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    1 Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion
    2 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
    3 See also: Boiler explosion and Steam explosion
    4 
    5 Flames subsequent to a flammable liquid BLEVE from a tanker. BLEVEs do not necessarily involve fire.
    6 
    7 This article's tone or style may not reflect the encyclopedic tone used on Wikipedia. See Wikipedia's guide to writing better articles for suggestions. (July 2013)
    8 A boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE, /ˈblɛviː/ blev-ee) is an explosion caused by the rupture of a vessel containing a pressurized liquid above its boiling point.[1]
    9 Contents  [hide] 
   10 1 Mechanism
   11 1.1 Water example
   12 1.2 BLEVEs without chemical reactions
   13 2 Fires
   14 3 Incidents
   15 4 Safety measures
   16 5 See also
   17 6 References
   18 7 External links
   19 Mechanism[edit]
   20 
   21 This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (July 2013)
   22 There are three characteristics of liquids which are relevant to the discussion of a BLEVE:
   23 If a liquid in a sealed container is boiled, the pressure inside the container increases. As the liquid changes to a gas it expands - this expansion in a vented container would cause the gas and liquid to take up more space. In a sealed container the gas and liquid are not able to take up more space and so the pressure rises. Pressurized vessels containing liquids can reach an equilibrium where the liquid stops boiling and the pressure stops rising. This occurs when no more heat is being added to the system (either because it has reached ambient temperature or has had a heat source removed).
   24 The boiling temperature of a liquid is dependent on pressure - high pressures will yield high boiling temperatures, and low pressures will yield low boiling temperatures. A common simple experiment is to place a cup of water in a vacuum chamber, and then reduce the pressure in the chamber until the water boils. By reducing the pressure the water will boil even at room temperature. This works both ways - if the pressure is increased beyond normal atmospheric pressures, the boiling of hot water could be suppressed far beyond normal temperatures. The cooling system of a modern internal combustion engine is a real-world example.
   25 When a liquid boils it turns into a gas. The resulting gas takes up far more space than the liquid did.
   26 Typically, a BLEVE starts with a container of liquid which is held above its normal, atmospheric-pressure boiling temperature. Many substances normally stored as liquids, such as CO2, oxygen, and other similar industrial gases have boiling temperatures, at atmospheric pressure, far below room temperature. In the case of water, a BLEVE could occur if a pressurized chamber of water is heated far beyond the standard 100 °C (212 °F). That container, because the boiling water pressurizes it, is capable of holding liquid water at very high temperatures.
   27 If the pressurized vessel, containing liquid at high temperature (which may be room temperature, depending on the substance) ruptures, the pressure which prevents the liquid from boiling is lost. If the rupture is catastrophic, where the vessel is immediately incapable of holding any pressure at all, then there suddenly exists a large mass of liquid which is at very high temperature and very low pressure. This causes the entire volume of liquid to instantaneously boil, which in turn causes an extremely rapid expansion. Depending on temperatures, pressures and the substance involved, that expansion may be so rapid that it can be classified as an explosion, fully capable of inflicting severe damage on its surroundings.
   28 Water example[edit]
   29 Imagine, for example, a tank of pressurized liquid water held at 204.4 °C (400 °F). This vessel would normally be pressurized to 1.7 MPa (250 psi) above atmospheric ("gauge") pressure. Were the tank containing the water to split open, there would momentarily exist a volume of liquid water which is
   30 at atmospheric pressure, and
   31 204.4 °C (400 °F).
   32 At atmospheric pressure the boiling point of water is 100 °C (212 °F) - liquid water at atmospheric pressure cannot exist at temperatures higher than 100 °C (212 °F). It is obvious, then, that 204.4 °C (400 °F) liquid water at atmospheric pressure must immediately flash to gas causing an explosion.
   33 BLEVEs without chemical reactions[edit]
   34 It is important to note that a BLEVE need not be a chemical explosion - nor does there need to be a fire - however if a flammable substance is subject to a BLEVE it may also be subject to intense heating, either from an external source of heat which may have caused the vessel to rupture in the first place or from an internal source of localized heating such as skin friction. This heating can cause a flammable substance to ignite, adding a secondary explosion caused by the primary BLEVE. While blast effects of any BLEVE can be devastating, a flammable substance such as propane can add significantly to the danger.
   35 Bleve explosion.svg
   36 While the term BLEVE is most often used to describe the results of a container of flammable liquid rupturing due to fire, a BLEVE can occur even with a non-flammable substance such as water,[2] liquid nitrogen,[3] liquid helium or other refrigerants or cryogens, and therefore is not usually considered a type of chemical explosion.
   37 Fires[edit]
   38 BLEVEs can be caused by an external fire near the storage vessel causing heating of the contents and pressure build-up. While tanks are often designed to withstand great pressure, constant heating can cause the metal to weaken and eventually fail. If the tank is being heated in an area where there is no liquid, it may rupture faster without the liquid to absorb the heat. Gas containers are usually equipped with relief valves that vent off excess pressure, but the tank can still fail if the pressure is not released quickly enough.[1] Relief valves are sized to release pressure fast enough to prevent the pressure from increasing beyond the strength of the vessel, but not so fast as to be the cause of an explosion. An appropriately sized relief valve will allow the liquid inside to boil slowly, maintaining a constant pressure in the vessel until all the liquid has boiled and the vessel empties.
   39 If the substance involved is flammable, it is likely that the resulting cloud of the substance will ignite after the BLEVE has occurred, forming a fireball and possibly a fuel-air explosion, also termed a vapor cloud explosion (VCE). If the materials are toxic, a large area will be contaminated.[4]
   40 Incidents[edit]
   41 The term "BLEVE" was coined by three researchers at Factory Mutual, in the analysis of an accident there in 1957 involving a chemical reactor vessel.[5]
   42 In August 1959 the Kansas City Fire Department suffered its largest ever loss of life in the line of duty, when a 25,000 gallon (95,000 litre) gas tank exploded during a fire on Southwest Boulevard killing five firefighters. This was the first time BLEVE was used to describe a burning fuel tank.[citation needed]
   43 Later incidents included the Cheapside Street Whisky Bond Fire in Glasgow, Scotland in 1960; Feyzin, France in 1966; Crescent City, Illinois in 1970; Kingman, Arizona in 1973; a liquid nitrogen tank rupture[6] at Air Products and Chemicals and Mobay Chemical Company at New Martinsville, West Virginia on January 31, 1978 [1];Texas City, Texas in 1978; Murdock, Illinois in 1983; San Juan Ixhuatepec, Mexico City in 1984; and Toronto, Ontario in 2008.
   44 Safety measures[edit]
   45 [icon]	This section requires expansion. (July 2013)
   46 Some fire mitigation measures are listed under liquefied petroleum gas.
   47 See also[edit]
   48 Boiler explosion
   49 Expansion ratio
   50 Explosive boiling or phase explosion
   51 Rapid phase transition
   52 Viareggio train derailment
   53 2008 Toronto explosions
   54 Gas carriers
   55 Los Alfaques Disaster
   56 Lac-Mégantic derailment
   57 References[edit]
   58 ^ Jump up to: a b Kletz, Trevor (March 1990). Critical Aspects of Safety and Loss Prevention. London: Butterworth–Heinemann. pp. 43–45. ISBN 0-408-04429-2.
   59 Jump up ^ "Temperature Pressure Relief Valves on Water Heaters: test, inspect, replace, repair guide". Inspect-ny.com. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
   60 Jump up ^ Liquid nitrogen BLEVE demo
   61 Jump up ^ "Chemical Process Safety" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-07-12.
   62 Jump up ^ David F. Peterson, BLEVE: Facts, Risk Factors, and Fallacies, Fire Engineering magazine (2002).
   63 Jump up ^ "STATE EX REL. VAPOR CORP. v. NARICK". Supreme Court of Appeals of West Virginia. 1984-07-12. Retrieved 2014-03-16.
   64 External links[edit]
   65 	Look up boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
   66 	Wikimedia Commons has media related to BLEVE.
   67 BLEVE Demo on YouTube — video of a controlled BLEVE demo
   68 huge explosions on YouTube — video of propane and isobutane BLEVEs from a train derailment at Murdock, Illinois (3 September 1983)
   69 Propane BLEVE on YouTube — video of BLEVE from the Toronto propane depot fire
   70 Moscow Ring Road Accident on YouTube - Dozens of LPG tank BLEVEs after a road accident in Moscow
   71 Kingman, AZ BLEVE — An account of the 5 July 1973 explosion in Kingman, with photographs
   72 Propane Tank Explosions — Description of circumstances required to cause a propane tank BLEVE.
   73 Analysis of BLEVE Events at DOE Sites - Details physics and mathematics of BLEVEs.
   74 HID - SAFETY REPORT ASSESSMENT GUIDE: Whisky Maturation Warehouses - The liquor is aged in wooden barrels that can suffer BLEVE.
   75 Categories: ExplosivesFirefightingFireTypes of fireGas technologiesIndustrial fires and explosions
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  123 
  124 
  125 Thermobaric weapon
  126 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  127 
  128 Blast from a US Navy fuel air explosive used against a decommissioned ship, USS McNulty, 1972.
  129 A thermobaric weapon is a type of explosive that utilizes oxygen from the surrounding air to generate an intense, high-temperature explosion, and in practice the blast wave such a weapon produces is typically significantly longer in duration than a conventional condensed explosive. The fuel-air bomb is one of the most well-known types of thermobaric weapons.
  130 Most conventional explosives consist of a fuel-oxidizer premix (gunpowder, for example, contains 25% fuel and 75% oxidizer), whereas thermobaric weapons are almost 100% fuel, so thermobaric weapons are significantly more energetic than conventional condensed explosives of equal weight. Their reliance on atmospheric oxygen makes them unsuitable for use underwater, at high altitude, and in adverse weather. They do, however, cause considerably more destruction when used inside confined environments such as tunnels, caves, and bunkers - partly due to the sustained blast wave, and partly by consuming the available oxygen inside those confined spaces.
  131 There are many different types of thermobaric weapons rounds that can be fitted to hand-held launchers.[1]
  132 Contents  [hide] 
  133 1 Terminology
  134 2 Mechanism
  135 2.1 Fuel-air explosive
  136 2.1.1 Effect
  137 3 Development history
  138 3.1 Soviet and Russian developments
  139 3.2 US developments
  140 4 History
  141 4.1 Military use
  142 4.2 Non-military use
  143 5 See also
  144 6 References
  145 7 External links
  146 Terminology[edit]
  147 The term thermobaric is derived from the Greek words for "heat" and "pressure": thermobarikos (θερμοβαρικός), from thermos (θερμός), hot + baros (βάρος), weight, pressure + suffix -ikos (-ικός), suffix -ic.
  148 Other terms used for this family of weapons are high-impulse thermobaric weapons (HITs), heat and pressure weapons, vacuum bombs, or fuel-air explosives (FAE or FAX).
  149 Mechanism[edit]
  150 In contrast to condensed explosive, where oxidation in a confined region produces a blast front from essentially a point source, a flame front accelerates to a large volume producing pressure fronts both within the mixture of fuel and oxidant and then in the surrounding air.[2]
  151 Thermobaric explosives apply the principles underlying accidental unconfined vapor cloud explosions, which include those from dispersions of flammable dusts and droplets.[3] Previously, such explosions were most often encountered in flour mills and their storage containers, and later in coal mines; but, now, most commonly in discharged oil tankers and refineries, including an incident at Buncefield in the UK in 2005 where the blast wave woke people 150 kilometres (93 mi) from its centre.[4]
  152 A typical weapon consists of a container packed with a fuel substance, in the center of which is a small conventional-explosive "scatter charge". Fuels are chosen on the basis of the exothermicity of their oxidation, ranging from powdered metals, such as aluminium or magnesium, to organic materials, possibly with a self-contained partial oxidant. The most recent development involves the use of nanofuels.[5][6]
  153 A thermobaric bomb's effective yield requires the most appropriate combination of a number of factors; among these are how well the fuel is dispersed, how rapidly it mixes with the surrounding atmosphere, and the initiation of the igniter and its position relative to the container of fuel. In some designs, strong munitions cases allow the blast pressure to be contained long enough for the fuel to be heated up well above its auto-ignition temperature, so that once the container bursts the super-heated fuel will auto-ignite progressively as it comes into contact with atmospheric oxygen.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]
  154 Conventional upper and lower limits of flammability apply to such weapons. Close in, blast from the dispersal charge, compressing and heating the surrounding atmosphere, will have some influence on the lower limit. The upper limit has been demonstrated strongly to influence the ignition of fogs above pools of oil.[18] This weakness may be eliminated by designs where the fuel is preheated well above its ignition temperature, so that its cooling during its dispersion still results in a minimal ignition delay on mixing. The continual combustion of the outer layer of fuel molecules as they come into contact with the air, generates additional heat which maintains the temperature of the interior of the fireball, and thus sustains the detonation.[19][20][21]
  155 In confinement, a series of reflective shock waves are generated,[22][23] which maintain the fireball and can extend its duration to between 10 and 50 ms as exothermic recombination reactions occur.[24] Further damage can result as the gases cool and pressure drops sharply, leading to a partial vacuum. This effect has given rise to the misnomer "vacuum bomb". Piston-type afterburning is also believed to occur in such structures, as flame-fronts accelerate through it.[25][26]
  156 Fuel-air explosive[edit]
  157 A fuel-air explosive (FAE) device consists of a container of fuel and two separate explosive charges. After the munition is dropped or fired, the first explosive charge bursts open the container at a predetermined height and disperses the fuel in a cloud that mixes with atmospheric oxygen (the size of the cloud varies with the size of the munition). The cloud of fuel flows around objects and into structures. The second charge then detonates the cloud, creating a massive blast wave. The blast wave destroys unreinforced buildings and equipment and kills and injures people. The antipersonnel effect of the blast wave is more severe in foxholes, on people with body armor, and in enclosed spaces such as caves, buildings, and bunkers.
