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1 *** This software is postcardware: if you like it, please send a nice ***
2 *** postcard to the author's address (see the file AUTHORS). Sending ***
3 *** the postcard is optional. The real usage terms are below: ***
5 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
6 Version 2, June 1991
8 Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
9 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA
10 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
11 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
15 The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
16 freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
17 License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
18 software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
19 General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
20 Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
21 using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
22 the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
23 your programs, too.
25 When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
26 price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
27 have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
28 this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
29 if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
30 in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
32 To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
33 anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
34 These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
35 distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
37 For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
38 gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
39 you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
40 source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
43 We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
44 (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
45 distribute and/or modify the software.
47 Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
48 that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
49 software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
50 want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
51 that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
52 authors' reputations.
54 Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
55 patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
56 program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
57 program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
58 patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
60 The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
61 modification follow.
63 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
64 TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
66 0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
67 a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
68 under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
69 refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
70 means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
71 that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
72 either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
73 language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
74 the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
76 Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
77 covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
78 running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
79 is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
80 Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
81 Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
83 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
84 source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
85 conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
86 copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
87 notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
88 and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
89 along with the Program.
91 You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
92 you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
94 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
95 of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
96 distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
97 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
99 a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
100 stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
102 b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
103 whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
104 part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
105 parties under the terms of this License.
107 c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
108 when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
109 interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
110 announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
111 notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
112 a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
113 these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
114 License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
115 does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
116 the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
118 These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
119 identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
120 and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
121 themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
122 sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
123 distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
124 on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
125 this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
126 entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
128 Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
129 your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
130 exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
131 collective works based on the Program.
133 In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
134 with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
135 a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
136 the scope of this License.
138 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
139 under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
140 Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
142 a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
143 source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
144 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
146 b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
147 years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
148 cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
149 machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
150 distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
151 customarily used for software interchange; or,
153 c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
154 to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
155 allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
156 received the program in object code or executable form with such
157 an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
159 The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
160 making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
161 code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
162 associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
163 control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
164 special exception, the source code distributed need not include
165 anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
166 form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
167 operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
168 itself accompanies the executable.
170 If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
171 access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
172 access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
173 distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
174 compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
176 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
177 except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
178 otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
179 void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
180 However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
181 this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
182 parties remain in full compliance.
184 5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
185 signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
186 distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
187 prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
188 modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
189 Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
190 all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
191 the Program or works based on it.
193 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
194 Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
195 original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
196 these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
197 restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
198 You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
199 this License.
201 7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
202 infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
203 conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
204 otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
205 excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
206 distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
207 License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
208 may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
209 license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
210 all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
211 the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
212 refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
214 If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
215 any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
216 apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
219 It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
220 patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
221 such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
222 integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
223 implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
224 generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
225 through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
226 system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
227 to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
228 impose that choice.
230 This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
231 be a consequence of the rest of this License.
233 8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
234 certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
235 original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
236 may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
237 those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
238 countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
239 the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
241 9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
242 of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
243 be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
244 address new problems or concerns.
246 Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
247 specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
248 later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
249 either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
250 Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
251 this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
254 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
255 programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
256 to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
257 Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
258 make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
259 of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
260 of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
262 NO WARRANTY
264 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
265 FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
266 OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
267 PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
268 OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
269 MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
270 TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
271 PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
272 REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
274 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
275 WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
276 REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
277 INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
278 OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
279 TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
280 YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
281 PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
282 POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
284 END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
286 Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
288 If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
289 possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
290 free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
292 To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
293 to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
294 convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
295 the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
297 <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
298 Copyright (C) 19yy <name of author>
300 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
301 it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
302 the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
303 (at your option) any later version.
305 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
306 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
307 MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
308 GNU General Public License for more details.
310 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
311 along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
312 Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA
314 Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
316 If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
317 when it starts in an interactive mode:
319 Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19yy name of author
320 Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
321 This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
322 under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
324 The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
325 parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
326 be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
327 mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
329 You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
330 school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
331 necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
333 Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
334 `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
336 <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
337 Ty Coon, President of Vice
339 This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
340 proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
341 consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
342 library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
343 Public License instead of this License.