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    1                 GNU Free Documentation License
    2                  Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
    3 
    4 
    5  Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    6      <http://fsf.org/>
    7  Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
    8  of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
    9 
   10 0. PREAMBLE
   11 
   12 The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
   13 functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
   14 assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
   15 with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
   16 Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
   17 to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
   18 for modifications made by others.
   19 
   20 This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
   21 works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.  It
   22 complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
   23 license designed for free software.
   24 
   25 We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
   26 software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
   27 program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
   28 software does.  But this License is not limited to software manuals;
   29 it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
   30 whether it is published as a printed book.  We recommend this License
   31 principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
   32 
   33 
   34 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
   35 
   36 This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
   37 contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
   38 distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice grants a
   39 world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
   40 work under the conditions stated herein.  The "Document", below,
   41 refers to any such manual or work.  Any member of the public is a
   42 licensee, and is addressed as "you".  You accept the license if you
   43 copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
   44 under copyright law.
   45 
   46 A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
   47 Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
   48 modifications and/or translated into another language.
   49 
   50 A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
   51 the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
   52 publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
   53 subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall
   54 directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document is in
   55 part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain
   56 any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of historical
   57 connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
   58 commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
   59 them.
   60 
   61 The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
   62 are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
   63 that says that the Document is released under this License.  If a
   64 section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
   65 allowed to be designated as Invariant.  The Document may contain zero
   66 Invariant Sections.  If the Document does not identify any Invariant
   67 Sections then there are none.
   68 
   69 The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
   70 as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
   71 the Document is released under this License.  A Front-Cover Text may
   72 be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
   73 
   74 A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
   75 represented in a format whose specification is available to the
   76 general public, that is suitable for revising the document
   77 straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
   78 pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
   79 drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
   80 for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
   81 to text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
   82 format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
   83 or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
   84 An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
   85 of text.  A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
   86 
   87 Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
   88 ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
   89 or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
   90 HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification.  Examples of
   91 transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG.  Opaque formats
   92 include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
   93 proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
   94 processing tools are not generally available, and the
   95 machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
   96 processors for output purposes only.
   97 
   98 The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
   99 plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
  100 this License requires to appear in the title page.  For works in
  101 formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
  102 the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
  103 preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
  104 
  105 The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies of
  106 the Document to the public.
  107 
  108 A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose
  109 title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
  110 text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ stands for a
  111 specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements",
  112 "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".)  To "Preserve the Title"
  113 of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
  114 section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
  115 
  116 The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
  117 states that this License applies to the Document.  These Warranty
  118 Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
  119 License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
  120 implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
  121 no effect on the meaning of this License.
  122 
  123 2. VERBATIM COPYING
  124 
  125 You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
  126 commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
  127 copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
  128 to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no
  129 other conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You may not use
  130 technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
  131 copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However, you may accept
  132 compensation in exchange for copies.  If you distribute a large enough
  133 number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
  134 
  135 You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
  136 you may publicly display copies.
  137 
  138 
  139 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
  140 
  141 If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
  142 printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
  143 Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
  144 copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
  145 Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
  146 the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
  147 you as the publisher of these copies.  The front cover must present
  148 the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
  149 visible.  You may add other material on the covers in addition.
  150 Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
  151 the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
  152 as verbatim copying in other respects.
  153 
  154 If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
  155 legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
  156 reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
  157 pages.
  158 
  159 If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
  160 more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
  161 copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
  162 a computer-network location from which the general network-using
  163 public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
  164 a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
  165 If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
  166 when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
  167 that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
  168 location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
  169 Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
  170 edition to the public.
  171 
  172 It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
  173 Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to
  174 give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the
  175 Document.
  176 
  177 
  178 4. MODIFICATIONS
  179 
  180 You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
  181 the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
  182 the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
  183 Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
  184 and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
  185 of it.  In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
  186 
  187 A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
  188    from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
  189    (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
  190    of the Document).  You may use the same title as a previous version
  191    if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
  192 B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
  193    responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
  194    Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
  195    Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
  196    unless they release you from this requirement.
  197 C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
  198    Modified Version, as the publisher.
  199 D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
  200 E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
  201    adjacent to the other copyright notices.