  158 Fuel-air explosives were first developed, and used in Vietnam, by the United States. Soviet scientists, however, quickly developed their own FAE weapons, which were reportedly used against China in the Sino-Soviet border conflict and in Afghanistan. Since then, research and development has continued and currently Russian forces field a wide array of third-generation FAE warheads.
  159 Effect[edit]
  160 A Human Rights Watch report of 1 February 2000[27] quotes a study made by the US Defense Intelligence Agency:
  161 The [blast] kill mechanism against living targets is unique–and unpleasant.... What kills is the pressure wave, and more importantly, the subsequent rarefaction [vacuum], which ruptures the lungs.... If the fuel deflagrates but does not detonate, victims will be severely burned and will probably also inhale the burning fuel. Since the most common FAE fuels, ethylene oxide and propylene oxide, are highly toxic, undetonated FAE should prove as lethal to personnel caught within the cloud as most chemical agents.
  162 According to a U.S. Central Intelligence Agency study,[27] "the effect of an FAE explosion within confined spaces is immense. Those near the ignition point are obliterated. Those at the fringe are likely to suffer many internal, and thus invisible injuries, including burst eardrums and crushed inner ear organs, severe concussions, ruptured lungs and internal organs, and possibly blindness." Another Defense Intelligence Agency document speculates that because the "shock and pressure waves cause minimal damage to brain tissue…it is possible that victims of FAEs are not rendered unconscious by the blast, but instead suffer for several seconds or minutes while they suffocate."[28]
  163 Development history[edit]
  164 Soviet and Russian developments[edit]
  165 
  166 A RPO-A rocket and launcher.
  167 The Soviet armed forces extensively developed FAE weapons,[29] such as the RPO-A, and used them in Chechnya.[30]
  168 The Russian armed forces have developed thermobaric ammunition variants for several of their weapons, such as the TGB-7V thermobaric grenade with a lethality radius of 10 metres (33 ft), which can be launched from a RPG-7. The GM-94 is a 43 mm pump-action grenade launcher which is designed mainly to fire thermobaric grenades for close quarters combat. With the grenade weighing 250 grams (8.8 oz) and holding a 160 grams (5.6 oz) explosive mixture, its lethality radius is 3 metres (9.8 ft); however, due to the deliberate "fragmentation-free" design of the grenade, 4 metres (13 ft) is already considered a safe distance.[31] The RPO-A and upgraded RPO-M are infantry-portable RPGs designed to fire thermobaric rockets. The RPO-M, for instance, has a thermobaric warhead with a TNT equivalence of 5.5 kilograms (12 lb) of TNT and destructive capabilities similar to a 152 mm High explosive fragmentation artillery shell.[32][33] The RShG-1 and the RShG-2 are thermobaric variants of the RPG-27 and RPG-26 respectively. The RShG-1 is the more powerful variant, with its warhead having a 10 metres (33 ft) lethality radius and producing about the same effect as 6 kg (13 lb) of TNT.[34] The RMG is a further derivative of the RPG-26 that uses a tandem-charge warhead, whereby the precursor HEAT warhead blasts an opening for the main thermobaric charge to enter and detonate inside.[35] The RMG's precursor HEAT warhead can penetrate 300 mm of reinforced concrete or over 100 mm of Rolled homogeneous armour, thus allowing the 105 millimetres (4.1 in) diameter thermobaric warhead to detonate inside.[36]
  169 The other examples include the SACLOS or millimeter wave radar-guided thermobaric variants of the 9M123 Khrizantema, the 9M133F-1 thermobaric warhead variant of the 9M133 Kornet, and the 9M131F thermobaric warhead variant of the 9K115-2 Metis-M, all of which are anti-tank missiles. The Kornet has since been upgraded to the Kornet-EM, and its thermobaric variant has a maximum range of 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) and has the TNT equivalent of 7 kilograms (15 lb) of TNT.[37] The 300 mm 9M55S thermobaric cluster warhead rocket was built to be fired from the BM-30 Smerch MLRS. A dedicated carrier of thermobaric weapons is the purpose-built TOS-1, a 24-tube MLRS designed to fire 220 mm caliber thermobaric rockets. A full salvo from the TOS-1 will cover a rectangle 200x400 metres.[38] The Iskander-M theatre ballistic missile can also carry a 700 kilograms (1,500 lb) thermobaric warhead.[39]
  170 
  171 The fireball blast from the Russian Air Force's FOAB, the largest Thermobaric device to be detonated.
  172 Many Russian Air Force munitions also have thermobaric variants. The 80 mm S-8 rocket has the S-8DM and S-8DF thermobaric variants. The S-8's larger 122 mm brother, the S-13 rocket, has the S-13D and S-13DF thermobaric variants. The S-13DF's warhead weighs only 32 kg (71 lb) but its power is equivalent to 40 kg (88 lb) of TNT. The KAB-500-OD variant of the KAB-500KR has a 250 kg (550 lb) thermobaric warhead. The ODAB-500PM and ODAB-500PMV unguided bombs carry a 190 kg (420 lb) fuel-air explosive each. The KAB-1500S GLONASS/GPS guided 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) bomb also has a thermobaric variant. Its fireball will cover over a 150-metre (490 ft) radius and its lethality zone is a 500-metre (1,600 ft) radius.[40] The 9M120 Ataka-V and the 9K114 Shturm ATGMs both have thermobaric variants.
  173 In September 2007 Russia exploded the largest thermobaric weapon ever made. The weapon's yield was reportedly greater than that of the smallest dial-a-yield nuclear weapons at their lowest settings.[41][42] Russia named this particular ordnance the "Father of All Bombs" in response to the United States developed "Massive Ordnance Air Blast" (MOAB) bomb whose backronym is the "Mother of All Bombs", and which previously held the accolade of the most powerful non-nuclear weapon in history.[43] The bomb contains an about 7 tons charge of a liquid fuel such as ethylene oxide, mixed with an energetic nanoparticle such as aluminium, surrounding a high explosive burster[44] that when detonated created an explosion equivalent to 44 metric tons of TNT.
  174 US developments[edit]
  175 
  176 A BLU-72/B bomb on a USAF A-1E taking off from Nakhon Phanom, in September 1968.
  177 Current US FAE munitions include:
  178 BLU-73 FAE I
  179 BLU-95 500-lb (FAE-II)
  180 BLU-96 2,000-lb (FAE-II)
  181 CBU-55 FAE I
  182 CBU-72 FAE I
  183 The XM1060 40-mm grenade is a small-arms thermobaric device, which was delivered to U.S. forces in April 2003.[45] Since the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, the US Marine Corps has introduced a thermobaric 'Novel Explosive' (SMAW-NE) round for the Mk 153 SMAW rocket launcher. One team of Marines reported that they had destroyed a large one-story masonry type building with one round from 100 yards (91 m).[46]
  184 The AGM-114N Hellfire II, first used by U.S. forces in 2003 in Iraq, uses a Metal Augmented Charge (MAC) warhead that contains a thermobaric explosive fill using fluoridated aluminium layered between the charge casing and a PBXN-112 explosive mixture. When the PBXN-112 detonates, the aluminium mixture is dispersed and rapidly burns. The resultant sustained high pressure is extremely effective against people and structures.[47]
  185 History[edit]
  186 Military use[edit]
  187 
  188 US Navy BLU-118B being prepared for shipping for use in Afghanistan, 5 March 2002.
  189 The first experiments with thermobaric weapon were conducted in Germany during World War II and were led by Mario Zippermayr. The German bombs used coal dust as fuel and were extensively tested in 1943 and 1944, but did not reach mass production before the war ended.
  190 The TOS-1 system was test fired in Panjshir valley during Soviet war in Afghanistan in the early 1980s.[48]
  191 Unconfirmed reports suggest that Russian military forces used ground delivered thermobaric weapons in the storming of the Russian parliament during the 1993 Russian constitutional crisis and also during the Battle for Grozny (first and second Chechen wars) to attack dug in Chechen fighters. The use of both TOS-1 heavy MLRS and "RPO-A Shmel" shoulder-fired rocket system in the Chechen wars is reported to have occurred.[48][49]
  192 It is theorized that a multitude of hand-held thermobaric weapons were used by the Russian Armed Forces in their efforts to retake the school during the 2004 Beslan school hostage crisis. The RPO-A and either the TGB-7V thermobaric rocket from the RPG-7 or rockets from either the RShG-1 or the RShG-2 is claimed to have been used by the Spetsnaz during the initial storming of the school.[50][51][52] At least 3 and as many as 9 RPO-A casings were later found at the positions of the Spetsnaz.[53][54] The Russian Government later admitted to the use of the RPO-A during the crisis.[55]
  193 According to UK Ministry of Defence, British military forces have also used thermobaric weapons in their AGM-114N Hellfire missiles (carried by Apache helicopters and UAVs) against the Taliban in the War in Afghanistan.[56]
  194 The US military also used thermobaric weapons in Afghanistan. On 3 March 2002, a single 2,000 lb (910 kg) laser guided thermobaric bomb was used by the United States Army against cave complexes in which Al-Qaeda and Taliban fighters had taken refuge in the Gardez region of Afghanistan.[57][58] The SMAW-NE was used by the US Marines during the First Battle of Fallujah and Second Battle of Fallujah.
  195 Reports by the rebel fighters of the Free Syrian Army claim the Syrian Air Force used such weapons against residential area targets occupied by the rebel fighters, as for instance in the Battle for Aleppo[59] and also in Kafar Batna.[60] A United Nations panel of human rights investigators reported that the Syrian government used thermobaric bombs against the rebellious town of Qusayr in March 2013.[61]
  196 Non-military use[edit]
  197 Thermobaric and fuel-air explosives have been used in guerrilla warfare since the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing in Lebanon, which used a gas-enhanced explosive mechanism, probably propane, butane or acetylene.[62] The explosive used by the bombers in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing incorporated the FAE principle, using three tanks of bottled hydrogen gas to enhance the blast.[63][64] Jemaah Islamiyah bombers used a shock-dispersed solid fuel charge,[65] based on the thermobaric principle,[66] to attack the Sari nightclub in the 2002 Bali bombings.[67]
  198 See also[edit]
  199 Bunker buster
  200 Dust explosion
  201 FOAB
  202 Flame fougasse
  203 MOAB
  204 RPO-A
  205 SMAW
  206 References[edit]
  207 Jump up ^ Algeria Isp (2011-10-18). "Libye – l'Otan utilise une bombe FAE | Politique, Algérie". Algeria ISP. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
  208 Jump up ^ Nettleton, J. Occ. Accidents, 1, 149 (1976).
  209 Jump up ^ Strehlow, 14th. Symp. (Int.) Comb. 1189, Comb. Inst. (1973).
  210 Jump up ^ Health and Safety Environmental Agency, 5th. and final report, 2008.
  211 Jump up ^ See Nanofuel/Oxidizers For Energetic Compositions – John D. Sullivan and Charles N. Kingery (1994) High explosive disseminator for a high explosive air bomb.
  212 Jump up ^ Slavica Terzić, Mirjana Dakić Kolundžija, Milovan Azdejković and Gorgi Minov (2004) Compatibility Of Thermobaric Mixtures Based On Isopropyl Nitrate And Metal Powders.
  213 Jump up ^ Meyer, Rudolf; Josef Köhler and Axel Homburg (2007). Explosives. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. pp. 312. ISBN 3-527-31656-6. OCLC 165404124.
