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    1 <chapter id="config-wine-main">
    2     <title>Configuring Wine</title>
    3       <para>
    4         Most of the most common configuration changes can be done with the
    5         <command>winecfg</command> tool.  We'll go through an easy, step-by-step introduction
    6         to <command>winecfg</command> and outline the options available.
    7         In the next section we'll go over more advanced changes you can make
    8         using <command>regedit</command> as well as provide a complete reference to all Wine
    9         configuration settings.  Finally, some things you might want to
   10         configure fall out of the scope of <command>winecfg</command> and
   11         <command>regedit</command>, and we'll go over those.
   12       </para>
   13     <sect1 id="using-winecfg">
   14       <title>Using Winecfg</title>
   15       <para>
   16         In the past, Wine used a special configuration file that could be
   17          found in <filename>~/.wine/config</filename>.  If you are still using
   18          a version of Wine that references this file (older than June, 2005)
   19          you should upgrade before doing anything else.  All settings are now
   20          stored directly in the registry and accessed by Wine when it starts.
   21        </para>
   22        <para>
   23          Winecfg should have been installed on your computer along with the
   24          rest of the Wine programs.  If you can't figure out how to start it,
   25          try running <command>winecfg</command>.
   26         </para>
   27         <para>
   28           When the program starts you'll notice there are tabs along the top
   29           of the window for:
   30           <itemizedlist>
   31             <listitem>
   32               <para>
   33                 Applications
   34               </para>
   35             </listitem>
   36             <listitem>
   37               <para>
   38                 Libraries
   39               </para>
   40             </listitem>
   41             <listitem>
   42               <para>
   43                 Graphics
   44               </para>
   45             </listitem>
   46             <listitem>
   47               <para>
   48                 Desktop Integration
   49               </para>
   50             </listitem>
   51             <listitem>
   52               <para>
   53                 Drives
   54               </para>
   55             </listitem>
   56             <listitem>
   57               <para>
   58                 Audio
   59               </para>
   60             </listitem>
   61             <listitem>
   62               <para>
   63                 About
   64               </para>
   65             </listitem>
   66           </itemizedlist>
   67         </para>
   68         <para>
   69           Changing settings in the
   70           <guilabel>Applications</guilabel> and <guilabel>Libraries</guilabel>
   71           tabs will have the most impact on getting an application to run.  The
   72           other settings focus on getting Wine itself to behave the way
   73           you want it to.
   74         </para>
   75         <para>
   76           Note: The <guilabel>Applications</guilabel>, <guilabel>Libraries</guilabel>, and
   77           <guilabel>Graphics</guilabel> tabs are linked together!  If you have <quote>Default
   78           Settings</quote> selected under <guilabel>Applications</guilabel>, all of the changes made
   79           within the <guilabel>Libraries</guilabel> and <guilabel>Graphics</guilabel> tabs will
   80           be changed for all applications.  If you've configured a specific application under the
   81           <guilabel>Applications</guilabel> tab and have it selected, then any changes made in
   82           <guilabel>Libraries</guilabel> or <guilabel>Graphics</guilabel> will affect only that
   83           application.  This allows for custom settings for specific applications.
   84         </para>
   85         <sect2 id="config-windows-versions">
   86         <title>Application Settings</title>
   87         <para>
   88           Wine has the ability to mimic the behavior of different versions of
   89           Windows.  In general, the biggest difference is whether Wine
   90           behaves as a Win9x version or an NT version.  Some applications
   91           require a specific behavior in order to function and changing
   92           this setting may cause a buggy app to work.  Wine default Windows version
   93           is Windows XP.  Some applications may perform better if you
   94           choose Windows 98.
   95        </para>
   96        <para>
   97          Within the tab you'll notice there is a
   98          <emphasis>Default Settings</emphasis> entry. If you select that
   99          you'll see the current default <emphasis>Windows Version</emphasis> 
  100          for all applications.  A troublesome application
  101          is best configured separately from the Default Settings.  To do that:
  102           <orderedlist>
  103             <listitem>
  104               <para>
  105                 Click on the <guibutton>Add application</guibutton> button.
  106               </para>
  107             </listitem>
  108             <listitem>
  109               <para>
  110                 Browse until you locate the executable.
  111               </para>
  112             </listitem>
  113             <listitem>
  114               <para>
  115                 After it's been added you can choose the specific Windows
  116                version Wine will emulate for that application.
