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Texmaker : LaTeX Reference

Alphabetical Index

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Index by subject

Counters Internal counters used by LaTeX.

Cross References Automatic referencing.

Definitions Define your own commands etc.

Document Classes Some of the various classes available.

Environments Such as enumerate & itemize.

Footnotes How to produce footnotes.

Layout Controlling the page layout.

Lengths The length commands.

Letters The letter class.

Line & Page Breaking How to insert pagebreaks etc.

Making Paragraphs Paragraph commands.

Margin Notes Putting remarks in the margin.

Math Formulae How to create mathematical formulae.

Modes Paragraph, Math or LR modes.

Page Styles Various styles of page layout.

Sectioning How to section properly.

Spaces & Boxes All the associated commands.

Special Characters Special reserved characters.

Splitting the Input Dealing with big files by splitting.

Starting & Ending The formal start & end layouts.

Terminal Input/Output User interaction.

Typefaces Such as bold, italics etc.

Alphabetical index

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Whenever you put one of these special characters into your file, you are doing something special. If you simply want the character to be printed just as any other letter, include a \ in front of the character. For example, \$ will produce $ in your output.

One exception to this rule is the \ itself because \\ has its own special meaning. A \ is produced by typing $\backslash$ in your file.

Also, \~ means place a tilde accent over the following letter', so you will probably want to use \verb instead.

In addition, you can access any character of a font once you know its number by using the \symbol command. For example, the character used for displaying spaces in the \verb* command has the code decimal 32, so it can be typed as \symbol{32}.

You can also specify octal numbers with ' or hexadecimal numbers with ", so the previous example could also be written as \symbol{'40} or \symbol{"20}.

Splitting the Input

A large document requires a lot of input. Rather than putting the whole input in a single large file, it's more efficient to split it into several smaller ones. Regardless of how many separate files you use, there is one that is the root file; it is the one whose name you type when you run LaTeX.

• \include: Conditionally include a file.
• \includeonly: Determine which files are included.
• \input: Unconditionally include a file.

\include

\include{file}

The \include command is used in conjunction with the \includeonly command for selective inclusion of files. The file argument is the first name of a file, denoting file.tex'. If file is one the file names in the file list of the \includeonly command or if there is no \includeonly command, the \include command is equivalent to

\clearpage \input{file} \clearpage


except that if the file file.tex' does not exist, then a warning message rather than an error is produced. If the file is not in the file list, the \include command is equivalent to \clearpage.

The \include command may not appear in the preamble or in a file read by another \include command.

\includeonly

\includeonly{file_list}

The \includeonly command controls which files will be read in by an \include command. file_list should be a comma-separated list of filenames. Each filename must match exactly a filename specified in a \include command. This command can only appear in the preamble.

\input

\input{file}

The \input command causes the indicated file to be read and processed, exactly as if its contents had been inserted in the current file at that point. The file name may be a complete file name with extension or just a first name, in which case the file file.tex' is used.

Starting & Ending

Your input file must contain the following commands as a minimum:

 \documentclass{class}
\begin{document}
... your text goes here ...
\end{document}


where the class selected is one of the valid classes for LaTeX. See section Document Classes for details of the various document classes available locally.

You may include other LaTeX commands between the \documentclass and the \begin{document} commands (i.e., in the preamble').

A table of contents is produced with the \tableofcontents command. You put the command right where you want the table of contents to go; LaTeX does the rest for you. It produces a heading, but it does not automatically start a new page. If you want a new page after the table of contents, include a \newpage command after the \tableofcontents command.

There are similar commands \listoffigures and \listoftables for producing a list of figures and a list of tables, respectively. Everything works exactly the same as for the table of contents.

NOTE: If you want any of these items to be generated, you cannot have the \nofiles command in your document.

\addcontentsline{file}{sec_unit}{entry}

The \addcontentsline command adds an entry to the specified list or table where:

• file is the extension of the file on which information is to be written: toc (table of contents), lof (list of figures), or lot (list of tables).
• sec_unit controls the formatting of the entry. It should be one of the following, depending upon the value of the file argument:
1. toc -- the name of the sectional unit, such as part or subsection.
2. lof -- figure
3. lot -- table
• entry is the text of the entry.