  214 Jump up ^ Howard C. Hornig (1998) Non-focusing active warhead.
  215 Jump up ^ Chris Ludwig (Talley Defense) Verifying Performance of Thermobaric Materials for Small to Medium Caliber Rocket Warheads.
  216 Jump up ^ Martin M.West (1982) Composite high explosives for high energy blast applications.
  217 Jump up ^ Raafat H. Guirguis (2005) Reactively Induced Fragmenting Explosives.
  218 Jump up ^ Michael Dunning, William Andrews and Kevin Jaansalu (2005) The Fragmentation of Metal Cylinders Using Thermobaric Explosives.
  219 Jump up ^ David L. Frost, Fan Zhang, Stephen B. Murray and Susan McCahan Critical Conditions For Ignition Of Metal Particles In A Condensed Explosive.
  220 Jump up ^ The Army Doctrine and Training Bulletin (2001) The Threat from Blast Weapons.
  221 Jump up ^ INTERNATIONAL DEFENCE REVIEW (2004) ENHANCED BLAST AND THERMOBARICS.
  222 Jump up ^ F. Winterberg Conjectured Metastable Super-Explosives formed under High Pressure for Thermonuclear Ignition.
  223 Jump up ^ Zhang, Fan (Medicine Hat, CA) Murray, Stephen Burke (Medicine Hat, CA) Higgins, Andrew (Montreal, CA) (2005) Super compressed detonation method and device to effect such detonation.
  224 Jump up ^ Nettleton, arch. combust.,1,131, (1981).
  225 Jump up ^ Stephen B. Murray Fundamental and Applied Studies of Fuel-Air Detonation.
  226 Jump up ^ John H. Lee (1992) Chemical initiation of detonation in fuel-air explosive clouds.
  227 Jump up ^ Frank E. Lowther (1989) Nuclear-sized explosions without radiation.
  228 Jump up ^ Nettleton, Comb. and Flame, 24,65 (1975).
  229 Jump up ^ Fire Prev. Sci. and Tech. No. 19,4 (1976)
  230 Jump up ^ May L.Chan (2001) Advanced Thermobaric Explosive Compositions.
  231 Jump up ^ New Thermobaric Materials and Weapon Concepts.
  232 Jump up ^ Robert C. Morris (2003) Small Thermobaric Weapons An Unnoticed Threat.[dead link]
  233 ^ Jump up to: a b "Backgrounder on Russian Fuel Air Explosives ("Vacuum Bombs") | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. 2000-02-01. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
  234 Jump up ^ Defense Intelligence Agency, "Future Threat to the Soldier System, Volume I; Dismounted Soldier--Middle East Threat", September 1993, p. 73. Obtained by Human Rights Watch under the U.S. Freedom of Information Act.
  235 Jump up ^ "Press | Human Rights Watch". Hrw.org. 2008-12-27. Retrieved 2009-07-30.
  236 Jump up ^ Lester W. Grau and Timothy L. Thomas(2000)"Russian Lessons Learned From the Battles For Grozny"
  237 Jump up ^ "Modern Firearms – GM-94". World.guns.ru. 2011-01-24. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
  238 Jump up ^ "New RPO Shmel-M Infantry Rocket Flamethrower Man-Packable Thermobaric Weapon". defensereview.com. 2006-07-19. Retrieved 2012-08-27.
  239 Jump up ^ "Shmel-M: Infantry Rocket-assisted Flamethrower of Enhanced Range and Lethality". Kbptula.ru. Retrieved 2013-12-28.
  240 Jump up ^ "Modern Firearms – RShG-1". World.guns.ru. 2011-01-24. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
  241 Jump up ^ "Modern Firearms – RMG". World.guns.ru. 2011-01-24. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
  242 Jump up ^ "RMG - A new Multi-Purpose Assault Weapon from Bazalt". defense-update.com. Retrieved 2012-08-27.
  243 Jump up ^ "Kornet-EM: Multi-purpose Long-range Missile System". Kbptula.ru. Retrieved 2013-12-28.
  244 Jump up ^ "TOS-1 Heavy flamethrower system". military-today.com. Retrieved 2012-08-27.
  245 Jump up ^ "SS-26". Missilethreat.com. Retrieved 2013-12-28.
  246 Jump up ^ Air Power Australia (2007-07-04). "How to Destroy the Australian Defence Force". Ausairpower.net. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
  247 Jump up ^ "Russia unveils devastating vacuum bomb". ABC News. 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
  248 Jump up ^ "Video of test explosion". BBC News. 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
  249 Jump up ^ Harding, Luke (2007-09-12). "Russia unveils the father of all bombs". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
  250 Jump up ^ Berhie, Saba. "Dropping the Big One | Popular Science". Popsci.com. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
  251 Jump up ^ John Pike (2003-04-22). "XM1060 40mm Thermobaric Grenade". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
  252 Jump up ^ David Hambling (2005) "Marines Quiet About Brutal New Weapon"
  253 Jump up ^ John Pike (2001-09-11). "AGM-114N Metal Augmented Charge (MAC) Thermobaric Hellfire". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
  254 ^ Jump up to: a b John Pike. "TOS-1 Buratino 220mm Multiple Rocket Launcher". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
  255 Jump up ^ "Foreign Military Studies Office Publications - A 'Crushing' Victory: Fuel-Air Explosives and Grozny 2000". Fmso.leavenworth.army.mil. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
  256 Jump up ^ "Russian forces faulted in Beslan school tragedy". Christian Science Monitor. 1 September 2006. Retrieved 14 February 2007.
  257 Jump up ^ Russia: Independent Beslan Investigation Sparks Controversy, The Jamestown Foundation, 29 August 2006
  258 Jump up ^ Beslan still a raw nerve for Russia, BBC News, 1 September 2006
  259 Jump up ^ ACHING TO KNOW, Los Angeles Times, 27 August 2005
  260 Jump up ^ Searching for Traces of “Shmel” in Beslan School, Kommersant, 12 September 2005
  261 Jump up ^ A Reversal Over Beslan Only Fuels Speculation, The Moscow Times, 21 July 2005
  262 Jump up ^ "MoD's Controversial Thermobaric Weapons Use in Afghanistan". Armedforces-int.com. 2008-06-23. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
  263 Jump up ^ "US Uses Bunker-Busting 'Thermobaric' Bomb for First Time". Commondreams.org. 2002-03-03. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
  264 Jump up ^ John Pike. "BLU-118/B Thermobaric Weapon Demonstration / Hard Target Defeat Program". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2013-04-23.
  265 Jump up ^ "Syria rebels say Assad using 'mass-killing weapons' in Aleppo". October 10, 2012. Retrieved November 11, 2012.
  266 Jump up ^ "Dropping Thermobaric Bombs on Residential Areas in Syria_ Nov. 5. 2012". First Post. November 11, 2012. Retrieved November 11, 2012.
  267 Jump up ^ Cumming-Bruce, Nick (2013-06-04). "U.N. Panel Reports Increasing Brutality by Both Sides in Syria". The New York Times.
  268 Jump up ^ Richard J. Grunawalt. Hospital Ships In The War On Terror: Sanctuaries or Targets? (PDF), Naval War College Review, Winter 2005, pp. 110–11.
  269 Jump up ^ Paul Rogers (2000) "Politics in the Next 50 Years: The Changing Nature of International Conflict"
  270 Jump up ^ J. Gilmore Childers, Henry J. DePippo (February 24, 1998). "Senate Judiciary Committee, Subcommittee on Technology, Terrorism, and Government Information hearing on "Foreign Terrorists in America: Five Years After the World Trade Center"". Fas.org. Retrieved 2011-07-12.
  271 Jump up ^ P. Neuwald, H. Reichenbach, A. L. Kuhl (2003). "Shock-Dispersed-Fuel Charges-Combustion in Chambers and Tunnels".
  272 Jump up ^ David Eshel (2006). "Is the world facing Thermobaric Terrorism?".[dead link]
  273 Jump up ^ Wayne Turnbull (2003). "Bali:Preparations".
  274 External links[edit]
  275 Fuel/Air Explosive (FAE)
  276 Thermobaric Explosive (Global Security)
  277 Aspects of thermobaric weaponry (PDF) – Dr. Anna E Wildegger-Gaissmaier, Australian Defence Force Health
  278 Thermobaric warhead for RPG-7
  279 XM1060 40 mm Thermobaric Grenade (Global Security)
  280 Defense Update: Fuel-Air Explosive Mine Clearing System
  281 Foreign Military Studies Office – A 'Crushing' Victory: Fuel-Air Explosives and Grozny 2000
  282 Soon to make a comeback in Afghanistan
  283 Russia claims to have tested the most powerful "Vacuum" weapon
  284 Categories: Explosive weaponsAmmunitionThermobaric weaponsAnti-personnel weapons
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  343 
  344 
  345 Gunpowder
  346 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  347 For other uses, see Gunpowder (disambiguation).
  348 In American English, the term gunpowder also refers broadly to any gun propellant.[1] Gunpowder (black powder) as described in this article is not normally used in modern firearms, which instead use smokeless powders.
  349 
  350 Black powder for muzzleloading rifles and pistols in FFFG granulation size. American Quarter (diameter 24 mm) for comparison.
  351 Gunpowder, also known as black powder, is a chemical explosive—the earliest known. It is a mixture of sulfur, charcoal, and potassium nitrate (saltpeter). The sulfur and charcoal act as fuels, and the saltpeter is an oxidizer.[2][3] Because of its burning properties and the amount of heat and gas volume that it generates, gunpowder has been widely used as a propellant in firearms and as a pyrotechnic composition in fireworks.
  352 Gunpowder is assigned the UN number UN0027 and has a hazard class of 1.1D. It has a flash point of approximately 427–464 °C (801–867 °F). The specific flash point may vary based on the specific composition of the gunpowder. Gunpowder's gravity is 1.70–1.82 (mercury method) orŠ 1.92–2.08 (pycnometer), and it has a pH of 6.0–8.0. It is also considered to be an insoluble material.[4]
  353 Gunpowder was, according to prevailing academic consensus, invented in the 9th century in China,[5][6] and the earliest record of a written formula for gunpowder appears in the 11th century Song Dynasty text, Wujing Zongyao.[7] This discovery led to the invention of fireworks and the earliest gunpowder weapons in China. In the centuries following the Chinese discovery, gunpowder weapons began appearing in the Muslim world, Europe, and India. The technology spread from China through the Middle East or Central Asia, and then into Europe.[8] The earliest Western accounts of gunpowder appear in texts written by English philosopher Roger Bacon in the 13th century.[9]
  354 Gunpowder is classified as a low explosive because of its relatively slow decomposition rate and consequently low brisance. Low explosives deflagrate (i.e., burn) at subsonic speeds, whereas high explosives detonate, producing a supersonic wave. Gunpowder's burning rate increases with pressure, so it bursts containers if contained but otherwise just burns in the open. Ignition of the powder packed behind a bullet must generate enough pressure to force it from the muzzle at high speed, but not enough to rupture the gun barrel. Gunpowder thus makes a good propellant, but is less suitable for shattering rock or fortifications. Gunpowder was widely used to fill artillery shells and in mining and civil engineering to blast rock roughly until the second half of the 19th century, when the first high explosives (nitro-explosives) were discovered. Gunpowder is no longer used in modern explosive military warheads, nor is it used as main explosive in mining operations due to its cost relative to that of newer alternatives such as ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO).[10] Black powder is still used as a delay element in various munitions where its slow-burning properties are valuable.
  355 Formulations used in blasting rock (such as in quarrying) are called blasting powder.
  356 Contents  [hide] 
  357 1 History
  358 1.1 China
  359 1.2 Middle East
  360 1.3 Mainland Europe
  361 1.4 Britain and Ireland
  362 1.5 India
  363 1.6 Indonesia
  364 2 Manufacturing technology
  365 3 Composition and characteristics
  366 4 Serpentine
  367 5 Corning
  368 6 Modern types
  369 7 Other types of gunpowder
  370 8 Sulfur-free gunpowder
  371 9 Combustion characteristics
  372 9.1 Advantages
  373 9.2 Disadvantages
  374 9.3 Transportation
  375 10 Other uses
  376 11 See also
  377 12 References
  378 13 External links
  379 History[edit]
  380 
  381 Early Chinese rocket
  382 
  383 A Mongol bomb thrown against a charging Japanese samurai during the Mongol invasions of Japan after founding the Yuan Dynasty, 1281.