  117               </para>
  118             </listitem>
  119          </orderedlist>
  120         </para>
  121       </sect2>
  122       <sect2>
  123         <title>Libraries Settings</title>
  124         <para>
  125           Likewise, some applications require specific libraries in order
  126           to run.  Wine reproduces the Windows system libraries (so-called
  127           native DLLs) with completely custom versions designed to
  128           function exactly the same way but without requiring licenses
  129           from Microsoft.  Wine has many known deficiencies in its
  130           built-in versions, but in many instances the functionality
  131           is sufficient.  Using only builtin DLLs ensures that your
  132           system is Microsoft-free.  However, Wine has the ability to
  133           load native Windows DLLs.
  134         </para>
  135         <sect3 id="winecfg-dll-overrides">
  136           <title>DLL Overrides</title>
  137           <para>
  138             It's not always possible to run an application on builtin
  139             DLLs, so sometimes native versions will be recommended as
  140             a workaround for a specific problem.
  141             Some may be directly copied to the directory configured
  142             as <filename class="directory">c:\windows\system32</filename> (more on that in
  143             the drives section) while others may require an installer, see
  144             the next section on <command>winetricks</command>.
  145             Native versions of these DLLs do not work:
  146             <filename class="libraryfile">kernel32.dll</filename>,
  147             <filename class="libraryfile">gdi32.dll</filename>,
  148             <filename class="libraryfile">user32.dll</filename>,
  149             and <filename class="libraryfile">ntdll.dll</filename>.  These libraries require
  150             low-level Windows kernel access that simply doesn't exist
  151             within Wine.    
  152           </para>
  153           <para>
  154             With that in mind, once you've copied the DLL you just need to
  155             tell Wine to try to use it.  You can configure Wine to choose
  156             between native and builtin DLLs at two different levels.
  157             If you have <emphasis>Default Settings</emphasis> selected
  158             in the <guilabel>Applications</guilabel> tab, the changes you
  159             make will affect all applications.  Or, you can override the 
  160             global settings on a per-application level by adding and 
  161             selecting an application in the <guilabel>Applications</guilabel> tab.
  162          </para>
  163          <para>
  164            To add an override for <filename class="libraryfile">FOO.DLL</filename>, enter
  165            <userinput>FOO</userinput> into the box
  166            labeled <guilabel>New override for library:</guilabel> and
  167            click on the <guibutton>Add</guibutton> button.  To change how
  168            the DLL behaves, select it within the <guilabel>Existing
  169            overrides:</guilabel> box and choose <guibutton>Edit</guibutton>.
  170            By default the new load order will be native Windows libraries
  171            before Wine builtin ones (<emphasis>Native then
  172            Builtin</emphasis>).  You can also choose native only, builtin
  173            only, or disable it altogether.
  174          </para>
  175          <para>
  176            DLLs usually get loaded in the following order:
  177            <orderedlist>
  178              <listitem>
  179                <para>
  180                  The directory the program was started from.
  181                </para>
  182              </listitem>
  183              <listitem>
  184                <para>
  185                  The current directory.
  186                </para>
  187              </listitem>
  188              <listitem>
  189                <para>
  190                  The Windows system directory.
  191                </para>
  192              </listitem>
  193              <listitem>
  194                <para>
  195                  The Windows directory.
  196                </para>
  197              </listitem>
  198              <listitem>
  199                <para>
  200                  The <envar>PATH</envar> variable directories.
  201                </para>
  202              </listitem>
  203            </orderedlist>
  204          </para>
  205          </sect3>
  206          <sect3>
  207           <title>Notes About System or Missing DLLs</title>
  208          <para>
  209            There are of course DLLs that Wine does not currently implement
  210            very well (or at all).
  211          </para>
  212          <para>
  213            In case Wine complains about a missing DLL, you should check whether
  214            this file is a publicly available DLL or a custom DLL belonging
  215            to your program.  In the latter case, check that you have installed
  216            your program correctly.
