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A querystring parsing and stringifying library with some added security.

Build Status

Lead Maintainer: Nathan LaFreniere

The qs module was originally created and maintained by TJ Holowaychuk.


var Qs = require('qs');

var obj = Qs.parse('a=c');    // { a: 'c' }
var str = Qs.stringify(obj);  // 'a=c'

Parsing Objects

Qs.parse(string, [options]);

qs allows you to create nested objects within your query strings, by surrounding the name of sub-keys with square brackets []. For example, the string 'foo[bar]=baz' converts to:

  foo: {
    bar: 'baz'

URI encoded strings work too:

// { a: { b: 'c' } }

You can also nest your objects, like 'foo[bar][baz]=foobarbaz':

  foo: {
    bar: {
      baz: 'foobarbaz'

By default, when nesting objects qs will only parse up to 5 children deep. This means if you attempt to parse a string like 'a[b][c][d][e][f][g][h][i]=j' your resulting object will be:

  a: {
    b: {
      c: {
        d: {
          e: {
            f: {
              '[g][h][i]': 'j'

This depth can be overridden by passing a depth option to Qs.parse(string, [options]):

Qs.parse('a[b][c][d][e][f][g][h][i]=j', { depth: 1 });
// { a: { b: { '[c][d][e][f][g][h][i]': 'j' } } }

The depth limit helps mitigate abuse when qs is used to parse user input, and it is recommended to keep it a reasonably small number.

For similar reasons, by default qs will only parse up to 1000 parameters. This can be overridden by passing a parameterLimit option:

Qs.parse('a=b&c=d', { parameterLimit: 1 });
// { a: 'b' }

An optional delimiter can also be passed:

Qs.parse('a=b;c=d', { delimiter: ';' });
// { a: 'b', c: 'd' }

Delimiters can be a regular expression too:

Qs.parse('a=b;c=d,e=f', { delimiter: /[;,]/ });
// { a: 'b', c: 'd', e: 'f' }

Parsing Arrays

qs can also parse arrays using a similar [] notation:

// { a: ['b', 'c'] }

You may specify an index as well:

// { a: ['b', 'c'] }

Note that the only difference between an index in an array and a key in an object is that the value between the brackets must be a number to create an array. When creating arrays with specific indices, qs will compact a sparse array to only the existing values preserving their order:

// { a: ['b', 'c'] }

Note that an empty string is also a value, and will be preserved:

// { a: ['', 'b'] }
// { a: ['b', '', 'c'] }

qs will also limit specifying indices in an array to a maximum index of 20. Any array members with an index of greater than 20 will instead be converted to an object with the index as the key:

// { a: { '100': 'b' } }

This limit can be overridden by passing an arrayLimit option:

Qs.parse('a[1]=b', { arrayLimit: 0 });
// { a: { '1': 'b' } }

To disable array parsing entirely, set arrayLimit to -1.

If you mix notations, qs will merge the two items into an object:

// { a: { '0': 'b', b: 'c' } }

You can also create arrays of objects:

// { a: [{ b: 'c' }] }


Qs.stringify(object, [options]);

When stringifying, qs always URI encodes output. Objects are stringified as you would expect:

Qs.stringify({ a: 'b' });
// 'a=b'
Qs.stringify({ a: { b: 'c' } });
// 'a%5Bb%5D=c'

Examples beyond this point will be shown as though the output is not URI encoded for clarity. Please note that the return values in these cases will be URI encoded during real usage.

When arrays are stringified, by default they are given explicit indices:

Qs.stringify({ a: ['b', 'c', 'd'] });
// 'a[0]=b&a[1]=c&a[2]=d'

You may override this by setting the indices option to false:

Qs.stringify({ a: ['b', 'c', 'd'] }, { indices: false });
// 'a=b&a=c&a=d'

You may use the arrayFormat option to specify the format of the output array

Qs.stringify({ a: ['b', 'c'] }, { arrayFormat: 'indices' })
// 'a[0]=b&a[1]=c'
Qs.stringify({ a: ['b', 'c'] }, { arrayFormat: 'brackets' })
// 'a[]=b&a[]=c'
Qs.stringify({ a: ['b', 'c'] }, { arrayFormat: 'repeat' })
// 'a=b&a=c'

Empty strings and null values will omit the value, but the equals sign (=) remains in place:

Qs.stringify({ a: '' });
// 'a='

Properties that are set to undefined will be omitted entirely:

Qs.stringify({ a: null, b: undefined });
// 'a='

The delimiter may be overridden with stringify as well:

Qs.stringify({ a: 'b', c: 'd' }, { delimiter: ';' });
// 'a=b;c=d'