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    1 README file for PCRE (Perl-compatible regular expression library)
    2 -----------------------------------------------------------------
    3 
    4 The latest release of PCRE is always available in three alternative formats
    5 from:
    6 
    7   ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.gz
    8   ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.tar.bz2
    9   ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-xxx.zip
   10 
   11 There is a mailing list for discussion about the development of PCRE at
   12 
   13   pcre-dev@exim.org
   14 
   15 Please read the NEWS file if you are upgrading from a previous release.
   16 The contents of this README file are:
   17 
   18   The PCRE APIs
   19   Documentation for PCRE
   20   Contributions by users of PCRE
   21   Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
   22   Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
   23   Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
   24   Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
   25   Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
   26   Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
   27   Using PCRE from MySQL
   28   Making new tarballs
   29   Testing PCRE
   30   Character tables
   31   File manifest
   32 
   33 
   34 The PCRE APIs
   35 -------------
   36 
   37 PCRE is written in C, and it has its own API. There are two sets of functions,
   38 one for the 8-bit library, which processes strings of bytes, and one for the
   39 16-bit library, which processes strings of 16-bit values. The distribution also
   40 includes a set of C++ wrapper functions (see the pcrecpp man page for details),
   41 courtesy of Google Inc., which can be used to call the 8-bit PCRE library from
   42 C++.
   43 
   44 In addition, there is a set of C wrapper functions (again, just for the 8-bit
   45 library) that are based on the POSIX regular expression API (see the pcreposix
   46 man page). These end up in the library called libpcreposix. Note that this just
   47 provides a POSIX calling interface to PCRE; the regular expressions themselves
   48 still follow Perl syntax and semantics. The POSIX API is restricted, and does
   49 not give full access to all of PCRE's facilities.
   50 
   51 The header file for the POSIX-style functions is called pcreposix.h. The
   52 official POSIX name is regex.h, but I did not want to risk possible problems
   53 with existing files of that name by distributing it that way. To use PCRE with
   54 an existing program that uses the POSIX API, pcreposix.h will have to be
   55 renamed or pointed at by a link.
   56 
   57 If you are using the POSIX interface to PCRE and there is already a POSIX regex
   58 library installed on your system, as well as worrying about the regex.h header
   59 file (as mentioned above), you must also take care when linking programs to
   60 ensure that they link with PCRE's libpcreposix library. Otherwise they may pick
   61 up the POSIX functions of the same name from the other library.
   62 
   63 One way of avoiding this confusion is to compile PCRE with the addition of
   64 -Dregcomp=PCREregcomp (and similarly for the other POSIX functions) to the
   65 compiler flags (CFLAGS if you are using "configure" -- see below). This has the
   66 effect of renaming the functions so that the names no longer clash. Of course,
   67 you have to do the same thing for your applications, or write them using the
   68 new names.
   69 
   70 
   71 Documentation for PCRE
   72 ----------------------
   73 
   74 If you install PCRE in the normal way on a Unix-like system, you will end up
   75 with a set of man pages whose names all start with "pcre". The one that is just
   76 called "pcre" lists all the others. In addition to these man pages, the PCRE
   77 documentation is supplied in two other forms:
   78 
   79   1. There are files called doc/pcre.txt, doc/pcregrep.txt, and
   80      doc/pcretest.txt in the source distribution. The first of these is a
   81      concatenation of the text forms of all the section 3 man pages except
   82      those that summarize individual functions. The other two are the text
   83      forms of the section 1 man pages for the pcregrep and pcretest commands.
   84      These text forms are provided for ease of scanning with text editors or
   85      similar tools. They are installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre, where
   86      <prefix> is the installation prefix (defaulting to /usr/local).
   87 
   88   2. A set of files containing all the documentation in HTML form, hyperlinked
   89      in various ways, and rooted in a file called index.html, is distributed in
   90      doc/html and installed in <prefix>/share/doc/pcre/html.
   91 
   92 Users of PCRE have contributed files containing the documentation for various
   93 releases in CHM format. These can be found in the Contrib directory of the FTP
   94 site (see next section).
   95 
   96 
   97 Contributions by users of PCRE
   98 ------------------------------
   99 
  100 You can find contributions from PCRE users in the directory
  101 
  102   ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/Contrib
  103 
  104 There is a README file giving brief descriptions of what they are. Some are
  105 complete in themselves; others are pointers to URLs containing relevant files.
  106 Some of this material is likely to be well out-of-date. Several of the earlier
  107 contributions provided support for compiling PCRE on various flavours of
  108 Windows (I myself do not use Windows). Nowadays there is more Windows support
  109 in the standard distribution, so these contibutions have been archived.
  110 
  111 
  112 Building PCRE on non-Unix systems
  113 ---------------------------------
  114 
  115 For a non-Unix system, please read the comments in the file NON-UNIX-USE,
  116 though if your system supports the use of "configure" and "make" you may be
  117 able to build PCRE in the same way as for Unix-like systems. PCRE can also be
  118 configured in many platform environments using the GUI facility provided by
  119 CMake's cmake-gui command. This creates Makefiles, solution files, etc.
  120 
  121 PCRE has been compiled on many different operating systems. It should be
  122 straightforward to build PCRE on any system that has a Standard C compiler and
  123 library, because it uses only Standard C functions.