  217          </para>
  218          <para>
  219            Most often applications will assume that a required redistributable
  220            package has already been installed and subsequently fail to run when
  221            the required dependencies are not met.  For example:
  222          </para>
  223 <screen>
  224 err:module:import_dll Library MFC42.DLL (which is needed by L"C:\\Program Files\\Foo\\Bar.dll") not found
  225 </screen>
  226          <para>
  227            Redistributable packages which install the necessary runtimes can
  228            be obtained through the use of <ulink
  229            url="http://wiki.winehq.org/winetricks">winetricks</ulink>.  Note
  230            these components are subject to their own
  231            license and are not part of the Wine project.  You should refer to
  232            the application's <ulink url="http://appdb.winehq.org">AppDB</ulink>
  233            entry for advice on what is required.
  234          </para>
  235         </sect3>
  236       </sect2>
  237       <sect2>
  238         <title>Graphics Settings</title>
  239         <para>
  240           There are basically five different graphics settings you
  241           can configure.  For most people the defaults are fine.
  242         </para>
  243         <para>
  244           The first setting primarily affect games and is somewhat
  245           self-explanatory.  You can prevent the mouse from leaving the
  246           window of a full-screen program (e.g. a game) and the default
  247           is to not have that box checked. That is mostly needed when using
  248           a virtual desktop.
  249         </para>
  250         <para>
  251           You may find it helpful to tick <guilabel>Emulate a virtual desktop</guilabel>.
  252           In this case, all programs will run in a separate window. You
  253           may find this useful as a way to test buggy games that change
  254           (possibly unsuccessfully) the screen resolution.  Confining them
  255           to a window can allow for more control over them at the possible
  256           expense of decreased usability.  Sizes you might want to try are
  257           800x600 (the default) or 1024x768.
  258         </para>
  259     </sect2>
  260         <sect2>
  261           <title>Drive Settings</title>
  262       <para>
  263             Windows requires a fairly rigid drive configuration that Wine
  264             imitates.  Most people are familiar with the standard notation
  265             of the <filename class="devicefile">A:</filename> drive representing the floppy disk,
  266             the <filename class="devicefile">C:</filename>
  267             drive representing the primary system disk, etc.   Wine uses
  268             the same concept and maps those drives to the underlying native
  269             filesystem.
  270           </para><para>
  271             Wine drive configuration is relatively simple.
  272             In <command>winecfg</command> under the <guilabel>Drives</guilabel> tab you'll
  273             see buttons to add and remove available drives.
  274             When you choose to add a drive, a new entry will be made
  275             and a default drive mapping will appear.  You can change where
  276             this drive points to by changing what's in the
  277             <guilabel>Path:</guilabel> box.  If you're unsure of the
  278             exact path you can choose <guibutton>Browse</guibutton> to search for it.
  279             Removing a drive is as easy as selecting the drive and
  280             clicking <guibutton>Remove</guibutton>.
  281            </para><para>
  282             <command>winecfg</command> has the ability to automatically detect the drives
  283             available on your system.  It's recommended you try this
  284             before attempting to configure drives manually.  Simply
  285             click on the <guibutton>Autodetect</guibutton> button to
  286             have Wine search for drives on your system.
  287            </para><para>
  288             You may be interested in configuring your drive settings
  289             outside of <command>winecfg</command>, in which case you're in luck because it's
  290             quite easy.  All of the drive settings reside in a special
  291             directory: <filename class="directory">~/.wine/dosdevices</filename>.  Each
  292             <quote>drive</quote> is simply a link to where it actually resides.  Wine automatically
  293             sets up two drives the first time you run Wine:
  294            </para>
  295 <screen>
  296 <prompt>$ </prompt><userinput>ls -la ~/.wine/dosdevices/</userinput>
  297 <computeroutput>lrwxrwxrwx  1 <replaceable>wineuser</replaceable> <replaceable>wineuser</replaceable>   10 Jul 23 15:12 c: -> ../drive_c</computeroutput>
  298 <computeroutput>lrwxrwxrwx  1 <replaceable>wineuser</replaceable> <replaceable>wineuser</replaceable>    1 Jul 23 15:12 z: -> /</computeroutput>
  299 </screen>
  300            <para>
  301              To add another drive, for example your CD-ROM, just create a new
  302              link pointing to it:
  303            </para>
  304 <screen>
  305 <prompt>$ </prompt><userinput>ln -s /mnt/cdrom ~/.wine/dosdevices/d:</userinput>
  306 </screen>
  307            <para>
  308              Take note of the DOS-style naming convention used for links -
  309              the format is a letter followed by a colon, such as <filename
  310              class="devicefile">a:</filename>.  So,
  311              if the link to your <filename class="devicefile">c:</filename> drive points to
  312              <filename class="directory">~/.wine/drive_c</filename>, you
  313              can interpret references to <filename class="directory">c:\windows\system32</filename>
  314              to mean <filename class="directory">~/.wine/drive_c/windows/system32</filename>.
