\$Id: 09-helper.xml 7186 2004-07-20 07:19:25Z xiphmont \$ Helper equations
Overview The equations below are used in multiple places by the Vorbis codec specification. Rather than cluttering up the main specification documents, they are defined here and referenced where appropriate.
Functions
ilog The "ilog(x)" function returns the position number (1 through n) of the highest set bit in the two's complement integer value [x]. Values of [x] less than zero are defined to return zero. 1) [return_value] = 0; 2) if ( [x] is greater than zero ){ 3) increment [return_value]; 4) logical shift [x] one bit to the right, padding the MSb with zero 5) repeat at step 2) } 6) done Examples: ilog(0) = 0; ilog(1) = 1; ilog(2) = 2; ilog(3) = 2; ilog(4) = 3; ilog(7) = 3; ilog(negative number) = 0;
float32_unpack "float32_unpack(x)" is intended to translate the packed binary representation of a Vorbis codebook float value into the representation used by the decoder for floating point numbers. For purposes of this example, we will unpack a Vorbis float32 into a host-native floating point number. 1) [mantissa] = [x] bitwise AND 0x1fffff (unsigned result) 2) [sign] = [x] bitwise AND 0x80000000 (unsigned result) 3) [exponent] = ( [x] bitwise AND 0x7fe00000) shifted right 21 bits (unsigned result) 4) if ( [sign] is nonzero ) then negate [mantissa] 5) return [mantissa] * ( 2 ^ ( [exponent] - 788 ) )
lookup1_values "lookup1_values(codebook_entries,codebook_dimensions)" is used to compute the correct length of the value index for a codebook VQ lookup table of lookup type 1. The values on this list are permuted to construct the VQ vector lookup table of size [codebook_entries]. The return value for this function is defined to be 'the greatest integer value for which [return_value] to the power of [codebook_dimensions] is less than or equal to [codebook_entries]'.
low_neighbor "low_neighbor(v,x)" finds the position n in vector [v] of the greatest value scalar element for which n is less than [x] and vector [v] element n is less than vector [v] element [x].
high_neighbor "high_neighbor(v,x)" finds the position n in vector [v] of the lowest value scalar element for which n is less than [x] and vector [v] element n is greater than vector [v] element [x].
render_point "render_point(x0,y0,x1,y1,X)" is used to find the Y value at point X along the line specified by x0, x1, y0 and y1. This function uses an integer algorithm to solve for the point directly without calculating intervening values along the line. 1) [dy] = [y1] - [y0] 2) [adx] = [x1] - [x0] 3) [ady] = absolute value of [dy] 4) [err] = [ady] * ([X] - [x0]) 5) [off] = [err] / [adx] using integer division 6) if ( [dy] is less than zero ) { 7) [Y] = [y0] - [off] } else { 8) [Y] = [y0] + [off] } 9) done
render_line Floor decode type one uses the integer line drawing algorithm of "render_line(x0, y0, x1, y1, v)" to construct an integer floor curve for contiguous piecewise line segments. Note that it has not been relevant elsewhere, but here we must define integer division as rounding division of both positive and negative numbers toward zero. 1) [dy] = [y1] - [y0] 2) [adx] = [x1] - [x0] 3) [ady] = absolute value of [dy] 4) [base] = [dy] / [adx] using integer division 5) [x] = [x0] 6) [y] = [y0] 7) [err] = 0 8) if ( [dy] is less than 0 ) { 9) [sy] = [base] - 1 } else { 10) [sy] = [base] + 1 } 11) [ady] = [ady] - (absolute value of [base]) * [adx] 12) vector [v] element [x] = [y] 13) iterate [x] over the range [x0]+1 ... [x1]-1 { 14) [err] = [err] + [ady]; 15) if ( [err] >= [adx] ) { 16) [err] = [err] - [adx] 17) [y] = [y] + [sy] } else { 18) [y] = [y] + [base] } 19) vector [v] element [x] = [y] }