  124 
  125 
  126 Building PCRE on Unix-like systems
  127 ----------------------------------
  128 
  129 If you are using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC), please see the special note
  130 in the section entitled "Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)" below.
  131 
  132 The following instructions assume the use of the widely used "configure, make,
  133 make install" process. There is also support for CMake in the PCRE
  134 distribution; there are some comments about using CMake in the NON-UNIX-USE
  135 file, though it can also be used in Unix-like systems.
  136 
  137 To build PCRE on a Unix-like system, first run the "configure" command from the
  138 PCRE distribution directory, with your current directory set to the directory
  139 where you want the files to be created. This command is a standard GNU
  140 "autoconf" configuration script, for which generic instructions are supplied in
  141 the file INSTALL.
  142 
  143 Most commonly, people build PCRE within its own distribution directory, and in
  144 this case, on many systems, just running "./configure" is sufficient. However,
  145 the usual methods of changing standard defaults are available. For example:
  146 
  147 CFLAGS='-O2 -Wall' ./configure --prefix=/opt/local
  148 
  149 This command specifies that the C compiler should be run with the flags '-O2
  150 -Wall' instead of the default, and that "make install" should install PCRE
  151 under /opt/local instead of the default /usr/local.
  152 
  153 If you want to build in a different directory, just run "configure" with that
  154 directory as current. For example, suppose you have unpacked the PCRE source
  155 into /source/pcre/pcre-xxx, but you want to build it in /build/pcre/pcre-xxx:
  156 
  157 cd /build/pcre/pcre-xxx
  158 /source/pcre/pcre-xxx/configure
  159 
  160 PCRE is written in C and is normally compiled as a C library. However, it is
  161 possible to build it as a C++ library, though the provided building apparatus
  162 does not have any features to support this.
  163 
  164 There are some optional features that can be included or omitted from the PCRE
  165 library. They are also documented in the pcrebuild man page.
  166 
  167 . By default, both shared and static libraries are built. You can change this
  168   by adding one of these options to the "configure" command:
  169 
  170   --disable-shared
  171   --disable-static
  172 
  173   (See also "Shared libraries on Unix-like systems" below.)
  174 
  175 . By default, only the 8-bit library is built. If you add --enable-pcre16 to
  176   the "configure" command, the 16-bit library is also built. If you want only
  177   the 16-bit library, use "./configure --enable-pcre16 --disable-pcre8".
  178 
  179 . If you are building the 8-bit library and want to suppress the building of
  180   the C++ wrapper library, you can add --disable-cpp to the "configure"
  181   command. Otherwise, when "configure" is run without --disable-pcre8, it will
  182   try to find a C++ compiler and C++ header files, and if it succeeds, it will
  183   try to build the C++ wrapper.
  184 
  185 . If you want to include support for just-in-time compiling, which can give
  186   large performance improvements on certain platforms, add --enable-jit to the
  187   "configure" command. This support is available only for certain hardware
  188   architectures. If you try to enable it on an unsupported architecture, there
  189   will be a compile time error.
  190 
  191 . When JIT support is enabled, pcregrep automatically makes use of it, unless
  192   you add --disable-pcregrep-jit to the "configure" command.
  193 
  194 . If you want to make use of the support for UTF-8 Unicode character strings in
  195   the 8-bit library, or UTF-16 Unicode character strings in the 16-bit library,
  196   you must add --enable-utf to the "configure" command. Without it, the code
  197   for handling UTF-8 and UTF-16 is not included in the relevant library. Even
  198   when --enable-utf is included, the use of a UTF encoding still has to be
  199   enabled by an option at run time. When PCRE is compiled with this option, its
  200   input can only either be ASCII or UTF-8/16, even when running on EBCDIC
  201   platforms. It is not possible to use both --enable-utf and --enable-ebcdic at
  202   the same time.
  203 
  204 . There are no separate options for enabling UTF-8 and UTF-16 independently
  205   because that would allow ridiculous settings such as requesting UTF-16
  206   support while building only the 8-bit library. However, the option
  207   --enable-utf8 is retained for backwards compatibility with earlier releases
  208   that did not support 16-bit character strings. It is synonymous with
  209   --enable-utf. It is not possible to configure one library with UTF support
  210   and the other without in the same configuration.
  211 
  212 . If, in addition to support for UTF-8/16 character strings, you want to
  213   include support for the \P, \p, and \X sequences that recognize Unicode
  214   character properties, you must add --enable-unicode-properties to the
  215   "configure" command. This adds about 30K to the size of the library (in the
  216   form of a property table); only the basic two-letter properties such as Lu
  217   are supported.