  315       </para>
  316         </sect2>
  317     <sect2>
  318         <title>Audio Settings</title>
  319         <para>
  320           Wine can work with quite a few different audio subsystems.
  321           You can see the selected driver that Wine figures out for you
  322           under the <guilabel>Audio</guilabel> tab.
  323         </para>
  324         <para> 
  325           You can manually select which device will be used for
  326           Output, Input, Voice output and Voice input. For example you can choose
  327           the digital output of your sound device instead of the analog one.
  328         </para>
  329       </sect2>
  330       <sect2>
  331       <title>Desktop Integration</title>
  332       <para>
  333         Wine can load Windows themes if you have them available.  While
  334         this certainly isn't necessary in order to use Wine or applications,
  335         it does allow you to customize the look and feel of a program.  Wine
  336         supports the newer MSStyles type of themes.  Unlike the older <productname>Microsoft
  337         Plus!</productname> style themes, the <literal>uxtheme</literal> engine supports special
  338         <filename class="extension">.msstyles</filename> files
  339         that can retheme all of the Windows controls. This is more or less the 
  340         same kind of theming that modern Linux desktops have supported for 
  341         years. If you'd like to try this out:
  342           <orderedlist>
  343             <listitem>
  344               <para>
  345                 Download a Windows XP theme. Be sure it contains a
  346                 <filename class="extension">.msstyles</filename> file.
  347               </para>
  348             </listitem>
  349             <listitem>
  350               <para>
  351                 Use the <guilabel>Desktop Integration</guilabel> tab of
  352                 <command>winecfg</command> to install and select the new theme.
  353               </para>
  354             </listitem>
  355           </orderedlist>
  356         </para>
  357       </sect2>
  358     </sect1>
  359     <sect1 id="using-regedit">
  360       <title>Using the Registry and Regedit</title>
  361       <para>
  362         All of the settings you change in <command>winecfg</command>, with exception of
  363         the drive settings, are ultimately stored in the registry.
  364         In Windows, this is a central repository for the configuration
  365         of applications and the operating system.  Likewise, Wine
  366         implements a registry and some settings not found in Winecfg
  367         can be changed within it (there's actually more of a chance
  368         you'll need to dip into the registry to change the settings of an application
  369         than Wine itself).
  370       </para>
  371       <para>
  372         Now, the fact that Wine itself uses the registry to store settings
  373         has been controversial.  Some people argue that it's too much like
  374         Windows.  To counter this there are several things to consider.
  375         First, it's impossible to avoid implementing a registry simply
  376         because applications expect to be able to store their settings there.
  377         In order for Wine to store and access settings in a separate
  378         configuration file would require a separate set of code to basically
  379         do the same thing as the Win32 APIs Wine already implements.
  380       </para>
  381       <sect2>
  382         <title>Registry Structure</title>
  383         <para>
  384           Okay... with that out of the way, let's dig into the registry a bit
  385           to see how it's laid out.  The Windows registry is an elaborate tree
  386           structure, and not even most Windows programmers are fully aware of
  387           how the registry is laid out, with its different <quote>hives</quote> and numerous
  388           links between them; a full coverage is out of the scope of
  389           this document. But here are the basic registry keys you might
  390           need to know about for now:
  391         </para>
  392         <variablelist>
  393           <varlistentry>
  394             <term><literal>HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE</literal></term>
  395             <listitem>
  396               <para>
  397                 This fundamental root key (in win9x it's stored in the
  398                 hidden file <filename>system.dat</filename>) contains
  399                 everything pertaining to the current Windows
  400                 installation.  This is often abbreviated <literal>HKLM</literal>.
  401               </para>
  402             </listitem>
  403           </varlistentry>
  404           <varlistentry>
  405             <term><literal>HKEY_USERS</literal></term>
  406             <listitem>
  407               <para>
  408                 This fundamental root key (in win9x it's stored in the
  409                 hidden file <filename>user.dat</filename>) contains
  410                 configuration data for every user of the installation.