  202 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
  203    giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
  204    terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
  205 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
  206    and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
  207 H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
  208 I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add
  209    to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
  210    publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page.  If
  211    there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
  212    stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
  213    given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
  214    Version as stated in the previous sentence.
  215 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
  216    public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
  217    the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
  218    it was based on.  These may be placed in the "History" section.
  219    You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
  220    least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
  221    publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
  222 K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
  223    Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
  224    the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
  225    and/or dedications given therein.
  226 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
  227    unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
  228    or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
  229 M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements".  Such a section
  230    may not be included in the Modified Version.
  231 N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements"
  232    or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
  233 O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
  234 
  235 If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
  236 appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
  237 copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
  238 of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their titles to the
  239 list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
  240 These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
  241 
  242 You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
  243 nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
  244 parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
  245 been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
  246 standard.
  247 
  248 You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
  249 passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
  250 of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage of
  251 Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
  252 through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document already
  253 includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
  254 by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
  255 you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
  256 permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
  257 
  258 The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
  259 give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
  260 imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
  261 
  262 
  263 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
  264 
  265 You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
  266 License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
  267 versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
  268 Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
  269 list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
  270 license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
  271 
  272 The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
  273 multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
  274 copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
  275 different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
  276 adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
  277 author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
  278 Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
  279 Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
  280 
  281 In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"
  282 in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
  283 "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",
  284 and any sections Entitled "Dedications".  You must delete all sections
  285 Entitled "Endorsements".
  286 
  287 
  288 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
  289 
  290 You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
  291 documents released under this License, and replace the individual
  292 copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
  293 that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules
  294 of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all
  295 other respects.
  296 
  297 You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
  298 distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a
  299 copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
  300 License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
  301 document.
  302 
  303 
  304 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
  305 
  306 A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
  307 and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
  308 distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright
  309 resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
  310 of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
  311 When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
  312 apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
  313 derivative works of the Document.
  314 
  315 If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
  316 copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
  317 the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
  318 covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
  319 electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
  320 Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
  321 aggregate.
  322 
  323 
  324 8. TRANSLATION
  325 
  326 Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
  327 distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
  328 Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
  329 permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
  330 translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
  331 original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
  332 translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
  333 Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
  334 the original English version of this License and the original versions
  335 of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a disagreement between
  336 the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
  337 or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
  338 
  339 If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
  340 "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
  341 its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
  342 title.
  343 
  344 
  345 9. TERMINATION
  346 
  347 You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
  348 except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
  349 otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and
  350 will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
  351 
  352 However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license
  353 from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally,
  354 unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally
  355 terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder
  356 fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to
  357 60 days after the cessation.
  358 
  359 Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
  360 reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
  361 violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
  362 received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that
  363 copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after
  364 your receipt of the notice.
  365 
  366 Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the
  367 licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under
  368 this License.  If your rights have been terminated and not permanently
  369 reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does
  370 not give you any rights to use it.
  371 
  372 
  373 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
  374 
  375 The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the
  376 GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new versions
  377 will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in
  378 detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
  379 http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/.
  380 
  381 Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
  382 If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
  383 License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
  384 following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
  385 of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
  386 Free Software Foundation.  If the Document does not specify a version
  387 number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
  388 as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If the Document
  389 specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this
  390 License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a
  391 version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the
  392 Document.
  393 
  394 11. RELICENSING
  395 
  396 "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
  397 World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
  398 provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
  399 public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.  A
  400 "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the site
  401 means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.
  402 
  403 "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 
  404 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit 
  405 corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco, 
  406 California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license 
  407 published by that same organization.
  408 
  409 "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in 
  410 part, as part of another Document.
  411 
  412 An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this 
  413 License, and if all works that were first published under this License 
  414 somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or 
  415 in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and 
  416 (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.
  417 
  418 The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site
  419 under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009,
  420 provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.
  421 
  422 
  423 ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
  424 
  425 To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
  426 the License in the document and put the following copyright and
  427 license notices just after the title page:
  428 
  429     Copyright (c)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
  430     Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  431     under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
  432     or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
  433     with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
  434     A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
  435     Free Documentation License".
  436 
  437 If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
  438 replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
  439 
  440     with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
  441     Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
  442 
  443 If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
  444 combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
  445 situation.
  446 
  447 If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
  448 recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
  449 free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
  450 to permit their use in free software.