  218 
  219 . You can build PCRE to recognize either CR or LF or the sequence CRLF or any
  220   of the preceding, or any of the Unicode newline sequences as indicating the
  221   end of a line. Whatever you specify at build time is the default; the caller
  222   of PCRE can change the selection at run time. The default newline indicator
  223   is a single LF character (the Unix standard). You can specify the default
  224   newline indicator by adding --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-lf
  225   or --enable-newline-is-crlf or --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
  226   --enable-newline-is-any to the "configure" command, respectively.
  227 
  228   If you specify --enable-newline-is-cr or --enable-newline-is-crlf, some of
  229   the standard tests will fail, because the lines in the test files end with
  230   LF. Even if the files are edited to change the line endings, there are likely
  231   to be some failures. With --enable-newline-is-anycrlf or
  232   --enable-newline-is-any, many tests should succeed, but there may be some
  233   failures.
  234 
  235 . By default, the sequence \R in a pattern matches any Unicode line ending
  236   sequence. This is independent of the option specifying what PCRE considers to
  237   be the end of a line (see above). However, the caller of PCRE can restrict \R
  238   to match only CR, LF, or CRLF. You can make this the default by adding
  239   --enable-bsr-anycrlf to the "configure" command (bsr = "backslash R").
  240 
  241 . When called via the POSIX interface, PCRE uses malloc() to get additional
  242   storage for processing capturing parentheses if there are more than 10 of
  243   them in a pattern. You can increase this threshold by setting, for example,
  244 
  245   --with-posix-malloc-threshold=20
  246 
  247   on the "configure" command.
  248 
  249 . PCRE has a counter that can be set to limit the amount of resources it uses.
  250   If the limit is exceeded during a match, the match fails. The default is ten
  251   million. You can change the default by setting, for example,
  252 
  253   --with-match-limit=500000
  254 
  255   on the "configure" command. This is just the default; individual calls to
  256   pcre_exec() can supply their own value. There is more discussion on the
  257   pcreapi man page.
  258 
  259 . There is a separate counter that limits the depth of recursive function calls
  260   during a matching process. This also has a default of ten million, which is
  261   essentially "unlimited". You can change the default by setting, for example,
  262 
  263   --with-match-limit-recursion=500000
  264 
  265   Recursive function calls use up the runtime stack; running out of stack can
  266   cause programs to crash in strange ways. There is a discussion about stack
  267   sizes in the pcrestack man page.
  268 
  269 . The default maximum compiled pattern size is around 64K. You can increase
  270   this by adding --with-link-size=3 to the "configure" command. In the 8-bit
  271   library, PCRE then uses three bytes instead of two for offsets to different
  272   parts of the compiled pattern. In the 16-bit library, --with-link-size=3 is
  273   the same as --with-link-size=4, which (in both libraries) uses four-byte
  274   offsets. Increasing the internal link size reduces performance.
  275 
  276 . You can build PCRE so that its internal match() function that is called from
  277   pcre_exec() does not call itself recursively. Instead, it uses memory blocks
  278   obtained from the heap via the special functions pcre_stack_malloc() and
  279   pcre_stack_free() to save data that would otherwise be saved on the stack. To
  280   build PCRE like this, use
  281 
  282   --disable-stack-for-recursion
  283 
  284   on the "configure" command. PCRE runs more slowly in this mode, but it may be
  285   necessary in environments with limited stack sizes. This applies only to the
  286   normal execution of the pcre_exec() function; if JIT support is being
  287   successfully used, it is not relevant. Equally, it does not apply to
  288   pcre_dfa_exec(), which does not use deeply nested recursion. There is a
  289   discussion about stack sizes in the pcrestack man page.
  290 
  291 . For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
  292   whose code point values are less than 256. By default, it uses a set of
  293   tables for ASCII encoding that is part of the distribution. If you specify
  294 
  295   --enable-rebuild-chartables
  296 
  297   a program called dftables is compiled and run in the default C locale when
  298   you obey "make". It builds a source file called pcre_chartables.c. If you do
  299   not specify this option, pcre_chartables.c is created as a copy of
  300   pcre_chartables.c.dist. See "Character tables" below for further information.
  301 
  302 . It is possible to compile PCRE for use on systems that use EBCDIC as their
  303   character code (as opposed to ASCII) by specifying
  304 
  305   --enable-ebcdic
  306 
  307   This automatically implies --enable-rebuild-chartables (see above). However,
  308   when PCRE is built this way, it always operates in EBCDIC. It cannot support
  309   both EBCDIC and UTF-8/16.
  310 
  311 . The pcregrep program currently supports only 8-bit data files, and so
  312   requires the 8-bit PCRE library. It is possible to compile pcregrep to use
  313   libz and/or libbz2, in order to read .gz and .bz2 files (respectively), by
  314   specifying one or both of
  315 
  316   --enable-pcregrep-libz
  317   --enable-pcregrep-libbz2
  318 
  319   Of course, the relevant libraries must be installed on your system.
  320 
  321 . The default size of internal buffer used by pcregrep can be set by, for
  322   example:
  323 
  324   --with-pcregrep-bufsize=50K
  325 
  326   The default value is 20K.
  327 
  328 . It is possible to compile pcretest so that it links with the libreadline
  329   library, by specifying
  330 
  331   --enable-pcretest-libreadline
  332 
  333   If this is done, when pcretest's input is from a terminal, it reads it using
  334   the readline() function. This provides line-editing and history facilities.