  411               </para>
  412             </listitem>
  413           </varlistentry>
  414           <varlistentry>
  415             <term><literal>HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT</literal></term>
  416             <listitem>
  417               <para>
  418                 This is a link to <literal>HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Classes</literal>.
  419                 It contains data describing things like file
  420                 associations, OLE document handlers, and COM classes.
  421               </para>
  422             </listitem>
  423           </varlistentry>
  424           <varlistentry>
  425             <term><literal>HKEY_CURRENT_USER</literal></term>
  426             <listitem>
  427               <para>
  428                 This is a link to
  429                 <literal>HKEY_USERS\<replaceable>your_username</replaceable></literal>, i.e., your
  430                 personal configuration.
  431               </para>
  432             </listitem>
  433           </varlistentry>
  434         </variablelist>
  435       </sect2>
  436       <sect2>
  437         <title>Registry Files</title>
  438         <para>
  439           Now, what you're probably wondering is how that translates
  440           into Wine structure.  The registry layout described above
  441           actually lives in three different files within each user's
  442           <filename class="directory">~/.wine</filename> directory:
  443         </para>
  444         <variablelist>
  445           <varlistentry>
  446             <term><filename>system.reg</filename></term>
  447             <listitem>
  448               <para>
  449                 This file contains <literal>HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE</literal>.
  450               </para>
  451             </listitem>
  452           </varlistentry>
  453           <varlistentry>
  454             <term><filename>user.reg</filename></term>
  455             <listitem>
  456               <para>
  457                 This file contains <literal>HKEY_CURRENT_USER</literal>.
  458               </para>
  459             </listitem>
  460           </varlistentry>
  461           <varlistentry>
  462             <term><filename>userdef.reg</filename></term>
  463             <listitem>
  464               <para>
  465                 This file contains <literal>HKEY_USERS\.Default</literal> (i.e. the default
  466                 user settings).
  467               </para>
  468             </listitem>
  469           </varlistentry>
  470         </variablelist>
  471         <para>
  472           These files are automatically created the first time you use
  473           Wine.  A set of global settings is stored in the
  474           <filename>wine.inf</filename> file and is processed by
  475           the <command>rundll32.exe</command> program.  The first
  476           time you run Wine the <filename>wine.inf</filename> file
  477           gets processed to populate the initial registry.  The
  478           registry is also updated automatically
  479           if <filename>wine.inf</filename> changes, for instance when
  480           upgrading to a newer Wine version.
  481         </para>
  482         <para>
  483           Note: Older Wine versions (before 1.0) required you to run
  484           the <command>wineprefixcreate</command> command manually to
  485           upgrade your settings.  This is no longer necessary.
  486         </para>
  487         <para>
  488           It is not advisable to edit these files to modify the registry
  489           as they are managed by Wine internally.  Use <command>regedit.exe</command>,
  490           <command>reg.exe</command> or any program which uses the standard registry functions.
  491         </para>
  492       </sect2>
  493       <sect2>
  494       <title>Using Regedit</title>
  495         <para>
  496           An easy way to access and change the registry is with the
  497           <command>regedit</command> tool.  Similar to the Windows
  498           program it replaces, <command>regedit</command> serves to provide a system level
  499           view of the registry containing all of the keys.  When you start it, you'll
  500           immediately notice that the cryptic keys displayed in the text file
  501           are organized in a hierarchical fashion.
  502         </para>
  503         <para>
  504           To navigate through the registry, click on the keys on the
  505           left to drill down deeper. To delete a key, click on it and
  506           choose <guimenuitem>Delete</guimenuitem> from the <guimenu>Edit</guimenu> menu.  To add a
  507           key or value, locate where you want to put it and choose <guimenuitem>New</guimenuitem>
  508           from the <guimenu>Edit</guimenu> menu.  Likewise, you modify an existing key by
  509           highlighting it in the right-hand window pane and choosing
  510           <guimenuitem>Modify</guimenuitem> from the <guimenu>Edit</guimenu> menu.  Another way to
  511           perform these same actions is to right-click on the key or value.
  512         </para>
  513         <para>
  514           Of particular interest to Wine users are the settings stored in
  515           <literal>HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Wine</literal>.  Most of
  516           the settings you change within <command>winecfg</command> are written to this area
  517           of the registry.
