0]+1)*(deg([1]+1)*(deg[2]+1)`. The dtype will
be the same as the converted `x`, `y`, and `z`.
See Also
--------
lagvander, lagvander3d. lagval2d, lagval3d
Notes
-----
.. versionadded::1.7.0
"""
ideg = [int(d) for d in deg]
is_valid = [id == d and id >= 0 for id, d in zip(ideg, deg)]
if is_valid != [1, 1, 1]:
raise ValueError("degrees must be non-negative integers")
degx, degy, degz = ideg
x, y, z = np.array((x, y, z), copy=0) + 0.0
vx = lagvander(x, degx)
vy = lagvander(y, degy)
vz = lagvander(z, degz)
v = vx[..., None, None]*vy[..., None,:, None]*vz[..., None, None,:]
return v.reshape(v.shape[:-3] + (-1,))
def lagfit(x, y, deg, rcond=None, full=False, w=None):
"""
Least squares fit of Laguerre series to data.
Return the coefficients of a Laguerre series of degree `deg` that is the
least squares fit to the data values `y` given at points `x`. If `y` is
1-D the returned coefficients will also be 1-D. If `y` is 2-D multiple
fits are done, one for each column of `y`, and the resulting
coefficients are stored in the corresponding columns of a 2-D return.
The fitted polynomial(s) are in the form
.. math:: p(x) = c_0 + c_1 * L_1(x) + ... + c_n * L_n(x),
where `n` is `deg`.
Parameters
----------
x : array_like, shape (M,)
x-coordinates of the M sample points ``(x[i], y[i])``.
y : array_like, shape (M,) or (M, K)
y-coordinates of the sample points. Several data sets of sample
points sharing the same x-coordinates can be fitted at once by
passing in a 2D-array that contains one dataset per column.
deg : int
Degree of the fitting polynomial
rcond : float, optional
Relative condition number of the fit. Singular values smaller than
this relative to the largest singular value will be ignored. The
default value is len(x)*eps, where eps is the relative precision of
the float type, about 2e-16 in most cases.
full : bool, optional
Switch determining nature of return value. When it is False (the
default) just the coefficients are returned, when True diagnostic
information from the singular value decomposition is also returned.
w : array_like, shape (`M`,), optional
Weights. If not None, the contribution of each point
``(x[i],y[i])`` to the fit is weighted by `w[i]`. Ideally the
weights are chosen so that the errors of the products ``w[i]*y[i]``
all have the same variance. The default value is None.
Returns
-------
coef : ndarray, shape (M,) or (M, K)
Laguerre coefficients ordered from low to high. If `y` was 2-D,
the coefficients for the data in column k of `y` are in column
`k`.
[residuals, rank, singular_values, rcond] : list
These values are only returned if `full` = True
resid -- sum of squared residuals of the least squares fit
rank -- the numerical rank of the scaled Vandermonde matrix
sv -- singular values of the scaled Vandermonde matrix
rcond -- value of `rcond`.
For more details, see `linalg.lstsq`.
Warns
-----
RankWarning
The rank of the coefficient matrix in the least-squares fit is
deficient. The warning is only raised if `full` = False. The
warnings can be turned off by
>>> import warnings
>>> warnings.simplefilter('ignore', RankWarning)
See Also
--------
chebfit, legfit, polyfit, hermfit, hermefit
lagval : Evaluates a Laguerre series.
lagvander : pseudo Vandermonde matrix of Laguerre series.
lagweight : Laguerre weight function.
linalg.lstsq : Computes a least-squares fit from the matrix.
scipy.interpolate.UnivariateSpline : Computes spline fits.
Notes
-----
The solution is the coefficients of the Laguerre series `p` that
minimizes the sum of the weighted squared errors
.. math:: E = \\sum_j w_j^2 * |y_j - p(x_j)|^2,
where the :math:`w_j` are the weights. This problem is solved by
setting up as the (typically) overdetermined matrix equation
.. math:: V(x) * c = w * y,
where `V` is the weighted pseudo Vandermonde matrix of `x`, `c` are the
coefficients to be solved for, `w` are the weights, and `y` are the
observed values. This equation is then solved using the singular value
decomposition of `V`.
If some of the singular values of `V` are so small that they are
neglected, then a `RankWarning` will be issued. This means that the
coefficient values may be poorly determined. Using a lower order fit
will usually get rid of the warning. The `rcond` parameter can also be
set to a value smaller than its default, but the resulting fit may be
spurious and have large contributions from roundoff error.