  335   Note that libreadline is GPL-licenced, so if you distribute a binary of
  336   pcretest linked in this way, there may be licensing issues.
  337 
  338   Setting this option causes the -lreadline option to be added to the pcretest
  339   build. In many operating environments with a sytem-installed readline
  340   library this is sufficient. However, in some environments (e.g. if an
  341   unmodified distribution version of readline is in use), it may be necessary
  342   to specify something like LIBS="-lncurses" as well. This is because, to quote
  343   the readline INSTALL, "Readline uses the termcap functions, but does not link
  344   with the termcap or curses library itself, allowing applications which link
  345   with readline the to choose an appropriate library." If you get error
  346   messages about missing functions tgetstr, tgetent, tputs, tgetflag, or tgoto,
  347   this is the problem, and linking with the ncurses library should fix it.
  348 
  349 The "configure" script builds the following files for the basic C library:
  350 
  351 . Makefile             the makefile that builds the library
  352 . config.h             build-time configuration options for the library
  353 . pcre.h               the public PCRE header file
  354 . pcre-config          script that shows the building settings such as CFLAGS
  355                          that were set for "configure"
  356 . libpcre.pc         ) data for the pkg-config command
  357 . libpcre16.pc       )
  358 . libpcreposix.pc    )
  359 . libtool              script that builds shared and/or static libraries
  360 . RunTest              script for running tests on the basic C library
  361 . RunGrepTest          script for running tests on the pcregrep command
  362 
  363 Versions of config.h and pcre.h are distributed in the PCRE tarballs under the
  364 names config.h.generic and pcre.h.generic. These are provided for those who
  365 have to built PCRE without using "configure" or CMake. If you use "configure"
  366 or CMake, the .generic versions are not used.
  367 
  368 When building the 8-bit library, if a C++ compiler is found, the following
  369 files are also built:
  370 
  371 . libpcrecpp.pc        data for the pkg-config command
  372 . pcrecpparg.h         header file for calling PCRE via the C++ wrapper
  373 . pcre_stringpiece.h   header for the C++ "stringpiece" functions
  374 
  375 The "configure" script also creates config.status, which is an executable
  376 script that can be run to recreate the configuration, and config.log, which
  377 contains compiler output from tests that "configure" runs.
  378 
  379 Once "configure" has run, you can run "make". This builds either or both of the
  380 libraries libpcre and libpcre16, and a test program called pcretest. If you
  381 enabled JIT support with --enable-jit, a test program called pcre_jit_test is
  382 built as well.
  383 
  384 If the 8-bit library is built, libpcreposix and the pcregrep command are also
  385 built, and if a C++ compiler was found on your system, and you did not disable
  386 it with --disable-cpp, "make" builds the C++ wrapper library, which is called
  387 libpcrecpp, as well as some test programs called pcrecpp_unittest,
  388 pcre_scanner_unittest, and pcre_stringpiece_unittest.
  389 
  390 The command "make check" runs all the appropriate tests. Details of the PCRE
  391 tests are given below in a separate section of this document.
  392 
  393 You can use "make install" to install PCRE into live directories on your
  394 system. The following are installed (file names are all relative to the
  395 <prefix> that is set when "configure" is run):
  396 
  397   Commands (bin):
  398     pcretest
  399     pcregrep (if 8-bit support is enabled)
  400     pcre-config
  401 
  402   Libraries (lib):
  403     libpcre16     (if 16-bit support is enabled)
  404     libpcre       (if 8-bit support is enabled)
  405     libpcreposix  (if 8-bit support is enabled)
  406     libpcrecpp    (if 8-bit and C++ support is enabled)
  407 
  408   Configuration information (lib/pkgconfig):
  409     libpcre16.pc
  410     libpcre.pc
  411     libpcreposix.pc
  412     libpcrecpp.pc (if C++ support is enabled)
  413 
  414   Header files (include):
  415     pcre.h
  416     pcreposix.h
  417     pcre_scanner.h      )
  418     pcre_stringpiece.h  ) if C++ support is enabled
  419     pcrecpp.h           )
  420     pcrecpparg.h        )
  421 
  422   Man pages (share/man/man{1,3}):
  423     pcregrep.1
  424     pcretest.1
  425     pcre-config.1
  426     pcre.3
  427     pcre*.3 (lots more pages, all starting "pcre")
  428 
  429   HTML documentation (share/doc/pcre/html):
  430     index.html
  431     *.html (lots more pages, hyperlinked from index.html)
  432 
  433   Text file documentation (share/doc/pcre):
  434     AUTHORS
  435     COPYING
  436     ChangeLog
  437     LICENCE
  438     NEWS
  439     README
  440     pcre.txt         (a concatenation of the man(3) pages)
  441     pcretest.txt     the pcretest man page
  442     pcregrep.txt     the pcregrep man page
  443     pcre-config.txt  the pcre-config man page
  444 
  445 If you want to remove PCRE from your system, you can run "make uninstall".
  446 This removes all the files that "make install" installed. However, it does not
  447 remove any directories, because these are often shared with other programs.