  518         </para>
  519       </sect2>
  520       <sect2>
  521       <title>System Administration Tips</title>
  522         <para>
  523           With the above file structure, it is possible for a system
  524           administrator to configure the system so that a system Wine
  525           installation (and applications) can be shared by all the
  526           users, and still let the users all have their own personalized
  527           configuration. An administrator can, after having installed
  528           Wine and any Windows application software he wants the users
  529           to have access to, copy the resulting
  530           <filename>system.reg</filename> and
  531           over to the global registry files (which we assume will reside in
  532           <filename class="directory">/usr/local/etc</filename> here), with:
  533         </para>
  534 <screen>
  535 cd ~root/.wine
  536 cp system.reg /usr/local/etc/wine.systemreg
  537 </screen>
  538         <para>
  539           and perhaps even symlink these back to the administrator's
  540           account, to make it easier to install apps system-wide later:
  541         </para>
  542 <screen>
  543 ln -sf /usr/local/etc/wine.systemreg system.reg
  544 </screen>
  545         <para>
  546           You might be tempted to do the same for <filename>user.reg</filename>
  547           as well, however that file contains user specific settings.
  548           Every user should have their own copy of that file along with
  549           the permissions to modify it.
  550         </para>
  551         <para>
  552           You'll want to pay attention to drive mappings.  If
  553           you're sharing the <filename>system.reg</filename> file you'll want to make sure
  554           the registry settings are compatible with the drive mappings
  555           in <filename class="directory">~/.wine/dosdevices</filename>
  556           of each individual user.  As a general rule of thumb, the closer
  557           you keep your drive mappings to the default configuration, the easier
  558           this will be to manage.  You may or may not be able to share
  559           some or all of the actual <filename class="devicefile">c:</filename> drive you
  560           originally installed the application to.  Some applications 
  561           require the ability to write specific settings to the drive, 
  562           especially those designed for Windows 95/98/ME.   
  563         </para>
  564         <para>
  565           Note that the <command>tools/wineinstall</command> script
  566           used to do some of this if you installed Wine source as root, however
  567           it no longer does.
  568         </para>
  569         <para>
  570           A final word of caution: be careful with what you do with the 
  571           administrator account - if you do copy or link the administrator's 
  572           registry to the global registry, any user might be able to read the
  573           administrator's preferences, which might not be good if
  574           sensitive information (passwords, personal information, etc)
  575           is stored there. Only use the administrator account to install
  576           software, not for daily work; use an ordinary user account for
  577           that.
  578         </para>
  579       </sect2>
  580       <sect2>
  581         <title>Complete List of Registry Keys</title>
  582         <para>
  583           You'll find an up-to-date <ulink url="http://wiki.winehq.org/UsefulRegistryKeys"> list of
  584           useful registry keys and values</ulink> in the wiki.
  585         </para>
  586       </sect2>
  587     </sect1>
  588     <sect1 id="misc-things-to-configure">
  589     <title>Other Things to Configure</title>
  590     <para>
  591       This section is meant to cover the rest of the things you can configure.
  592       It also serves as a collection of tips and tricks to get the most out
  593       of using Wine.  
  594     </para>
  595       <sect2>
  596       <title>Serial and Parallel Ports</title>
  597         <para>
  598           Serial and parallel port configuration is very similar to drive
  599           configuration - simply create a symbolic link in
  600           <filename class="directory">~/.wine/dosdevices</filename> with the name of the
  601           device.  Windows serial ports follow a naming convention of the
  602           word <literal>com</literal> followed by a number, such as
  603           <filename class="devicefile">com1</filename>, <filename
  604           class="devicefile">com2</filename>, etc.  Similarly, parallel ports use
  605           <literal>lpt</literal> followed by a
  606           number, such as <filename class="devicefile">lpt1</filename>.
  607           You should link these directly to the corresponding Unix
  608           devices, such as <filename class="devicefile">/dev/ttyS0</filename> and
  609           <filename class="devicefile">/dev/lp0</filename>. Make sure you have the needed
  610           access rights to that device. For example, to configure
  611           one serial port and one parallel port, run the following commands:
  612 <screen>
  613 ln -s /dev/ttyS0 com1
  614 ln -s /dev/lp0 lpt1
  615 </screen>
  616         </para>
  617       </sect2>
  618       <sect2>
  619       <title>Network Shares</title>
  620 
  621         <para>
  622           Windows shares can be mapped into the <filename class="directory">unc/</filename>
  623           directory so anything trying to access
  624           <filename>\\<replaceable>myserver</replaceable>\<replaceable>some</replaceable>\<replaceable>file</replaceable></filename>
  625           will look in
  626           <filename>~/.wine/dosdevices/unc/<replaceable>myserver</replaceable>/<replaceable>some</replaceable>/<replaceable>file</replaceable></filename>.