Fits using Laguerre series are probably most useful when the data can
be approximated by ``sqrt(w(x)) * p(x)``, where `w(x)` is the Laguerre
weight. In that case the weight ``sqrt(w(x[i])`` should be used
together with data values ``y[i]/sqrt(w(x[i])``. The weight function is
available as `lagweight`.
References
----------
.. [1] Wikipedia, "Curve fitting",
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curve_fitting
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.polynomial.laguerre import lagfit, lagval
>>> x = np.linspace(0, 10)
>>> err = np.random.randn(len(x))/10
>>> y = lagval(x, [1, 2, 3]) + err
>>> lagfit(x, y, 2)
array([ 0.96971004, 2.00193749, 3.00288744])
"""
order = int(deg) + 1
x = np.asarray(x) + 0.0
y = np.asarray(y) + 0.0
# check arguments.
if deg < 0:
raise ValueError("expected deg >= 0")
if x.ndim != 1:
raise TypeError("expected 1D vector for x")
if x.size == 0:
raise TypeError("expected non-empty vector for x")
if y.ndim < 1 or y.ndim > 2:
raise TypeError("expected 1D or 2D array for y")
if len(x) != len(y):
raise TypeError("expected x and y to have same length")
# set up the least squares matrices in transposed form
lhs = lagvander(x, deg).T
rhs = y.T
if w is not None:
w = np.asarray(w) + 0.0
if w.ndim != 1:
raise TypeError("expected 1D vector for w")
if len(x) != len(w):
raise TypeError("expected x and w to have same length")
# apply weights. Don't use inplace operations as they
# can cause problems with NA.
lhs = lhs * w
rhs = rhs * w
# set rcond
if rcond is None:
rcond = len(x)*np.finfo(x.dtype).eps
# Determine the norms of the design matrix columns.
if issubclass(lhs.dtype.type, np.complexfloating):
scl = np.sqrt((np.square(lhs.real) + np.square(lhs.imag)).sum(1))
else:
scl = np.sqrt(np.square(lhs).sum(1))
scl[scl == 0] = 1
# Solve the least squares problem.
c, resids, rank, s = la.lstsq(lhs.T/scl, rhs.T, rcond)
c = (c.T/scl).T
# warn on rank reduction
if rank != order and not full:
msg = "The fit may be poorly conditioned"
warnings.warn(msg, pu.RankWarning)
if full:
return c, [resids, rank, s, rcond]
else:
return c
def lagcompanion(c):
"""
Return the companion matrix of c.
The usual companion matrix of the Laguerre polynomials is already
symmetric when `c` is a basis Laguerre polynomial, so no scaling is
applied.
Parameters
----------
c : array_like
1-D array of Laguerre series coefficients ordered from low to high
degree.
Returns
-------
mat : ndarray
Companion matrix of dimensions (deg, deg).
Notes
-----
.. versionadded::1.7.0
"""
# c is a trimmed copy
[c] = pu.as_series([c])
if len(c) < 2:
raise ValueError('Series must have maximum degree of at least 1.')
if len(c) == 2:
return np.array([[1 + c[0]/c[1]]])
n = len(c) - 1
mat = np.zeros((n, n), dtype=c.dtype)
top = mat.reshape(-1)[1::n+1]
mid = mat.reshape(-1)[0::n+1]
bot = mat.reshape(-1)[n::n+1]
top[...] = -np.arange(1, n)
mid[...] = 2.*np.arange(n) + 1.
bot[...] = top
mat[:, -1] += (c[:-1]/c[-1])*n
return mat
def lagroots(c):
"""
Compute the roots of a Laguerre series.
Return the roots (a.k.a. "zeros") of the polynomial
.. math:: p(x) = \\sum_i c[i] * L_i(x).
Parameters
----------
c : 1-D array_like
1-D array of coefficients.
Returns
-------
out : ndarray
Array of the roots of the series. If all the roots are real,
then `out` is also real, otherwise it is complex.
See Also
--------
polyroots, legroots, chebroots, hermroots, hermeroots
Notes
-----
The root estimates are obtained as the eigenvalues of the companion
matrix, Roots far from the origin of the complex plane may have large
errors due to the numerical instability of the series for such
values. Roots with multiplicity greater than 1 will also show larger
errors as the value of the series near such points is relatively
insensitive to errors in the roots. Isolated roots near the origin can
be improved by a few iterations of Newton's method.