  448 
  449 
  450 Retrieving configuration information on Unix-like systems
  451 ---------------------------------------------------------
  452 
  453 Running "make install" installs the command pcre-config, which can be used to
  454 recall information about the PCRE configuration and installation. For example:
  455 
  456   pcre-config --version
  457 
  458 prints the version number, and
  459 
  460   pcre-config --libs
  461 
  462 outputs information about where the library is installed. This command can be
  463 included in makefiles for programs that use PCRE, saving the programmer from
  464 having to remember too many details.
  465 
  466 The pkg-config command is another system for saving and retrieving information
  467 about installed libraries. Instead of separate commands for each library, a
  468 single command is used. For example:
  469 
  470   pkg-config --cflags pcre
  471 
  472 The data is held in *.pc files that are installed in a directory called
  473 <prefix>/lib/pkgconfig.
  474 
  475 
  476 Shared libraries on Unix-like systems
  477 -------------------------------------
  478 
  479 The default distribution builds PCRE as shared libraries and static libraries,
  480 as long as the operating system supports shared libraries. Shared library
  481 support relies on the "libtool" script which is built as part of the
  482 "configure" process.
  483 
  484 The libtool script is used to compile and link both shared and static
  485 libraries. They are placed in a subdirectory called .libs when they are newly
  486 built. The programs pcretest and pcregrep are built to use these uninstalled
  487 libraries (by means of wrapper scripts in the case of shared libraries). When
  488 you use "make install" to install shared libraries, pcregrep and pcretest are
  489 automatically re-built to use the newly installed shared libraries before being
  490 installed themselves. However, the versions left in the build directory still
  491 use the uninstalled libraries.
  492 
  493 To build PCRE using static libraries only you must use --disable-shared when
  494 configuring it. For example:
  495 
  496 ./configure --prefix=/usr/gnu --disable-shared
  497 
  498 Then run "make" in the usual way. Similarly, you can use --disable-static to
  499 build only shared libraries.
  500 
  501 
  502 Cross-compiling on Unix-like systems
  503 ------------------------------------
  504 
  505 You can specify CC and CFLAGS in the normal way to the "configure" command, in
  506 order to cross-compile PCRE for some other host. However, you should NOT
  507 specify --enable-rebuild-chartables, because if you do, the dftables.c source
  508 file is compiled and run on the local host, in order to generate the inbuilt
  509 character tables (the pcre_chartables.c file). This will probably not work,
  510 because dftables.c needs to be compiled with the local compiler, not the cross
  511 compiler.
  512 
  513 When --enable-rebuild-chartables is not specified, pcre_chartables.c is created
  514 by making a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which is a default set of tables
  515 that assumes ASCII code. Cross-compiling with the default tables should not be
  516 a problem.
  517 
  518 If you need to modify the character tables when cross-compiling, you should
  519 move pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way, then compile dftables.c by hand and
  520 run it on the local host to make a new version of pcre_chartables.c.dist.
  521 Then when you cross-compile PCRE this new version of the tables will be used.
  522 
  523 
  524 Using HP's ANSI C++ compiler (aCC)
  525 ----------------------------------
  526 
  527 Unless C++ support is disabled by specifying the "--disable-cpp" option of the
  528 "configure" script, you must include the "-AA" option in the CXXFLAGS
  529 environment variable in order for the C++ components to compile correctly.
  530 
  531 Also, note that the aCC compiler on PA-RISC platforms may have a defect whereby
  532 needed libraries fail to get included when specifying the "-AA" compiler
  533 option. If you experience unresolved symbols when linking the C++ programs,
  534 use the workaround of specifying the following environment variable prior to
  535 running the "configure" script:
  536 
  537   CXXLDFLAGS="-lstd_v2 -lCsup_v2"
  538 
  539 
  540 Using Sun's compilers for Solaris
  541 ---------------------------------
  542 
  543 A user reports that the following configurations work on Solaris 9 sparcv9 and
  544 Solaris 9 x86 (32-bit):
  545 
  546   Solaris 9 sparcv9: ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-m64 -g"
  547   Solaris 9 x86:     ./configure --disable-cpp CC=/bin/cc CFLAGS="-g"
  548 
  549 
  550 Using PCRE from MySQL
  551 ---------------------
  552 
  553 On systems where both PCRE and MySQL are installed, it is possible to make use
  554 of PCRE from within MySQL, as an alternative to the built-in pattern matching.
  555 There is a web page that tells you how to do this:
  556 
  557   http://www.mysqludf.org/lib_mysqludf_preg/index.php
  558 
  559 
  560 Making new tarballs
  561 -------------------
  562 
  563 The command "make dist" creates three PCRE tarballs, in tar.gz, tar.bz2, and
  564 zip formats. The command "make distcheck" does the same, but then does a trial
  565 build of the new distribution to ensure that it works.