  627           For example, if you used Samba to mount
  628           <filename class="directory">\\<replaceable>myserver</replaceable>\<replaceable>some</replaceable></filename> on
  629           <filename
  630           class="directory">/mnt/smb/<replaceable>myserver</replaceable>/<replaceable>some</replaceable></filename>
  631           then you can do
  632 <screen>
  633 ln -s /mnt/smb/<replaceable>myserver</replaceable>/<replaceable>some</replaceable> unc/<replaceable>myserver</replaceable>/<replaceable>some</replaceable>
  634 </screen>
  635 
  636           to make it available in Wine (don't forget to create the <filename
  637           class="directory">unc</filename> directory if it doesn't already exist).
  638          </para>
  639       </sect2>
  640       <sect2>
  641       <title>Fonts</title>
  642     <para>
  643           Font configuration, once a nasty problem, is now much simpler.
  644           If you have a collection of TrueType fonts in Windows it's
  645           simply a matter of copying the <filename class="extension">.ttf</filename> files
  646           into <filename class="directory">c:\windows\fonts</filename>.
  647         </para>
  648       </sect2>
  649       <sect2>
  650         <title>Printers</title>
  651         <para>
  652           Wine can interact directly with the local CUPS printing system to
  653           find the printers available on your system.  Configuring
  654           printers with Wine is as simple as making sure your CUPS
  655           configuration works. Wine still needs the
  656           <command>lpr</command> command (from CUPS), when printing a document.
  657         </para>
  658         <para>
  659           If you do not use CUPS, the old BSD-Printing system is used:
  660           <itemizedlist>
  661             <listitem>
  662               <para>
  663                 All Printers from <filename>/etc/printcap</filename> are installed automatically in Wine.
  664               </para>
  665             </listitem>
  666             <listitem>
  667               <para>
  668                 Wine needs a PPD file for every Printer (<filename>generic.ppd</filename>
  669                 comes with Wine).
  670               </para>
  671             </listitem>
  672             <listitem>
  673               <para>
  674                 The <command>lpr</command> command is called when printing a document
  675               </para>
  676             </listitem>
  677           </itemizedlist>
  678         </para>
  679       </sect2>
  680       <sect2>
  681         <title>Scanners</title>
  682         <para>
  683           In Windows, scanners use the TWAIN API to access the underlying
  684           hardware.  Wine builtin TWAIN DLL simply forwards those requests
  685           to the Linux SANE libraries.  So, to utilize your scanner under
  686           Wine you'll first need to make sure you can access it using
  687           SANE.  After that you'll need to make sure you have
  688           <command>xscanimage</command> available for use.  Currently
  689           it is shipped with the
  690           <literal>sane-frontends</literal> package but it
  691           may not be installed with your distribution.  Scanner access
  692           is currently known to have problems.  If you find it works for
  693           you, please consider updating this section of the user guide to
  694           provide details on using SANE with Wine.
  695         </para>
  696       </sect2>
  697       <sect2>
  698         <title>ODBC Databases</title>
  699         <para>
  700           The ODBC system within Wine, as with the printing system, is designed
  701           to hook across to the Unix system at a high level.  Rather than
  702           ensuring that all the Windows code works under Wine it uses a suitable
  703           Unix ODBC provider, such as <literal>unixODBC</literal>.  Thus if you configure Wine to
  704           use the built-in <filename class="libraryfile">odbc32.dll</filename>,
  705           that Wine DLL will interface to your
  706           Unix ODBC package and let that do the work, whereas if you configure
  707           Wine to use the native <filename class="libraryfile">odbc32.dll</filename>
  708           it will try to use the native ODBC32 drivers etc.
  709         </para>
  710         <sect3>
  711         <title>Configuring ODBC on Unix</title>
  712         <para>
  713           The first step in using a Unix ODBC system with Wine is, of course,
  714           to get the Unix ODBC system working itself.  This may involve
  715           downloading code or binary packages etc.  There are several Unix ODBC systems
  716           available such as <literal>unixODBC</literal> or an ODBC-ODBC bridge that can be used
  717           to access a Microsoft Access database.  Typically such systems will 
  718           include a tool, such as <command>isql</command>, which will allow 
  719           you to access the data from the command line so that you can check 
  720           that the system is working.