The Laguerre series basis polynomials aren't powers of `x` so the
results of this function may seem unintuitive.
Examples
--------
>>> from numpy.polynomial.laguerre import lagroots, lagfromroots
>>> coef = lagfromroots([0, 1, 2])
>>> coef
array([ 2., -8., 12., -6.])
>>> lagroots(coef)
array([ -4.44089210e-16, 1.00000000e+00, 2.00000000e+00])
"""
# c is a trimmed copy
[c] = pu.as_series([c])
if len(c) <= 1:
return np.array([], dtype=c.dtype)
if len(c) == 2:
return np.array([1 + c[0]/c[1]])
m = lagcompanion(c)
r = la.eigvals(m)
r.sort()
return r
def laggauss(deg):
"""
Gauss-Laguerre quadrature.
Computes the sample points and weights for Gauss-Laguerre quadrature.
These sample points and weights will correctly integrate polynomials of
degree :math:`2*deg - 1` or less over the interval :math:`[0, \inf]`
with the weight function :math:`f(x) = \exp(-x)`.
Parameters
----------
deg : int
Number of sample points and weights. It must be >= 1.
Returns
-------
x : ndarray
1-D ndarray containing the sample points.
y : ndarray
1-D ndarray containing the weights.
Notes
-----
.. versionadded::1.7.0
The results have only been tested up to degree 100 higher degrees may
be problematic. The weights are determined by using the fact that
.. math:: w_k = c / (L'_n(x_k) * L_{n-1}(x_k))
where :math:`c` is a constant independent of :math:`k` and :math:`x_k`
is the k'th root of :math:`L_n`, and then scaling the results to get
the right value when integrating 1.
"""
ideg = int(deg)
if ideg != deg or ideg < 1:
raise ValueError("deg must be a non-negative integer")
# first approximation of roots. We use the fact that the companion
# matrix is symmetric in this case in order to obtain better zeros.
c = np.array([0]*deg + [1])
m = lagcompanion(c)
x = la.eigvals(m)
x.sort()
# improve roots by one application of Newton
dy = lagval(x, c)
df = lagval(x, lagder(c))
x -= dy/df
# compute the weights. We scale the factor to avoid possible numerical
# overflow.
fm = lagval(x, c[1:])
fm /= np.abs(fm).max()
df /= np.abs(df).max()
w = 1/(fm * df)
# scale w to get the right value, 1 in this case
w /= w.sum()
return x, w
def lagweight(x):
"""Weight function of the Laguerre polynomials.
The weight function is :math:`exp(-x)` and the interval of integration
is :math:`[0, \inf]`. The Laguerre polynomials are orthogonal, but not
normalized, with respect to this weight function.
Parameters
----------
x : array_like
Values at which the weight function will be computed.
Returns
-------
w : ndarray
The weight function at `x`.
Notes
-----
.. versionadded::1.7.0
"""
w = np.exp(-x)
return w
#
# Laguerre series class
#
class Laguerre(ABCPolyBase):
"""A Laguerre series class.
The Laguerre class provides the standard Python numerical methods
'+', '-', '*', '//', '%', 'divmod', '**', and '()' as well as the
attributes and methods listed in the `ABCPolyBase` documentation.
Parameters
----------
coef : array_like
Laguerre coefficients in order of increasing degree, i.e,
``(1, 2, 3)`` gives ``1*L_0(x) + 2*L_1(X) + 3*L_2(x)``.
domain : (2,) array_like, optional
Domain to use. The interval ``[domain[0], domain[1]]`` is mapped
to the interval ``[window[0], window[1]]`` by shifting and scaling.
The default value is [0, 1].
window : (2,) array_like, optional
Window, see `domain` for its use. The default value is [0, 1].
.. versionadded:: 1.6.0
"""
# Virtual Functions
_add = staticmethod(lagadd)
_sub = staticmethod(lagsub)
_mul = staticmethod(lagmul)
_div = staticmethod(lagdiv)
_pow = staticmethod(lagpow)
_val = staticmethod(lagval)
_int = staticmethod(lagint)
_der = staticmethod(lagder)
_fit = staticmethod(lagfit)
_line = staticmethod(lagline)
_roots = staticmethod(lagroots)
_fromroots = staticmethod(lagfromroots)
# Virtual properties
nickname = 'lag'
domain = np.array(lagdomain)
window = np.array(lagdomain)