  566 
  567 If you have modified any of the man page sources in the doc directory, you
  568 should first run the PrepareRelease script before making a distribution. This
  569 script creates the .txt and HTML forms of the documentation from the man pages.
  570 
  571 
  572 Testing PCRE
  573 ------------
  574 
  575 To test the basic PCRE library on a Unix system, run the RunTest script that is
  576 created by the configuring process. There is also a script called RunGrepTest
  577 that tests the options of the pcregrep command. If the C++ wrapper library is
  578 built, three test programs called pcrecpp_unittest, pcre_scanner_unittest, and
  579 pcre_stringpiece_unittest are also built. When JIT support is enabled, another
  580 test program called pcre_jit_test is built.
  581 
  582 Both the scripts and all the program tests are run if you obey "make check" or
  583 "make test". For other systems, see the instructions in NON-UNIX-USE.
  584 
  585 The RunTest script runs the pcretest test program (which is documented in its
  586 own man page) on each of the relevant testinput files in the testdata
  587 directory, and compares the output with the contents of the corresponding
  588 testoutput files. Some tests are relevant only when certain build-time options
  589 were selected. For example, the tests for UTF-8/16 support are run only if
  590 --enable-utf was used. RunTest outputs a comment when it skips a test.
  591 
  592 Many of the tests that are not skipped are run up to three times. The second
  593 run forces pcre_study() to be called for all patterns except for a few in some
  594 tests that are marked "never study" (see the pcretest program for how this is
  595 done). If JIT support is available, the non-DFA tests are run a third time,
  596 this time with a forced pcre_study() with the PCRE_STUDY_JIT_COMPILE option.
  597 
  598 When both 8-bit and 16-bit support is enabled, the entire set of tests is run
  599 twice, once for each library. If you want to run just one set of tests, call
  600 RunTest with either the -8 or -16 option.
  601 
  602 RunTest uses a file called testtry to hold the main output from pcretest.
  603 Other files whose names begin with "test" are used as working files in some
  604 tests. To run pcretest on just one or more specific test files, give their
  605 numbers as arguments to RunTest, for example:
  606 
  607   RunTest 2 7 11
  608 
  609 The first test file can be fed directly into the perltest.pl script to check
  610 that Perl gives the same results. The only difference you should see is in the
  611 first few lines, where the Perl version is given instead of the PCRE version.
  612 
  613 The second set of tests check pcre_fullinfo(), pcre_study(),
  614 pcre_copy_substring(), pcre_get_substring(), pcre_get_substring_list(), error
  615 detection, and run-time flags that are specific to PCRE, as well as the POSIX
  616 wrapper API. It also uses the debugging flags to check some of the internals of
  617 pcre_compile().
  618 
  619 If you build PCRE with a locale setting that is not the standard C locale, the
  620 character tables may be different (see next paragraph). In some cases, this may
  621 cause failures in the second set of tests. For example, in a locale where the
  622 isprint() function yields TRUE for characters in the range 128-255, the use of
  623 [:isascii:] inside a character class defines a different set of characters, and
  624 this shows up in this test as a difference in the compiled code, which is being
  625 listed for checking. Where the comparison test output contains [\x00-\x7f] the
  626 test will contain [\x00-\xff], and similarly in some other cases. This is not a
  627 bug in PCRE.
  628 
  629 The third set of tests checks pcre_maketables(), the facility for building a
  630 set of character tables for a specific locale and using them instead of the
  631 default tables. The tests make use of the "fr_FR" (French) locale. Before
  632 running the test, the script checks for the presence of this locale by running
  633 the "locale" command. If that command fails, or if it doesn't include "fr_FR"
  634 in the list of available locales, the third test cannot be run, and a comment
  635 is output to say why. If running this test produces instances of the error
  636 
  637   ** Failed to set locale "fr_FR"
  638 
  639 in the comparison output, it means that locale is not available on your system,
  640 despite being listed by "locale". This does not mean that PCRE is broken.
  641 
  642 [If you are trying to run this test on Windows, you may be able to get it to
  643 work by changing "fr_FR" to "french" everywhere it occurs. Alternatively, use
  644 RunTest.bat. The version of RunTest.bat included with PCRE 7.4 and above uses
  645 Windows versions of test 2. More info on using RunTest.bat is included in the
  646 document entitled NON-UNIX-USE.]
  647 
  648 The fourth and fifth tests check the UTF-8/16 support and error handling and
  649 internal UTF features of PCRE that are not relevant to Perl, respectively. The
  650 sixth and seventh tests do the same for Unicode character properties support.
  651 
  652 The eighth, ninth, and tenth tests check the pcre_dfa_exec() alternative
  653 matching function, in non-UTF-8/16 mode, UTF-8/16 mode, and UTF-8/16 mode with
  654 Unicode property support, respectively.
  655 
  656 The eleventh test checks some internal offsets and code size features; it is
  657 run only when the default "link size" of 2 is set (in other cases the sizes
  658 change) and when Unicode property support is enabled.
  659 
  660 The twelfth test is run only when JIT support is available, and the thirteenth
  661 test is run only when JIT support is not available. They test some JIT-specific
  662 features such as information output from pcretest about JIT compilation.