  384 Main article: History of gunpowder
  385 Gunpowder was invented in China while taoists attempted to create a potion of immortality. Chinese military forces used gunpowder-based weapons (i.e. rockets, guns, cannons) and explosives (i.e. grenades and different types of bombs) against the Mongols when the Mongols attempted to invade and breach city fortifications on China's northern borders. After the Mongols conquered China and founded the Yuan Dynasty, they used the Chinese gunpowder-based weapons technology in their attempted invasion of Japan; they also used gunpowder to fuel rockets.
  386 The mainstream scholarly consensus is that gunpowder was invented in China, spread through the Middle East, and then into Europe,[8] although there is a dispute over how much the Chinese advancements in gunpowder warfare influenced later advancements in the Middle East and Europe.[11][12] The spread of gunpowder across Asia from China is widely attributed to the Mongols. One of the first examples of Europeans encountering gunpowder and firearms is at the Battle of Mohi in 1241. At this battle the Mongols not only used gunpowder in early Chinese firearms but in the earliest grenades as well.
  387 A major problem confronting the study of the early history of gunpowder is ready access to sources close to the events described. Often enough, the first records potentially describing use of gunpowder in warfare were written several centuries after the fact, and may well have been colored by the contemporary experiences of the chronicler.[13] It is also difficult to accurately translate original alchemy texts, especially medieval Chinese texts that try to explain phenomena through metaphor, into modern scientific language with rigidly defined terminology. The translation difficulty has led to errors or loose interpretations bordering on artistic licence.[14][15] Early writings potentially mentioning gunpowder are sometimes marked by a linguistic process where old words acquired new meanings.[16] For instance, the Arabic word naft transitioned from denoting naphtha to denoting gunpowder, and the Chinese word pao evolved from meaning catapult to referring to cannon.[17] According to science and technology historian Bert S. Hall: "It goes without saying, however, that historians bent on special pleading, or simply with axes of their own to grind, can find rich material in these terminological thickets."[18]
  388 China[edit]
  389 Further information: Wujing Zongyao, Four Great Inventions and List of Chinese inventions
  390 
  391 Chinese Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) matchlock firearms
  392 Saltpeter was known to the Chinese by the mid-1st century AD and there is strong evidence of the use of saltpeter and sulfur in various largely medicinal combinations.[19] A Chinese alchemical text dated 492 noted saltpeter burnt with a purple flame, providing a practical and reliable means of distinguishing it from other inorganic salts, thus enabling alchemists to evaluate and compare purification techniques; the earliest Latin accounts of saltpeter purification are dated after 1200.[20]
  393 
  394 Yuan Dynasty bronze hand cannon from 1332 at th (c. 808); it describes mixing six parts sulfur to six parts saltpeter to one part birthwort herb (which would provide carbon).[21]
  395 The first reference to the incendiary properties of such mixtures is the passage of the Zhenyuan miaodao yaolüe, a Taoist text tentatively dated to the mid-9th century AD:[20] "Some have heated together sulfur, realgar and saltpete with honey; smoke and flames result, so that their hands and faces have been burnt, and even the whole house where they were working burned down."[22] The Chinese word for "gunpowder" is Chinese: 火药/火藥; pinyin: huŏ yào /xuou yɑʊ/, which literally means "Fire Medicine";[23] however this name only came into use some centuries after the mixture's discovery.[24] During the 9th century, Taoist monks or alchemists searching for an elixir of immortality had serendipitously stumbled upon gunpowder.[8][25] The Chinese wasted little time in applying gunpowder to the development of weapons, and in the centuries that followed, they produced a variety of gunpowder weapons, including flamethrowers, rockets, bombs, and land mines, before inventing guns as a projectile weapon.[26] Archaeological evidence of a hand cannon has been excavated in Manchuria dated from the late 1200s[27] and the shells of explosive bombs have been discovered in a shipwreck off the shore of Japan dated from 1281, during the Mongol invasions of Japan.[28]
  396 The Chinese "Wu Ching Tsung Yao" (Complete Essentials from the Military Classics), written by Tseng Kung-Liang between 1040–1044, provides encyclopedia references to a variety of mixtures that included petrochemicals—as well as garlic and honey. A slow match for flame throwing mechanisms using the siphon principle and for fireworks and rockets are mentioned. The mixture formulas in this book do not contain enough saltpeter to create an explosive however; being limited to at most 50% saltpeter, they produce an incendiary.[29] The Essentials was however written by a Song Dynasty court bureaucrat, and there's little evidence that it had any immediate impact on warfare; there is no mention of gunpowder use in the chronicles of the wars against the Tanguts in the eleventh century, and China was otherwise mostly at peace during this century. The first chronicled use of "fire spears" (or "fire lances") is at the siege of De'an in 1132.[30]
  397 
  398 Formula for gunpowder in 1044 Wujing zongyao part I vol 12
  399  
  400 
  401 Instruction for fire bomb in Wujing zongyao
  402  
  403 
  404 Fire bomb
  405  
  406 
  407 Fire grenade
  408  
  409 
  410 Proto-cannon from the Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing
  411  
  412 
  413 Land mine from the Ming Dynasty text Huolongjing
  414  
  415 
  416 Fire arrow rocket launcher from the Wujing zongyao
  417 Middle East[edit]
  418 Main articles: Inventions in the Islamic world and Alchemy and chemistry in Islam
  419 
  420 The Sultani Cannon, a very heavy bronze breech-loading cannon of type used by Ottoman Empire in the conquest of Constantinople, in 1453.
  421 The Muslims acquired knowledge of gunpowder some time between 1240 and 1280, by which time the Syrian Hasan al-Rammah had written, in Arabic, recipes for gunpowder, instructions for the purification of saltpeter, and descriptions of gunpowder incendiaries. Gunpowder arrived in the Middle East, possibly through India, from China. This is implied by al-Rammah's usage of "terms that suggested he derived his knowledge from Chinese sources" and his references to saltpeter as "Chinese snow" Arabic: ثلج الصين‎ thalj al-ṣīn, fireworks as "Chinese flowers" and rockets as "Chinese arrows".[31] However, because al-Rammah attributes his material to "his father and forefathers", al-Hassan argues that gunpowder became prevalent in Syria and Egypt by "the end of the twelfth century or the beginning of the thirteenth".[32] Persians called saltpeter "Chinese salt" [33][34][35][36][37] or "salt from Chinese salt marshes" (namak shūra chīnī Persian: نمک شوره چيني‎).[38][39]
  422 
  423 A picture of a 15th-century Granadian cannon from the book Al-izz wal rifa'a.
  424 Al-Hassan claims that in the Battle of Ain Jalut of 1260, the Mamluks used against the Mongols in "the first cannon in history" gunpowder formula with near-identical ideal composition ratios for explosive gunpowder.[32] Other historians urge caution regarding claims of Islamic firearms use in the 1204-1324 period as late medieval Arabic texts used the same word for gunpowder, naft, that they used for an earlier incendiary, naphtha.[13][17] Khan claims that it was invading Mongols who introduced gunpowder to the Islamic world[40] and cites Mamluk antagonism towards early musketeers in their infantry as an example of how gunpowder weapons were not always met with open acceptance in the Middle East.[41] Similarly, the refusal of their Qizilbash forces to use firearms contributed to the Safavid rout at Chaldiran in 1514.[41]
  425 The earliest surviving documentary evidence for the use of the hand cannon, considered the oldest type of portable firearm and a forerunner of the handgun, are from several Arabic manuscripts dated to the 14th century.[42] Al-Hassan argues that these are based on earlier originals and that they report hand-held cannons being used by the Mamluks at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260.[32]
  426 Hasan al-Rammah included 107 gunpowder recipes in his text al-Furusiyyah wa al-Manasib al-Harbiyya (The Book of Military Horsemanship and Ingenious War Devices), 22 of which are for rockets. If one takes the median of 17 of these 22 compositions for rockets (75% nitrates, 9.06% sulfur, and 15.94% carbon), it is nearly identical to the modern reported ideal gunpowder recipe of 75% potassium nitrate, 10% sulfur, and 15% carbon.[32]
  427 The state-controlled manufacture of gunpowder by the Ottoman Empire through early supply chains to obtain nitre, sulfur and high-quality charcoal from oaks in Anatolia contributed significantly to its expansion the 15th and 18th century. It was not until later in the 19th century when the syndicalist production of Turkish gunpowder was greatly reduced, which coincided with the decline of its military might.[43]
  428 Mainland Europe[edit]
  429 Several sources mention Chinese firearms and gunpowder weapons being deployed by the Mongols against European forces at the Battle of Mohi in 1241.[44][45][46] Professor Kenneth Warren Chase credits the Mongols for introducing into Europe gunpowder and its associated weaponry.[47]
  430 C. F. Temler interprets Peter, Bishop of Leon, as reporting the use of cannons in Seville in 1248.[48]
  431 In Europe, one of the first mentions of gunpowder use appears in a passage found in Roger Bacon's Opus Maius and Opus Tertium in what has been interpreted as being firecrackers. The most telling passage reads: "We have an example of these things (that act on the senses) in [the sound and fire of] that children's toy which is made in many [diverse] parts of the world; i.e., a device no bigger than one's thumb. From the violence of that salt called saltpeter [together with sulfur and willow charcoal, combined into a powder] so horrible a sound is made by the bursting of a thing so small, no more than a bit of parchment [containing it], that we find [the ear assaulted by a noise] exceeding the roar of strong thunder, and a flash brighter than the most brilliant lightning."[9] In the early 20th century, British artillery officer Henry William Lovett Hime proposed that another work tentatively attributed to Bacon, Epistola de Secretis Operibus Artis et Naturae, et de Nullitate Magiae contained an encrypted formula for gunpowder. This claim has been disputed by historians of science including Lynn Thorndike, John Maxson Stillman and George Sarton and by Bacon's editor Robert Steele, both in terms of authenticity of the work, and with respect to the decryption method.[9] In any case, the formula claimed to have been decrypted (7:5:5 saltpeter:charcoal:sulfur) is not useful for firearms use or even firecrackers, burning slowly and producing mostly smoke.[49][50]
  432 
  433 Cannon forged in 1667 at the Fortín de La Galera, Nueva Esparta, Venezuela.
  434 The Liber Ignium, or Book of Fires, attributed to Marcus Graecus, is a collection of incendiary recipes, including some gunpowder recipes. Partington dates the gunpowder recipes to approximately 1300.[51] One recipe for "flying fire" (ingis volatilis) involves saltpeter, sulfur, and colophonium, which, when inserted into a reed or hollow wood, "flies away suddenly and burns up everything." Another recipe, for artificial "thunder", specifies a mixture of one pound native sulfur, two pounds linden or willow charcoal, and six pounds of saltpeter.[52] Another specifies a 1:3:9 ratio.[52]
  435 Some of the gunpowder recipes of De Mirabilibus Mundi of Albertus Magnus are identical to the recipes of the Liber Ignium, and according to Partington, "may have been taken from that work, rather than conversely."[53] Partington suggests that some of the book may have been compiled by Albert's students, "but since it is found in thirteenth century manuscripts, it may well be by Albert."[53] Albertus Magnus died in 1280.
  436 A common German folk-tale is of the German priest/monk named Berthold Schwarz who independently invented gunpowder, thus earning it the German name Schwarzpulver or in English Schwarz's powder. Schwarz is also German for black so this folk-tale, while likely containing elements of truth, is considered problematic.
  437 A major advance in manufacturing began in Europe in the late 14th century when the safety and thoroughness of incorporation was improved by wet grinding; liquid, such as distilled spirits or perhaps the urine of wine-drinking bishops[54] was added during the grinding-together of the ingredients and the moist paste dried afterwards. (The principle of wet mixing to prevent the separation of dry ingredients, invented for gunpowder, is used today in the pharmaceutical industry.[55]) It was also discovered that if the paste was rolled into balls before drying the resulting gunpowder absorbed less water from the air during storage and traveled better. The balls were then crushed in a mortar by the gunner immediately before use, with the old problem of uneven particle size and packing causing unpredictable results.
  438 If the right size particles were chosen, however, the result was a great improvement in power. Forming the damp paste into corn-sized clumps by hand or with the use of a sieve instead of larger balls produced a product after drying that loaded much better, as each tiny piece provided its own surrounding air space that allowed much more rapid combustion than a fine powder. This "corned" gunpowder was from 30% to 300% more powerful. An example is cited where 34 pounds of serpentine was needed to shoot a 47 pound ball, but only 18 pounds of corned powder.[54] The optimum size of the grain depended on its use; larger for large cannon, finer for small arms. Larger cast cannons were easily muzzle-loaded with corned powder using a long-handled ladle. Corned powder also retained the advantage of low moisture absorption, as even tiny grains still had much less surface area to attract water than a floury powder.