\addtocontents{file}{text}

The \addtocontents command adds text (or formatting commands) directly to the file that generates the table of contents or list of figures or tables.

• file is the extension of the file on which information is to be written: toc (table of contents), lof (list of figures), or lot (list of tables).
• text is the information to be written.

Terminal Input/Output

• \typein: Read text from the terminal.
• \typeout: Write text to the terminal.

\typein

\typein[cmd]{msg}

Prints msg on the terminal and causes LaTeX to stop and wait for you to type a line of input, ending with return. If the cmd argument is missing, the typed input is processed as if it had been included in the input file in place of the \typein command. If the cmd argument is present, it must be a command name. This command name is then defined or redefined to be the typed input.

\typeout

\typeout{msg}


LaTeX's usual rules for treating multiple spaces as a single space and ignoring spaces after a command name apply to msg. A \space command in msg causes a single space to be printed. A ^^J in msg prints a newline.

Typefaces

The typeface is specified by giving the "size" and "style". A typeface is also called a "font".

\Styles

The following type style commands are supported by LaTeX.

These commands are used like \textit{italics text}. The corresponding command in parenthesis is the "declaration form", which takes no arguments. The scope of the declaration form lasts until the next type style command or the end of the current group.

The declaration forms are cumulative; i.e., you can say \sffamily\bfseries to get sans serif boldface.

You can also use the environment form of the declaration forms; e.g. \begin{ttfamily}...\end{ttfamily}.

\textrm (\rmfamily)
Roman.
\textit (\itshape)
\emph
Emphasis (toggles between \textit and \textrm).
\textmd (\mdseries)
Medium weight (default). The opposite of boldface.
\textbf (\bfseries)
Boldface.
\textup (\upshape)
Upright (default). The opposite of slanted.
\textsl (\slshape)
Slanted.
\textsf (\sffamily)
Sans serif.
\textsc (\scshape)
Small caps.
\texttt (\ttfamily)
Typewriter.
\textnormal (\normalfont)
Main document font.
\mathrm
Roman, for use in math mode.
\mathbf
Boldface, for use in math mode.
\mathsf
Sans serif, for use in math mode.
\mathtt
Typewriter, for use in math mode.
\mathit
Italics, for use in math mode, e.g. variable names with several letters.
\mathnormal
For use in math mode, e.g. inside another type style declaration.
\mathcal
Calligraphic' letters, for use in math mode.

In addition, the command \mathversion{bold} can be used for switching to bold letters and symbols in formulas. \mathversion{normal} restores the default.

Sizes

The following standard type size commands are supported by LaTeX.

The commands as listed here are "declaration forms". The scope of the declaration form lasts until the next type style command or the end of the current group.

You can also use the environment form of these commands; e.g. \begin{tiny}...\end{tiny}.

\tiny
\scriptsize
\footnotesize
\small
\normalsize
(default)
\large
\Large
\LARGE
\huge
\Huge

Low-level font commands

These commands are primarily intended for writers of macros and packages. The commands listed here are only a subset of the available ones. For full details, you should consult Chapter 7 of The LaTeX Companion.

\fontencoding{enc}
Select font encoding. Valid encodings include OT1 and T1.
\fontfamily{family}
Select font family. Valid families include:
• cmr for Computer Modern Roman
• cmss for Computer Modern Sans Serif
• cmtt for Computer Modern Typewriter
and numerous others.
\fontseries{series}
Select font series. Valid series include:
• m Medium (normal)
• b Bold
• c Condensed
• bc Bold condensed
• bx Bold extended
and various other combinations.
\fontshape{shape}
Select font shape. Valid shapes are:
• n Upright (normal)
• it Italic
• sl Slanted (oblique)
• sc Small caps
• ui Upright italics
• ol Outline
The two last shapes are not available for most font families.
\fontsize{size}{skip}
Set font size. The first parameter is the font size to switch to; the second is the \baselineskip to use. The unit of both parameters defaults to pt. A rule of thumb is that the baselineskip should be 1.2 times the font size.
\selectfont
The changes made by calling the four font commands described above do not come into effect until \selectfont is called.
\usefont{enc}{family}{series}{shape}
Equivalent to calling \fontencoding, \fontfamily, \fontseries and \fontshape with the given parameters, followed by \selectfont`.