  663 
  664 The fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth tests are run only in 8-bit mode, and
  665 the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth tests are run only in 16-bit mode.
  666 These are tests that generate different output in the two modes. They are for
  667 general cases, UTF-8/16 support, and Unicode property support, respectively.
  668 
  669 The twentieth test is run only in 16-bit mode. It tests some specific 16-bit
  670 features of the DFA matching engine.
  671 
  672 The twenty-first and twenty-second tests are run only in 16-bit mode, when the
  673 link size is set to 2. They test reloading pre-compiled patterns.
  674 
  675 
  676 Character tables
  677 ----------------
  678 
  679 For speed, PCRE uses four tables for manipulating and identifying characters
  680 whose code point values are less than 256. The final argument of the
  681 pcre_compile() function is a pointer to a block of memory containing the
  682 concatenated tables. A call to pcre_maketables() can be used to generate a set
  683 of tables in the current locale. If the final argument for pcre_compile() is
  684 passed as NULL, a set of default tables that is built into the binary is used.
  685 
  686 The source file called pcre_chartables.c contains the default set of tables. By
  687 default, this is created as a copy of pcre_chartables.c.dist, which contains
  688 tables for ASCII coding. However, if --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
  689 for ./configure, a different version of pcre_chartables.c is built by the
  690 program dftables (compiled from dftables.c), which uses the ANSI C character
  691 handling functions such as isalnum(), isalpha(), isupper(), islower(), etc. to
  692 build the table sources. This means that the default C locale which is set for
  693 your system will control the contents of these default tables. You can change
  694 the default tables by editing pcre_chartables.c and then re-building PCRE. If
  695 you do this, you should take care to ensure that the file does not get
  696 automatically re-generated. The best way to do this is to move
  697 pcre_chartables.c.dist out of the way and replace it with your customized
  698 tables.
  699 
  700 When the dftables program is run as a result of --enable-rebuild-chartables,
  701 it uses the default C locale that is set on your system. It does not pay
  702 attention to the LC_xxx environment variables. In other words, it uses the
  703 system's default locale rather than whatever the compiling user happens to have
  704 set. If you really do want to build a source set of character tables in a
  705 locale that is specified by the LC_xxx variables, you can run the dftables
  706 program by hand with the -L option. For example:
  707 
  708   ./dftables -L pcre_chartables.c.special
  709 
  710 The first two 256-byte tables provide lower casing and case flipping functions,
  711 respectively. The next table consists of three 32-byte bit maps which identify
  712 digits, "word" characters, and white space, respectively. These are used when
  713 building 32-byte bit maps that represent character classes for code points less
  714 than 256.
  715 
  716 The final 256-byte table has bits indicating various character types, as
  717 follows:
  718 
  719     1   white space character
  720     2   letter
  721     4   decimal digit
  722     8   hexadecimal digit
  723    16   alphanumeric or '_'
  724   128   regular expression metacharacter or binary zero
  725 
  726 You should not alter the set of characters that contain the 128 bit, as that
  727 will cause PCRE to malfunction.
  728 
  729 
  730 File manifest
  731 -------------
  732 
  733 The distribution should contain the files listed below. Where a file name is
  734 given as pcre[16]_xxx it means that there are two files, one with the name
  735 pcre_xxx and the other with the name pcre16_xxx.
  736 
  737 (A) Source files of the PCRE library functions and their headers:
  738 
  739   dftables.c              auxiliary program for building pcre_chartables.c
  740                             when --enable-rebuild-chartables is specified
  741 
  742   pcre_chartables.c.dist  a default set of character tables that assume ASCII
  743                             coding; used, unless --enable-rebuild-chartables is
  744                             specified, by copying to pcre[16]_chartables.c
  745 
  746   pcreposix.c             )
  747   pcre[16]_byte_order.c   )
  748   pcre[16]_compile.c      )
  749   pcre[16]_config.c       )
  750   pcre[16]_dfa_exec.c     )
  751   pcre[16]_exec.c         )
  752   pcre[16]_fullinfo.c     )
  753   pcre[16]_get.c          ) sources for the functions in the library,
  754   pcre[16]_globals.c      )   and some internal functions that they use
  755   pcre[16]_jit_compile.c  )
  756   pcre[16]_maketables.c   )
  757   pcre[16]_newline.c      )
  758   pcre[16]_refcount.c     )
  759   pcre[16]_string_utils.c )
  760   pcre[16]_study.c        )
  761   pcre[16]_tables.c       )
  762   pcre[16]_ucd.c          )
  763   pcre[16]_version.c      )
  764   pcre[16]_xclass.c       )
  765   pcre_ord2utf8.c         )
  766   pcre_valid_utf8.c       )
  767   pcre16_ord2utf16.c      )
  768   pcre16_utf16_utils.c    )
  769   pcre16_valid_utf16.c    )
  770 
  771   pcre[16]_printint.c     ) debugging function that is used by pcretest,
  772                           )   and can also be #included in pcre_compile()
  773 
  774   pcre.h.in               template for pcre.h when built by "configure"