  439 During this time, European manufacturers also began regularly purifying saltpeter, using wood ashes containing potassium carbonate to precipitate calcium from their dung liquor, and using ox blood, alum, and slices of turnip to clarify the solution.[54]
  440 Gunpowder-making and metal-smelting and casting for shot and cannon fee was closely held by skilled military tradesmen, who formed guilds that collected dues, tested apprentices, and gave pensions. "Fire workers" were also required to craft fireworks for celebrations of victory or peace. During the Renaissance, two European schools of pyrotechnic thought emerged, one in Italy and the other at Nuremberg, Germany. Vannoccio Biringuccio, born in 1480, was a member of the guild Fraternita di Santa Barbara but broke with the tradition of secrecy by setting down everything he knew in a book titled De la pirotechnia, written in vernacular. The first printed book on either gunpowder or metalworking, it was published posthumously in 1540, with 9 editions over 138 years, and also reprinted by MIT Press in 1966.[54] By the mid-17th century fireworks were used for entertainment on an unprecedented scale in Europe, being popular even at resorts and public gardens.[56]
  441 In 1774 Louis XVI ascended to the throne of France at age 20. After he discovered that France was not self-sufficient in gunpowder, a Gunpowder Administration was established; to head it, the lawyer Antoine Lavoisier was appointed. Although from a bourgeois family, after his degree in law Lavoisier became wealthy from a company set up to collect taxes for the Crown; this allowed him to pursue experimental natural science as a hobby.[57]
  442 Without access to cheap Indian saltpeter (controlled by the British), for hundreds of years France had relied on saltpetermen with royal warrants, the droit de fouille or "right to dig", to seize nitrous-containing soil and demolished walls of barnyards, without compensation to the owners.[58] This caused farmers, the wealthy, or entire villages to bribe the petermen and the associated bureaucracy to leave their buildings alone and the saltpeter uncollected. Lavoisier instituted a crash program to increase saltpeter production, revised (and later eliminated) the droit de fouille, researched best refining and powder manufacturing methods, instituted management and record-keeping, and established pricing that encouraged private investment in works. Although saltpeter from new Prussian-style putrefaction works had not been produced yet (the process taking about 18 months), in only a year France had gunpowder to export. A chief beneficiary of this surplus was the American Revolution. By careful testing and adjusting the proportions and grinding time, powder from mills such as at Essonne outside Paris became the best in the world by 1788, and inexpensive.[58] [59]
  443 Britain and Ireland[edit]
  444 
  445 The old Powder or Pouther magazine dating from 1642, built by order of Charles I. Irvine, North Ayrshire, Scotland
  446 Gunpowder production in Britain appears to have started in the mid 14th century AD with the aim of supplying the English Crown.[60] Records show that gunpowder was being made, in England, in 1346, at the Tower of London; a powder house existed at the Tower in 1461; and in 1515 three King's gunpowder makers worked there.[60] Gunpowder was also being made or stored at other Royal castles, such as Portchester. By the early 14th century, according to N.J.G. Pounds's study The Medieval Castle in England and Wales, many English castles had been deserted and others were crumbling. Their military significance faded except on the borders. Gunpowder had made smaller castles useless.[61]
  447 Henry VIII of England was short of gunpowder when he invaded France in 1544 and England needed to import gunpowder via the port of Antwerp in what is now Belgium.[60]
  448 The English Civil War (1642–1645) led to an expansion of the gunpowder industry, with the repeal of the Royal Patent in August 1641.[60]
  449 Two British physicists, Andrew Noble and Frederick Abel, worked to improve the properties of black powder during the late 19th century. This formed the basis for the Noble-Abel gas equation for internal ballistics.[62]
  450 The introduction of smokeless powder in the late 19th century led to a contraction of the gunpowder industry. After the end of World War I, the majority of the United Kingdom gunpowder manufacturers merged into a single company, "Explosives Trades limited"; and number of sites were closed down, including those in Ireland. This company became Nobel Industries Limited; and in 1926 became a founding member of Imperial Chemical Industries. The Home Office removed gunpowder from its list of Permitted Explosives; and shortly afterwards, on 31 December 1931, the former Curtis & Harvey's Glynneath gunpowder factory at Pontneddfechan, in Wales, closed down, and it was demolished by fire in 1932.[63]
  451 
  452 Gunpowder storing barrels at Martello tower in Point Pleasant Park
  453 The last remaining gunpowder mill at the Royal Gunpowder Factory, Waltham Abbey was damaged by a German parachute mine in 1941 and it never reopened.[64] This was followed by the closure of the gunpowder section at the Royal Ordnance Factory, ROF Chorley, the section was closed and demolished at the end of World War II; and ICI Nobel's Roslin gunpowder factory, which closed in 1954.[64][65]
  454 This left the sole United Kingdom gunpowder factory at ICI Nobel's Ardeer site in Scotland; it too closed in October 1976.[64] Since then gunpowder has been imported into the United Kingdom. In the late 1970s/early 1980s gunpowder was bought from eastern Europe, particularly from what was then the German Democratic Republic and former Yugoslavia.
  455 India[edit]
  456 
  457 In the year 1780 the British began to annex the territories of the Sultanate of Mysore, during the Second Anglo-Mysore War. The British battalion was defeated during the Battle of Guntur, by the forces of Hyder Ali, who effectively utilized Mysorean rockets and Rocket artillery against the closely massed British forces.
  458 
  459 Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan, hunting deer using a Matchlock as the sun sets in the horizon.
  460 Gunpowder and gunpowder weapons were transmitted to India through the Mongol invasions of India.[66][67] The Mongols were defeated by Alauddin Khilji of the Delhi Sultanate, and some of the Mongol soldiers remained in northern India after their conversion to Islam.[67] It was written in the Tarikh-i Firishta (1606–1607) that Nasir ud din Mahmud the ruler of the Delhi Sultanate presented the envoy of the Mongol ruler Hulegu Khan with a dazzling pyrotechnics display upon his arrival in Delhi in 1258 AD. Nasir ud din Mahmud tried to express his strength as a ruler and tried to ward off any Mongol attempt similar to the Siege of Baghdad (1258).[68] Firearms known as top-o-tufak also existed in many Muslim kingdoms in India by as early as 1366 AD.[68] From then on the employment of gunpowder warfare in India was prevalent, with events such as the "Siege of Belgaum" in 1473 by Sultan Muhammad Shah Bahmani.[69]
  461 The shipwrecked Ottoman Admiral Seydi Ali Reis is known to have introduced the earliest type of Matchlock weapons, which the Ottomans used against the Portuguese during the Siege of Diu (1531). After that, a diverse variety of firearms; large guns in particular, became visible in Tanjore, Dacca, Bijapur, and Murshidabad.[70] Guns made of bronze were recovered from Calicut (1504)- the former capital of the Zamorins[71]
  462 The Mughal Emperor Akbar mass-produced matchlocks for the Mughal Army. Akbar is personally known to have shot a leading Rajput commander during the Siege of Chittorgarh.[72] The Mughals began to use Bamboo rockets (mainly for signalling) and employ Sappers: special units that undermined heavy stone fortifications to plant gunpowder charges.
  463 The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan is known to have introduced much more advanced Matchlocks, their designs were a combination of Ottoman and Mughal designs. Shah Jahan also countered the British and other Europeans in his province of Gujarāt, which supplied Europe saltpeter for use in gunpowder warfare during the 17th century.[73] Bengal and Mālwa participated in saltpeter production.[73] The Dutch, French, Portuguese, and English used Chhapra as a center of saltpeter refining.[73]
  464 Ever since the founding of the Sultanate of Mysore by Hyder Ali, French military officers were employed to train the Mysore Army. Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan were the first to introduce modern Cannons and Muskets, their army was also the first in India to have official uniforms. During the Second Anglo-Mysore War Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan unleashed the Mysorean rockets at their British opponents effectively defeating them on various occasions. The Mysorean rockets inspired the development of the Congreve rocket, which the British widely utilized during the Napoleonic Wars and the War of 1812.[74]
  465 Indonesia[edit]
  466 The Javanese Majapahit Empire was arguably able to encompass much of modern day Indonesia due to its unique mastery of bronze smithing and use of a central arsenal fed by a large number of cottage industries within the immediate region. Documentary and archeological evidence indicate that Arab or Indian traders introduced gunpowder, gonnes, muskets, blunderbusses, and cannons to the Javanese, Acehnese, and Batak via long established commercial trade routes around the early to mid 14th century CE.[75] Portuguese and Spanish invaders were unpleasantly surprised and occasionally even outgunned on occasion.[76] The resurgent Singhasari Empire overtook Sriwijaya and later emerged as the Majapahit whose warfare featured the use of fire-arms and cannonade.[77] Circa 1540 CE the Javanese, always alert for new weapons found the newly arrived Portuguese weaponry superior to that of the locally made variants. Javanese bronze breech-loaded swivel-guns, known as meriam, or erroneously as lantaka, was used widely by the Majapahit navy as well as by pirates and rival lords. The demise of the Majapahit empire and the dispersal of disaffected skilled bronze cannon-smiths to Brunei, modern Sumatra, Malaysia and the Philippines lead to widespread use, especially in the Makassar Strait.
  467 Saltpeter harvesting was recorded by Dutch and German travelers as being common in even the smallest villages and was collected from the decomposition process of large dung hills specifically piled for the purpose. The Dutch punishment for possession of non-permitted gunpowder appears to have been amputation.[78] Ownership and manufacture of gunpowder was later prohibited by the colonial Dutch occupiers.[75] According to a colonel McKenzie quoted in Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, The History of Java (1817), the purest sulfur was supplied from a crater from a mountain near the straits of Bali.[77]
  468 Manufacturing technology[edit]
  469 
  470 Edge-runner mill in a restored mill, at Eleutherian Mills
  471 For the most powerful black powder meal, a wood charcoal is used. The best wood for the purpose is Pacific willow,[79] but others such as alder or buckthorn can be used. In Great Britain between the 15th to 19th centuries charcoal from alder buckthorn was greatly prized for gunpowder manufacture; cottonwood was used by the American Confederate States.[80] The ingredients are reduced in particle size and mixed as intimately as possible. Originally this was with a mortar-and-pestle or a similarly operating stamping-mill, using copper, bronze or other non-sparking materials, until supplanted by the rotating ball mill principle with non-sparking bronze or lead. Historically, a marble or limestone edge runner mill, running on a limestone bed was used in Great Britain; however, by the mid 19th century AD this had changed to either an iron shod stone wheel or a cast iron wheel running on an iron bed.[81] The mix was dampened with alcohol or water during grinding to prevent accidental ignition. This also helps the extremely soluble saltpeter mix into the microscopic nooks and crannies of the very high surface-area charcoal.
  472 Around the late 14th century AD, European powdermakers first began adding liquid during grinding to improve mixing, reduce dust, and with it the risk of explosion.[82] The powder-makers would then shape the resulting paste of dampened gunpowder, known as mill cake, into corns, or grains, to dry. Not only did corned powder keep better because of its reduced surface area, gunners also found that it was more powerful and easier to load into guns. Before long, powder-makers standardized the process by forcing mill cake through sieves instead of corning powder by hand.
  473 The improvement was based on reducing the surface area of a higher density composition. At the beginning of the 19th century, makers increased density further by static pressing. They shoveled damp mill cake into a two-foot square box, placed this beneath a screw press and reduced it to 1/2 its volume. "Presscake" had the hardness of slate. They broke the dried slabs with hammers or rollers, and sorted the granules with sieves into different grades. In the United States, Irenee du Pont, who had learned the trade from Lavoisier, tumbled the dried grains in rotating barrels to round the edges and increase durability during shipping and handling. (Sharp grains rounded off in transport, producing fine "meal dust" that changed the burning properties.)
  474 Another advance was the manufacture of kiln charcoal by distilling wood in heated iron retorts instead of burning it in earthen pits. Controlling the temperature influenced the power and consistency of the finished gunpowder. In 1863, in response to high prices for Indian saltpeter, DuPont chemists developed a process using potash or mined potassium chloride to convert plentiful Chilean sodium nitrate to potassium nitrate.[83]
  475 During the 18th century gunpowder factories became increasingly dependent on mechanical energy.[84] Despite mechanization, production difficulties related to humidity control, especially during the pressing, were still present in the late 19th century. A paper from 1885 laments that "Gunpowder is such a nervous and sensitive spirit, that in almost every process of manufacture it changes under our hands as the weather changes." Pressing times to the desired density could vary by factor of three depending on the atmospheric humidity.[85]
  476 Composition and characteristics[edit]
  477 The term black powder was coined in the late 19th century, primarily in the United States, to distinguish prior gunpowder formulations from the new smokeless powders and semi-smokeless powders, in cases where these are not referred to as cordite. Semi-smokeless powders featured bulk volume properties that approximated black powder, but had significantly reduced amounts of smoke and combustion products. Smokeless powder has different burning properties (pressure vs. time) and can generate higher pressures and work per gram. This can rupture older weapons designed for black powder. Smokeless powders ranged in color from brownish tan to yellow to white. Most of the bulk semi-smokeless powders ceased to be manufactured in the 1920s.[86][87][88]
  478 Black powder is a granular mixture of
  479 a nitrate, typically potassium nitrate (KNO3), which supplies oxygen for the reaction;
  480 charcoal, which provides carbon and other fuel for the reaction, simplified as carbon (C);
  481 sulfur (S), which, while also serving as a fuel, lowers the temperature required to ignite the mixture, thereby increasing the rate of combustion.