  721         </para>
  722         <para>
  723           The next step is to hook the Unix ODBC library to the Wine built-in
  724           <filename class="libraryfile">odbc32</filename> DLL.  The built-in <filename
  725           class="libraryfile">odbc32</filename> (currently)
  726           looks to the environment variable
  727           <envar>LIB_ODBC_DRIVER_MANAGER</envar> for the name of the ODBC
  728           library.  For example:
  729         </para>
  730 <screen>
  731 LIB_ODBC_DRIVER_MANAGER=/usr/lib/libodbc.so.1.0.0
  732 </screen>
  733         <para>
  734           If that environment variable is not set then it looks for a
  735           library called <filename class="libraryfile">libodbc.so</filename> and so
  736           you can add a symbolic link to
  737           equate that to your own library.  For example as root you could
  738           run the commands:
  739         </para>
  740 <screen>
  741 <prompt># </prompt><userinput>ln -s libodbc.so.1.0.0 /usr/lib/libodbc.so</userinput>
  742 <prompt># </prompt><userinput>/sbin/ldconfig</userinput>
  743 </screen>
  744         <para>
  745           The last step in configuring this is to ensure that Wine is set up
  746           to run the built-in version of <filename class="libraryfile">odbc32.dll</filename>,
  747           by modifying the DLL
  748           configuration.  This built-in DLL merely acts as a stub between the
  749           calling code and the Unix ODBC library.
  750         </para>
  751         <para>
  752           If you have any problems then you can use
  753           <userinput><envar>WINEDEBUG</envar>=+odbc32</userinput> command
  754           before running Wine to trace what is happening.  One word of
  755           warning: some programs actually cheat a little and bypass the ODBC
  756           library. For example the Crystal Reports engine goes to the registry
  757           to check on the DSN.  The fix for this is documented at <literal>unixODBC</literal>
  758           site where there is a section on using <literal>unixODBC</literal> with Wine.
  759         </para>
  760         </sect3>
  761         <sect3>
  762           <title>Using Windows ODBC drivers</title>
  763           <para>
  764             Native ODBC drivers have been reported to work for many types of
  765             databases including MSSQL and Oracle. In fact, some like MSSQL can
  766             only be accessed on Linux through a Winelib app.   Rather than
  767             just copying DLL files, most ODBC drivers require a Windows-based
  768             installer to run to properly configure things such as registry keys.
  769           </para>
  770           <para>
  771             In order to set up MSSQL support you will first need to download
  772             and run the <command>mdac_typ.exe</command> installer from <uri
  773             type="homepage">www.microsoft.com</uri>.  In order to
  774             configure your ODBC connections you must then run <command>CLICONFG.EXE</command>
  775             and <command>ODBCAD32.EXE</command> under Wine.  You can find them in the
  776             <filename class="directory">windows\system</filename>
  777             directory after mdac_typ runs.  Compare the output of these programs
  778             with the output on a native Windows machine.  Some things, such
  779             as protocols, may be missing because they rely on being installed
  780             along with the operating system.  If so, you may be able to copy
  781             missing functionality from an existing Windows installation as
  782             well as any registry values required.  A native Windows installation
  783             configured to be used by Wine should work the same way it did
  784             when run natively.
  785           </para>
  786           <para>
  787             Types successfully tested under Wine:
  788           </para>
  789           <informaltable>
  790             <tgroup cols="2">
  791               <thead>
  792                 <row>
  793                   <entry>DB Type</entry>
  794                   <entry>Usefulness</entry>
  795                 </row>
  796               </thead>
  797               <tbody>
  798                 <row>
  799                   <entry>MS SQL</entry>
  800                   <entry>100%</entry>
  801                 </row>
  802                </tbody>
  803              </tgroup>
  804            </informaltable>
  805           <para>
  806             Please report any other successes to the
  807             <ulink url="mailto:wine-devel@winehq.org">wine-devel</ulink>
  808             mailing list.
  809           </para>
  810          </sect3>
  811 
  812       </sect2>
  813     </sect1>
  814 
  815   </chapter>