  775   pcreposix.h             header for the external POSIX wrapper API
  776   pcre_internal.h         header for internal use
  777   sljit/*                 16 files that make up the JIT compiler
  778   ucp.h                   header for Unicode property handling
  779 
  780   config.h.in             template for config.h, which is built by "configure"
  781 
  782   pcrecpp.h               public header file for the C++ wrapper
  783   pcrecpparg.h.in         template for another C++ header file
  784   pcre_scanner.h          public header file for C++ scanner functions
  785   pcrecpp.cc              )
  786   pcre_scanner.cc         ) source for the C++ wrapper library
  787 
  788   pcre_stringpiece.h.in   template for pcre_stringpiece.h, the header for the
  789                             C++ stringpiece functions
  790   pcre_stringpiece.cc     source for the C++ stringpiece functions
  791 
  792 (B) Source files for programs that use PCRE:
  793 
  794   pcredemo.c              simple demonstration of coding calls to PCRE
  795   pcregrep.c              source of a grep utility that uses PCRE
  796   pcretest.c              comprehensive test program
  797 
  798 (C) Auxiliary files:
  799 
  800   132html                 script to turn "man" pages into HTML
  801   AUTHORS                 information about the author of PCRE
  802   ChangeLog               log of changes to the code
  803   CleanTxt                script to clean nroff output for txt man pages
  804   Detrail                 script to remove trailing spaces
  805   HACKING                 some notes about the internals of PCRE
  806   INSTALL                 generic installation instructions
  807   LICENCE                 conditions for the use of PCRE
  808   COPYING                 the same, using GNU's standard name
  809   Makefile.in             ) template for Unix Makefile, which is built by
  810                           )   "configure"
  811   Makefile.am             ) the automake input that was used to create
  812                           )   Makefile.in
  813   NEWS                    important changes in this release
  814   NON-UNIX-USE            notes on building PCRE on non-Unix systems
  815   PrepareRelease          script to make preparations for "make dist"
  816   README                  this file
  817   RunTest                 a Unix shell script for running tests
  818   RunGrepTest             a Unix shell script for pcregrep tests
  819   aclocal.m4              m4 macros (generated by "aclocal")
  820   config.guess            ) files used by libtool,
  821   config.sub              )   used only when building a shared library
  822   configure               a configuring shell script (built by autoconf)
  823   configure.ac            ) the autoconf input that was used to build
  824                           )   "configure" and config.h
  825   depcomp                 ) script to find program dependencies, generated by
  826                           )   automake
  827   doc/*.3                 man page sources for PCRE
  828   doc/*.1                 man page sources for pcregrep and pcretest
  829   doc/index.html.src      the base HTML page
  830   doc/html/*              HTML documentation
  831   doc/pcre.txt            plain text version of the man pages
  832   doc/pcretest.txt        plain text documentation of test program
  833   doc/perltest.txt        plain text documentation of Perl test program
  834   install-sh              a shell script for installing files
  835   libpcre16.pc.in         template for libpcre16.pc for pkg-config
  836   libpcre.pc.in           template for libpcre.pc for pkg-config
  837   libpcreposix.pc.in      template for libpcreposix.pc for pkg-config
  838   libpcrecpp.pc.in        template for libpcrecpp.pc for pkg-config
  839   ltmain.sh               file used to build a libtool script
  840   missing                 ) common stub for a few missing GNU programs while
  841                           )   installing, generated by automake
  842   mkinstalldirs           script for making install directories
  843   perltest.pl             Perl test program
  844   pcre-config.in          source of script which retains PCRE information
  845   pcre_jit_test.c         test program for the JIT compiler
  846   pcrecpp_unittest.cc          )
  847   pcre_scanner_unittest.cc     ) test programs for the C++ wrapper
  848   pcre_stringpiece_unittest.cc )
  849   testdata/testinput*     test data for main library tests
  850   testdata/testoutput*    expected test results
  851   testdata/grep*          input and output for pcregrep tests
  852   testdata/*              other supporting test files
  853 
  854 (D) Auxiliary files for cmake support
  855 
  856   cmake/COPYING-CMAKE-SCRIPTS
  857   cmake/FindPackageHandleStandardArgs.cmake
  858   cmake/FindReadline.cmake
  859   CMakeLists.txt
  860   config-cmake.h.in
  861 
  862 (E) Auxiliary files for VPASCAL
  863 
  864   makevp.bat
  865   makevp_c.txt
  866   makevp_l.txt
  867   pcregexp.pas
  868 
  869 (F) Auxiliary files for building PCRE "by hand"
  870 
  871   pcre.h.generic          ) a version of the public PCRE header file
  872                           )   for use in non-"configure" environments
  873   config.h.generic        ) a version of config.h for use in non-"configure"
  874                           )   environments
  875 
  876 (F) Miscellaneous
  877 
  878   RunTest.bat            a script for running tests under Windows
  879 
  880 Philip Hazel
  881 Email local part: ph10
  882 Email domain: cam.ac.uk
  883 Last updated: 20 January 2012