  482 Potassium nitrate is the most important ingredient in terms of both bulk and function because the combustion process releases oxygen from the potassium nitrate, promoting the rapid burning of the other ingredients.[89] To reduce the likelihood of accidental ignition by static electricity, the granules of modern black powder are typically coated with graphite, which prevents the build-up of electrostatic charge.
  483 Charcoal does not consist of pure carbon; rather, it consists of partially pyrolyzed cellulose, in which the wood is not completely decomposed. Carbon differs from charcoal. Whereas charcoal's autoignition temperature is relatively low, carbon's is much greater. Thus, a black powder composition containing pure carbon would burn similarly to a match head, at best.[90]
  484 The current standard composition for the black powders that are manufactured by pyrotechnicians was adopted as long ago as 1780. Proportions by weight are 75% potassium nitrate (known as saltpeter or saltpetre), 15% softwood charcoal, and 10% sulfur.[81] These ratios have varied over the centuries and by country, and can be altered somewhat depending on the purpose of the powder. For instance, power grades of black powder, unsuitable for use in firearms but adequate for blasting rock in quarrying operations, is called blasting powder rather than gunpowder with standard proportions of 70% nitrate, 14% charcoal, and 16% sulfur; blasting powder may be made with the cheaper sodium nitrate substituted for potassium nitrate and proportions may be as low as 40% nitrate, 30% charcoal, and 30% sulfur.[91] In 1857, Lamont DuPont solved the main problem of using cheaper sodium nitrate formulations when he patented DuPont "B" Blasting powder. After manufacturing grains from press-cake in the usual way, his process tumbled the powder with graphite dust for 12 hours. This formed a graphite coating on each grain that reduced its ability to absorb moisture.[92]
  485 French war powder in 1879 used the ratio 75% saltpeter, 12.5% charcoal, 12.5% sulfur. English war powder in 1879 used the ratio 75% saltpeter, 15% charcoal, 10% sulfur.[93] The British Congreve rockets used 62.4% saltpeter, 23.2% charcoal and 14.4% sulfur, but the British Mark VII gunpowder was changed to 65% saltpeter, 20% charcoal and 15% sulfur.[94] The explanation for the wide variety in formulation relates to usage. Powder used for rocketry can use a slower burn rate since it accelerates the projectile for a much longer time—whereas powders for weapons such as flintlocks, cap-locks, or matchlocks need a higher burn rate to accelerate the projectile in a much shorter distance. Cannons usually used lower burn rate powders, because most would burst with higher burn rate powders.
  486 Serpentine[edit]
  487 The original dry-compounded powder used in fifteenth-century Europe was known as "Serpentine", either a reference to Satan[95] or to a common artillery piece that used it.[96] The ingredients were ground together with a mortar and pestle, perhaps for 24 hours,[96] resulting in a fine flour. Vibration during transportation could cause the components to separate again, requiring remixing in the field. Also if the quality of the saltpeter was low (for instance if it was contaminated with highly hygroscopic calcium nitrate), or if the powder was simply old (due to the mildly hygroscopic nature of potassium nitrate), in humid weather it would need to be re-dried. The dust from "repairing" powder in the field was a major hazard.
  488 Loading cannons or bombards before the powder-making advances of the Renaissance was a skilled art. Fine powder loaded haphazardly or too tightly would burn incompletely or too slowly. Typically, the breech-loading powder chamber in the rear of the piece was filled only about half full, the serpentine powder neither too compressed nor too loose, a wooden bung pounded in to seal the chamber from the barrel when assembled, and the projectile placed on. A carefully determined empty space was necessary for the charge to burn effectively. When the cannon was fired through the touchhole, turbulence from the initial surface combustion caused the rest of the powder to be rapidly exposed to the flame.[96]
  489 The advent of much more powerful and easy to use corned powder changed this procedure, but serpentine was used with older guns into the seventeenth century.[97]
  490 Corning[edit]
  491 For gunpowder to explode effectively, the combustible ingredients must be reduced to the smallest possible particle sizes, and thoroughly mixed as possible. Once mixed, however, for better results in a gun, makers discovered that the final product should be in the form of individual, dense, grains that spread the fire quickly from grain to grain, much as straw or twigs catch fire more quickly than a pile of sawdust.
  492 Primarily for safety reasons, size reduction and mixing is done while the ingredients are damp, usually with water. After 1800, instead of forming grains by hand or with sieves, the damp mill-cake was pressed in molds to increase its density and extract the liquid, forming press-cake. The pressing took varying amounts of time, depending on conditions such as atmospheric humidity. The hard, dense product was broken again into tiny pieces, which were separated with sieves to produce a uniform product for each purpose: coarse powders for cannons, finer grained powders for muskets, and the finest for small hand guns and priming.[97] Inappropriately fine-grained powder often caused cannons to burst before the projectile could move down the barrel, due to the high initial spike in pressure.[98] Mammoth powder with large grains made for Rodman's 15-inch cannon reduced the pressure to only 20 percent as high as ordinary cannon powder would have produced.[99]
  493 In the mid-nineteenth century, measurements were made determining that the burning rate within a grain of black powder (or a tightly packed mass) is about 0.20 fps, while the rate of ignition propagation from grain to grain is around 30 fps, over two orders of magnitude faster.[97]
  494 Modern types[edit]
  495 Modern corning first compresses the fine black powder meal into blocks with a fixed density (1.7 g/cm³).[100] In the United States, gunpowder grains were designated F (for fine) or C (for coarse). Grain diameter decreased with a larger number of Fs and increased with a larger number of Cs, ranging from about 2 mm for 7F to 15 mm for 7C. Even larger grains were produced for artillery bore diameters greater than about 17 cm (6.7 in). The standard DuPont Mammoth powder developed by Thomas Rodman and Lammot du Pont for use during the American Civil War had grains averaging 0.6 inches diameter, with edges rounded in a glazing barrel.[99] Other versions had grains the size of golf and tennis balls for use in 20-inch (50-cm) Rodman guns.[101] In 1875 DuPont introduced Hexagonal powder for large artillery, which was pressed using shaped plates with a small center core—about 1.5 inches diameter, like a wagon wheel nut, the center hole widened as the grain burned.[102] By 1882 German makers also produced hexagonal grained powders of a similar size for artillery.[102]
  496 By the late 19th century manufacturing focused on standard grades of black powder from Fg used in large bore rifles and shotguns, through FFg (medium and small-bore arms such as muskets and fusils), FFFg (small-bore rifles and pistols), and FFFFg (extreme small bore, short pistols and most commonly for priming flintlocks).[103] A coarser grade for use in military artillery blanks was designated A-1. These grades were sorted on a system of screens with oversize retained on a mesh of 6 wires per inch, A-1 retained on 10 wires per inch, Fg retained on 14, FFg on 24, FFFg on 46, and FFFFg on 60. Fines designated FFFFFg were usually reprocessed to minimize explosive dust hazards.[104] In the United Kingdom, the main service gunpowders were classified RFG (rifle grained fine) with diameter of one or two millimeters and RLG (rifle grained large) for grain diameters between two and six millimeters.[101] Gunpowder grains can alternatively be categorized by mesh size: the BSS sieve mesh size, being the smallest mesh size, which retains no grains. Recognized grain sizes are Gunpowder G 7, G 20, G 40, and G 90.
  497 Owing to the large market of antique and replica black-powder firearms in the US, modern gunpowder substitutes like Pyrodex, Triple Seven and Black Mag3[105] pellets have been developed since the 1970s. These products, which should not be confused with smokeless powders, aim to produce less fouling (solid residue), while maintaining the traditional volumetric measurement system for charges. Claims of less corrosiveness of these products have been controversial however. New cleaning products for black-powder guns have also been developed for this market.[103]
  498 Other types of gunpowder[edit]
  499 Besides black powder, there are other historically important types of gunpowder. "Brown gunpowder" is cited as composed of 79% nitre, 3% sulfur, and 18% charcoal per 100 of dry powder, with about 2% moisture. Prismatic Brown Powder is a large-grained product the Rottweil Company introduced in 1884 in Germany, which was adopted by the British Royal Navy shortly thereafter. The French navy adopted a fine, 3.1 millimeter, not prismatic grained product called Slow Burning Cocoa (SBC) or "cocoa powder". These brown powders reduced burning rate even further by using as little as 2 percent sulfur and using charcoal made from rye straw that had not been completely charred, hence the brown color.[102]
  500 Lesmok powder was a product developed by DuPont in 1911[106] one of several semi-smokeless products in the industry containing a mixture of black and nitrocellulose powder. It was sold to Winchester and others primarily for .22 and .32 small calibers. Its advantage was that it was believed at the time to be less corrosive than smokeless powders then in use. It was not understood in the U.S. until the 1920s that the actual source of corrosion was the potassium chloride residue from potassium chlorate sensitized primers. The bulkier black powder fouling better disperses primer residue. Failure to mitigate primer corrosion by dispersion caused the false impression that nitrocellulose-based powder caused corrosion.[107] Lesmok had some of the bulk of black powder for dispersing primer residue, but somewhat less total bulk than straight black powder, thus requiring less frequent bore cleaning.[108] It was last sold by Winchester in 1947.
  501 Sulfur-free gunpowder[edit]
  502 
  503 Burst barrel of a muzzle loader pistol replica, which was loaded with nitrocellulose powder instead of black powder and couldn't withstand the higher pressures of the modern propellant
  504 The development of smokeless powders, such as cordite, in the late 19th century created the need for a spark-sensitive priming charge, such as gunpowder. However, the sulfur content of traditional gunpowders caused corrosion problems with Cordite Mk I and this led to the introduction of a range of sulfur-free gunpowders, of varying grain sizes.[64] They typically contain 70.5 parts of saltpeter and 29.5 parts of charcoal.[64] Like black powder, they were produced in different grain sizes. In the United Kingdom, the finest grain was known as sulfur-free mealed powder (SMP). Coarser grains were numbered as sulfur-free gunpowder (SFG n): 'SFG 12', 'SFG 20', 'SFG 40' and 'SFG 90', for example; where the number represents the smallest BSS sieve mesh size, which retained no grains.
  505 Sulfur's main role in gunpowder is to decrease the ignition temperature. A sample reaction for sulfur-free gunpowder would be
  506 6 KNO3 + C7H4O → 3 K2CO3 + 4 CO2 + 2 H2O + 3 N2
  507 Combustion characteristics[edit]
  508 A simple, commonly cited, chemical equation for the combustion of black powder is
  509 2 KNO3 + S + 3 C → K2S + N2 + 3 CO2.
  510 A balanced, but still simplified, equation is[109]
  511 10 KNO3 + 3 S + 8 C → 2 K2CO3 + 3 K2SO4 + 6 CO2 + 5 N2.
  512 Although charcoal's chemical formula varies, it can be best summed up by its empirical formula: C7H4O.
  513 Therefore, an even more accurate equation of the decomposition of regular black powder with the use of sulfur can be described as:
  514 6 KNO3 + C7H4O + 2 S → K2CO3 + K2SO4 + K2S + 4 CO2 + 2 CO + 2 H2O + 3 N2
  515 Black powder without the use of sulfur:
  516 10 KNO3 + 2 C7H4O → 5 K2CO3 + 4 CO2 + 5 CO + 4 H2O + 5 N2
  517 The burning of gunpowder does not take place as a single reaction, however, and the byproducts are not easily predicted. One study's results showed that it produced (in order of descending quantities) 55.91% solid products: potassium carbonate, potassium sulfate, potassium sulfide, sulfur, potassium nitrate, potassium thiocyanate, carbon, ammonium carbonate and 42.98% gaseous products: carbon dioxide, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, methane, 1.11% water.
  518 Black powder made with less-expensive and more plentiful sodium nitrate (in appropriate proportions) works just as well but is more hygroscopic than powders made from Potassium nitrate—popularly known as saltpeter. Because corned black powder grains made with saltpeter are less affected by moisture in the air, they can be stored unsealed without degradation by humidity. Muzzleloaders have been known to fire after hanging on a wall for decades in a loaded state, provided they remained dry. By contrast, black powder made with sodium nitrate must be kept sealed to remain stable.
  519 Gunpowder contains 3 megajoules per kilogram, and contains its own oxidant. For comparison, the energy density of TNT is 4.7 megajoules per kilogram, and the energy density of gasoline is 47.2 megajoules per kilogram. Gunpowder is a low explosive and as such it does not detonate; rather it deflagrates. Since it contains its own oxidizer and additionally burns faster under pressure, its combustion is capable of rupturing containers such as shell, grenade, or improvised "pipe bomb" or "pressure cooker" casings, forming shrapnel.
  520 Advantages[edit]
  521 In quarrying, high explosives are generally preferred for shattering rock. However, because of its low brisance, black powder causes fewer fractures and results in more usable stone compared to other explosives, making black powder useful for blasting monumental stone such as granite and marble. Black powder is well suited for blank rounds, signal flares, burst charges, and rescue-line launches. Black powder is also used in fireworks for lifting shells, in rockets as fuel, and in certain special effects.
  522 Disadvantages[edit]
  523 Black powder has a low energy density compared to modern "smokeless" powders, and thus to achieve high energy loadings, large amounts of black powder are needed with heavy projectiles. Black powder also produces thick smoke as a byproduct, which in military applications may give a soldier's location away to an enemy observer and may also impair aiming for additional shots.
  524 Combustion converts less than half the mass of black powder to gas. The rest ends up as a thick layer of soot inside the barrel. In addition to being a nuisance, the residue from burnt black powder is hygroscopic and with the addition of moisture absorbed from the air, this residue forms a caustic substance. The soot contains potassium oxide or sodium oxide that turns into potassium hydroxide, or sodium hydroxide, which corrodes wrought iron or steel gun barrels. Black powder arms must be well cleaned both inside and out to remove the residue. The matchlock musket or pistol (an early gun ignition system), as well as the flintlock would often be unusable in wet weather, due to powder in the pan being exposed and dampened. Because of this unreliability, soldiers carrying muskets, known as musketeers, were armed with additional weapons such as swords or pikes. The bayonet was developed to allow the musket to be used as a pike, thus eliminating the need for the soldier to carry a secondary weapon.
  525 Transportation[edit]
  526 The United Nations Model Regulations on the Transportation of Dangerous Goods and national transportation authorities, such as United States Department of Transportation, have classified gunpowder (black powder) as a Group A: Primary explosive substance for shipment because it ignites so easily. Complete manufactured devices containing black powder are usually classified as Group D: Secondary detonating substance, or black powder, or article containing secondary detonating substance, such as firework, class D model rocket engine, etc., for shipment because they are harder to ignite than loose powder. As explosives, they all fall into the category of Class 1.
  527 Other uses[edit]
  528 Besides its use as an explosive, gunpowder has been occasionally employed for other purposes; after the Battle of Aspern-Essling (1809), the surgeon of the Napoleonic Army Larrey combated the lack of food for the wounded under his care by preparing a bouillon of horse meat seasoned with gunpowder for lack of salt.[110][111] It was also used for sterilizing on ships when there was no alcohol.
  529 Jack Tars (British sailors) used gunpowder to create tattoos when ink wasn't available, by pricking the skin and rubbing the powder into the wound in a method known as traumatic tattooing.[112]
  530 Christiaan Huygens experimented with gunpowder in 1673 in an early attempt to build an internal combustion engine, but he did not succeed. Modern attempts to recreate his invention were similarly unsuccessful.
  531 Fireworks use gunpowder as lifting and burst charges, although sometimes other more powerful compositions are added to the burst charge to improve performance in small shells or provide a louder report. Most modern firecrackers no longer contain black powder.
  532 Beginning in the 1930s, gunpowder or smokeless powder was used in rivet guns, stun guns for animals, cable splicers and other industrial construction tools.[113] The "stud gun" drove nails or screws into solid concrete, a function not possible with hydraulic tools. See Powder-actuated tool. Shotguns have been used to eliminate persistent material rings in operating rotary kilns (such as those for cement, lime, phosphate, etc.) and clinker in operating furnaces, and commercial tools make the method more reliable.[114]
  533 Near London in 1853, Captain Shrapnel demonstrated a method for crushing gold-bearing ores by firing them from a cannon into an iron chamber, and "much satisfaction was expressed by all present". He hoped it would be useful on the goldfields of California and Australia. Nothing came of the invention, as continuously-operating crushing machines that achieved more reliable comminution were already coming into use.[115]
  534 See also[edit]
  535 Ballistics
  536 Black powder substitute
  537 Faversham explosives industry
  538 Bulk loaded liquid propellants
  539 Gunpowder magazine
  540 Gunpowder Plot
  541 Berthold Schwarz
  542 Gunpowder warfare
  543 History of gunpowder
  544 Technology of the Song Dynasty
  545 References[edit]
  546 Jump up ^ http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/gunpowder
  547 Jump up ^ Jai Prakash Agrawal (2010). High Energy Materials: Propellants, Explosives and Pyrotechnics. Wiley-VCH. p. 69. ISBN 978-3-527-32610-5.
  548 Jump up ^ David Cressy, Saltpeter: The Mother of Gunpowder (Oxford University Press, 2013)
  549 Jump up ^ Owen Compliance Services. "Black Powder". Material Safety Data Sheet. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
  550 Jump up ^ http://www.history.com/shows/ancient-discoveries/articles/who-built-it-first-2
  551 Jump up ^ http://chemistry.about.com/od/historyofchemistry/a/gunpowder.htm
  552 Jump up ^ Chase 2003:31 : "the earliest surviving formulas for gunpowder can be found in the Wujing zongyao, a military work from around 1040"
  553 ^ Jump up to: a b c Buchanan 2006, p. 2 "With its ninth century AD origins in China, the knowledge of gunpowder emerged from the search by alchemists for the secrets of life, to filter through the channels of Middle Eastern culture, and take root in Europe with consequences that form the context of the studies in this volume."
  554 ^ Jump up to: a b c Joseph Needham; Gwei-Djen Lu; Ling Wang (1987). Science and civilisation in China, Volume 5, Part 7. Cambridge University Press. pp. 48–50. ISBN 978-0-521-30358-3.
  555 Jump up ^ Hazel Rossotti (2002). Fire: Servant, Scourge, and Enigma. Courier Dover Publications. pp. 132–137. ISBN 978-0-486-42261-9.
  556 Jump up ^ Jack Kelly Gunpowder: Alchemy, Bombards, and Pyrotechnics: The History of the Explosive that Changed the World, Perseus Books Group: 2005, ISBN 0-465-03722-4, ISBN 978-0-465-03722-3: 272 pages
  557 Jump up ^ St. C. Easton: "Roger Bacon and his Search for a Universal Science", Oxford (1962)
  558 ^ Jump up to: a b Gábor Ágoston (2005). Guns for the sultan: military power and the weapons industry in the Ottoman Empire. Cambridge University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-521-84313-3.
  559 Jump up ^ Ingham-Brown, George (1989) The Big Bang: A History of Explosives, Sutton Publishers, ISBN 0-7509-1878-0, ISBN 978-0-7509-1878-7, page vi
  560 Jump up ^ Kelly, Jack (2005) Gunpowder: Alchemy, Bombards, and Pyrotechnics: The History of the Explosive that Changed the World, Perseus Books Group, ISBN 0-465-03722-4, ISBN 978-0-465-03722-3, page 22
  561 Jump up ^ Bert S. Hall, "Introduction, 1999" pp. xvi–xvii to the reprinting of James Riddick Partington (1960). A history of Greek fire and gunpowder. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-5954-0.
  562 ^ Jump up to: a b Peter Purton (2009). A History of the Late Medieval Siege, 1200–1500. Boydell & Brewer. pp. 108–109. ISBN 978-1-84383-449-6.
  563 Jump up ^ Bert S. Hall, "Introduction, 1999" p. xvii to the reprinting of James Riddick Partington (1960). A history of Greek fire and gunpowder. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-5954-0.
  564 Jump up ^ Buchanan. "Editor's Introduction: Setting the Context", in Buchanan 2006.
  565 ^ Jump up to: a b Chase 2003:31–32
  566 Jump up ^ Lorge, Peter A. (2008). The Asian military revolution, 1300-2000 : from gunpowder to the bomb (1. publ. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 32. ISBN 978052160954-8.
  567 Jump up ^ Kelly 2004:4
  568 Jump up ^ The Big Book of Trivia Fun, Kidsbooks, 2004
  569 Jump up ^ Peter Allan Lorge (2008), The Asian military revolution: from gunpowder to the bomb, Cambridge University Press, p. 18, ISBN 978-0-521-60954-8
  570 Jump up ^ Needham 1986, p. 7 "Without doubt it was in the previous century, around +850, that the early alchemical experiments on the constituents of gunpowder, with its self-contained oxygen, reached their climax in the appearance of the mixture itself."
  571 Jump up ^ Chase 2003:1 "The earliest known formula for gunpowder can be found in a Chinese work dating probably from the 800s. The Chinese wasted little time in applying it to warfare, and they produced a variety of gunpowder weapons, including flamethrowers, rockets, bombs, and land mines, before inventing firearms."
  572 Jump up ^ Chase 2003:1
  573 Jump up ^ Delgado, James (February 2003). "Relics of the Kamikaze". Archaeology (Archaeological Institute of America) 56 (1).
  574 Jump up ^ Chase 2003:31
  575 Jump up ^ Peter Allan Lorge (2008), The Asian military revolution: from gunpowder to the bomb, Cambridge University Press, pp. 33–34, ISBN 978-0-521-60954-8
  576 Jump up ^ Kelly 2004:22 'Around year 1240, Arabs acquired knowledge of saltpeter ("Chinese snow") from the East, perhaps through India. They knew of gunpowder soon afterward. They also learned about fireworks ("Chinese flowers") and rockets ("Chinese arrows"). Arab warriors had acquired fire lances before year 1280. Around that same year, a Syrian named Hasan al-Rammah wrote a book that, as he put it, "treats of machines of fire to be used for amusement or for useful purposes." He talked of rockets, fireworks, fire lances, and other incendiaries, using terms that suggested he derived his knowledge from Chinese sources. He gave instructions for the purification of saltpeter and recipes for making different types of gunpowder.'
  577 ^ Jump up to: a b c d Hassan, Ahmad Y. "Transfer of Islamic Technology to the West: Part III". History of Science and Technology in Islam.
  578 Jump up ^ Peter Watson (2006). Ideas: A History of Thought and Invention, from Fire to Freud. HarperCollins. p. 304. ISBN 978-0-06-093564-1. The first use of a metal tube in this context was made around 1280 in the wars between the Song and the Mongols, where a new term, chong, was invented to describe the new horror...Like paper, it reached the West via the Muslims, in this case the writings of the Andalusian botanist Ibn al-Baytar, who died in Damascus in 1248. The Arabic term for saltpetre is 'Chinese snow' while the Persian usage is 'Chinese salt'.28
  579 Jump up ^ Cathal J. Nolan (2006). The age of wars of religion, 1000–1650: an encyclopedia of global warfare and civilization. Volume 1 of Greenwood encyclopedias of modern world wars. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 365. ISBN 0-313-33733-0. Retrieved 2011-11-28. In either case, there is linguistic evidence of Chinese origins of the technology: in Damascus, Arabs called the saltpeter used in making gunpowder " Chinese snow," while in Iran it was called "Chinese salt." Whatever the migratory route
  580 Jump up ^ Oliver Frederick Gillilan Hogg (1970). Artillery: its origin, heyday, and decline. Archon Books. p. 123. The Chinese were certainly acquainted with saltpetre, the essential ingredient of gunpowder. They called it Chinese Snow and employed it early in the Christian era in the manufacture of fireworks and rockets.
  581 Jump up ^ Oliver Frederick Gillilan Hogg (1963). English artillery, 1326–1716: being the history of artillery in this country prior to the formation of the Royal Regiment of Artillery. Royal Artillery Institution. p. 42. The Chinese were certainly acquainted with saltpetre, the essential ingredient of gunpowder. They called it Chinese Snow and employed it early in the Christian era in the manufacture of fireworks and rockets.
  582 Jump up ^ Oliver Frederick Gillilan Hogg (1993). Clubs to cannon: warfare and weapons before the introduction of gunpowder (reprint ed.). Barnes & Noble Books. p. 216. ISBN 1-56619-364-8. Retrieved 2011-11-28. The Chinese were certainly acquainted with saltpetre, the essential ingredient of gunpowder. They called it Chinese snow and used it early in the Christian era in the manufacture of fireworks and rockets.
  583 Jump up ^ Partington, J. R. (1960). A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder (illustrated, reprint ed.). JHU Press. p. 335. ISBN 0801859549. Retrieved 2014-11-21.
  584 Jump up ^ Needham, Joseph; Yu, Ping-Yu (1980). Needham, Joseph, ed. Science and Civilisation in China: Volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Part 4, Spagyrical Discovery and Invention: Apparatus, Theories and Gifts. Volume 5 (Issue 4 of Science and Civilisation in China). Contributors Joseph Needham, Lu Gwei-Djen, Nathan Sivin (illustrated, reprint ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 194. ISBN 052108573X. Retrieved 2014-11-21.
  585 Jump up ^ Khan 1996
  586 ^ Jump up to: a b Khan 2004:6
  587 Jump up ^ Ancient Discoveries, Episode 12: Machines of the East, History Channel, 2007 (Part 4 and Part 5)
  588 Jump up ^ Nelson, Cameron Rubaloff (2010-07). Manufacture and transportation of gunpowder in the Ottoman Empire: 1400-1800 M.A. Thesis.
  589 Jump up ^ William H. McNeill (1992). The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community. University of Chicago Press. p. 492. ISBN 0-226-56141-0. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  590 Jump up ^ Michael Kohn (2006), Dateline Mongolia: An American Journalist in Nomad's Land, RDR Books, p. 28, ISBN 1-57143-155-1, retrieved 29 July 2011
  591 Jump up ^ Robert Cowley (1993). Robert Cowley, ed. Experience of War (reprint ed.). Random House Inc. p. 86. ISBN 0-440-50553-4. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  592 Jump up ^ Kenneth Warren Chase (2003). Firearms: a global history to 1700 (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 58. ISBN 0-521-82274-2. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  593 Jump up ^ C. F. Temler, Historische Abhandlungen der Koniglichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Kopenhagen ... ubersetzt ... von V. A. Heinze, Kiel, Dresden and Leipzig, 1782, i, 168, as cited in Partington, p. 228, footnote 6.
  594 Jump up ^ Joseph Needham; Gwei-Djen Lu; Ling Wang (1987). Science and civilisation in China, Volume 5, Part 7. Cambridge University Press. p. 358. ISBN 978-0-521-30358-3.
  595 Jump up ^ Bert S. Hall, "Introduction, 1999" p. xxiv to the reprinting of James Riddick Partington (1960). A history of Greek fire and gunpowder. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-5954-0.
  596 Jump up ^ Partington 1960:60
  597 ^ Jump up to: a b Partington 1960:48–49, 54
  598 ^ Jump up to: a b Partington 1960:82–83
  599 ^ Jump up to: a b c d Kelly 2004, p.61
  600 Jump up ^ Molerus, Otto. "History of Civilization in the Western Hemisphere from the Point of View of Particulate Technology, Part 2," Advanced Powder Technology 7 (1996): 161-66
  601 Jump up ^ Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007 Archived 31 October 2009.
  602 Jump up ^ In 1777 Lavoisier named oxygen, which had earlier been isolated by Priestley; the realization that saltpeter contained this substance was fundamental to understanding gunpowder.
  603 ^ Jump up to: a b Kelly 2004, p.164
  604 Jump up ^ Metzner, Paul (1998), Crescendo of the Virtuoso: Spectacle, Skill, and Self-Promotion in Paris during the Age of Revolution, University of California Press
  605 ^ Jump up to: a b c d Cocroft 2000, "Success to the Black Art!". Chapter 1
  606 Jump up ^ Ross, Charles. The Custom of the Castle: From Malory to Macbeth. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1997. [1] pages 131-130
  607 Jump up ^ The Noble-Abel Equation of State: Thermodynamic Derivations for Ballistics Modelling
  608 Jump up ^ Pritchard, Tom; Evans, Jack; Johnson, Sydney (1985), The Old Gunpowder Factory at Glynneath, Merthyr Tydfil: Merthyr Tydfil & District Naturalists' Society
  609 ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Cocroft 2000, "The demise of gunpowder". Chapter 4
  610 Jump up ^ MacDougall, Ian (2000). 'Oh, ye had to be careful' : personal recollections by Roslin gunpowder mill and bomb factory workers. East Linton, Scotland: Tuckwell Press in association with the European Ethnological Research Centre and the Scottish Working People's History Trust. ISBN 1-86232-126-4.
  611 Jump up ^ Iqtidar Alam Khan (2004). Gunpowder And Firearms: Warfare In Medieval India. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-566526-0.
  612 ^ Jump up to: a b Iqtidar Alam Khan (25 April 2008). Historical Dictionary of Medieval India. Scarecrow Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-8108-5503-8.
  613 ^ Jump up to: a b Khan 2004:9–10
  614 Jump up ^ Khan 2004:10
  615 Jump up ^ Partington (Johns Hopkins University Press edition, 1999), 225
  616 Jump up ^ Partington (Johns Hopkins University Press edition, 1999), 226
  617 Jump up ^ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DTfEDaWMj4o
  618 ^ Jump up to: a b c "India." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopedia Britannica 2008 Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008.
  619 Jump up ^ "rocket and missile system." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica 2008 Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2008.
  620 ^ Jump up to: a b Dipanegara, P. B. R. Carey, Babad Dipanagara: an account of the outbreak of the Java war, 1825-30 : the Surakarta court version of the Babad Dipanagara with translations into English and Indonesian volume 9: Council of the M.B.R.A.S. by Art Printing Works: 1981.
  621 Jump up ^ Atsushi, Ota (2006). Changes of regime and social dynamics in West Java : society, state, and the outer world of Banten, 1750-1830. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-15091-9.
  622 ^ Jump up to: a b Thomas Stamford Raffles, The History of Java, Oxford University Press, 1965 (originally published in 1817), ISBN 0-19-580347-7
  623 Jump up ^ Raffles, Thomas Stamford (1978). The History of Java ([Repr.]. ed.). Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-580347-7.
  624 Jump up ^ US Department of Agriculture (1917). Department Bulleting No. 316: Willows: Their growth, use, and importance. The Department. p. 31.
  625 Jump up ^ Kelly 2004, p.200
  626 ^ Jump up to: a b Earl 1978, Chapter 2: The Development of Gunpowder
  627 Jump up ^ Kelly 2004:60–63
  628 Jump up ^ Kelly 2004, p.199
  629 Jump up ^ Frangsmyr, Tore, J. L. Heilbron, and Robin E. Rider, editors The Quantifying Spirit in the Eighteenth Century. Berkeley: University of California Press, c1990. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft6d5nb455/ p. 292.
  630 Jump up ^ C.E. Munroe (1885) "Notes on the literature of explosives no. VIII", Proceedings of the US Naval Institute, no. XI, p. 285
  631 Jump up ^ The History of the 10.4×38 Swiss Cartridge
  632 Jump up ^ Blackpowder to Pyrodex and Beyond by Randy Wakeman at Chuck Hawks
  633 Jump up ^ The History and Art of Shotshells by Jon Farrar, Nebraskaland Magazine
  634 Jump up ^ Buchanan. "Editor's Introduction: Setting the Context", in Buchanan 2006, p. 4.
  635 Jump up ^ Black Powder Recipes, Ulrich Bretscher
  636 Jump up ^ Julian S. Hatcher, Hatcher's Notebook, Military Service Publishing Company, 1947. Chapter XIII Notes on Gunpowder, pages 300-305.
  637 Jump up ^ Kelly 2004, p.218
  638 Jump up ^ Book title Workshop Receipts Publisher William Clowes and Son limited Author Ernest Spon. Date 1 August 1873.
  639 Jump up ^ GunpowderTranslation. Academic. Retrieved 2014-08-31.
  640 Jump up ^ Cathal J. Nolan (2006), The age of wars of religion, 1000-1650: an encyclopedia of global warfare and civilization, Greenwood Publishing Group, p. 365, ISBN 978-0-313-33733-8
  641 ^ Jump up to: a b c Kelly 2004, p58
  642 ^ Jump up to: a b c John Francis Guilmartin (2003). Gunpowder & galleys: changing technology & Mediterranean warfare at sea in the 16th century. Conway Maritime Press. pp. 109–110 and 298–300. ISBN 0851779514.
  643 Jump up ^ T.J. Rodman (1861), Reports of experiments on the properties of metals for cannon and the qualities of cannon powder, p. 270
  644 ^ Jump up to: a b Kelly 2004, p.195
  645 Jump up ^ Tenney L. Davis (1943). The Chemistry of Powder and Explosives (PDF). p. 139.
  646 ^ Jump up to: a b Brown, G.I. (1998) The Big Bang: A history of Explosives Sutton Publishing pp.22&32 ISBN 0-7509-1878-0
  647 ^ Jump up to: a b c Kelly 2004, p.224
  648 ^ Jump up to: a b Rodney James (2011). The ABCs of Reloading: The Definitive Guide for Novice to Expert (9 ed.). Krause Publications. pp. 53–59. ISBN 978-1-4402-1396-0.
  649 Jump up ^ Sharpe, Philip B. (1953) Complete Guide to Handloading Funk & Wagnalls p.137
  650 Jump up ^ Wakeman, Randy. "Blackpowder to Pyrodex and Beyond". Retrieved 31 August 2014.
  651 Jump up ^ "LESMOK POWDER".
  652 Jump up ^ Julian S. Hatcher, Hatcher's Notebook, Stackpole Books, 1962. Chapter XIV, Gun Corrosion and Ammunition Developments, pages 346-349.
  653 Jump up ^ Wakeman, Randy. "Blackpowder to Pyrodex and Beyond".
  654 Jump up ^ Flash! Bang! Whiz!, University of Denver
  655 Jump up ^ Parker, Harold T. (1983). Three Napoleonic battles. (Repr., Durham, 1944. ed.). Durham, NC: Duke Univ. Pr. p. 83. ISBN 0-8223-0547-X.
  656 Jump up ^ Larrey is quoted in French at Dr Béraud, Études Hygiéniques de la chair de cheval comme aliment, Musée des Familles (1841-42).
  657 Jump up ^ Rediker, Marcus (1989). Between the devil and the deep blue sea : merchant seamen, pirates, and the Anglo-American maritime world, 1700-1750 (1st pbk. ed. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 12. ISBN 9780521379830.
  658 Jump up ^ "Gunpowder Now Used To Drive Rivets And Splice Cables", April 1932, Popular Science
  659 Jump up ^ "MasterBlaster System". Remington Products.
  660 Jump up ^ Mining Journal 22 January 1853, p. 61
  661 Benton, Captain James G. (1862). A Course of Instruction in Ordnance and Gunnery (2 ed.). West Point, New York: Thomas Publications. ISBN 1-57747-079-6..
  662 Brown, G. I. (1998). The Big Bang: A History of Explosives. Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-1878-0..
  663 Buchanan, Brenda J., ed. (2006). Gunpowder, Explosives and the State: A Technological History. Aldershot: Ashgate. ISBN 0-7546-5259-9..
  664 Chase, Kenneth (2003). Firearms: A Global History to 1700. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82274-2..
  665 Cocroft, Wayne (2000). Dangerous Energy: The archaeology of gunpowder and military explosives manufacture. Swindon: English Heritage. ISBN 1-85074-718-0..
  666 Crosby, Alfred W. (2002). Throwing Fire: Projectile Technology Through History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-79158-8..
  667 Earl, Brian (1978). Cornish Explosives. Cornwall: The Trevithick Society. ISBN 0-904040-13-5..
  668 al-Hassan, Ahmad Y.. "History of Science and Technology in Islam". |chapter= ignored (help).
  669 Johnson, Norman Gardner. "explosive". Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Online..
  670 Kelly, Jack (2004). Gunpowder: Alchemy, Bombards, & Pyrotechnics: The History of the Explosive that Changed the World. Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-03718-6..
  671 Khan, Iqtidar Alam (1996). "Coming of Gunpowder to the Islamic World and North India: Spotlight on the Role of the Mongols". Journal of Asian History 30: 41–5..
  672 Khan, Iqtidar Alam (2004). "Gunpowder and Firearms: Warfare in Medieval India". Oxford University Press. doi:10.1086/ahr.111.3.817..
  673 Needham, Joseph (1986). "Science & Civilisation in China". V:7: The Gunpowder Epic. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-30358-3..
  674 Norris, John (2003). Early Gunpowder Artillery: 1300-1600. Marlborough: The Crowood Press. ISBN 9781861266156..
  675 Partington, J.R. (1960). A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Cambridge, UK: W. Heffer & Sons..
  676 Partington, James Riddick; Hall, Bert S. (1999). A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. doi:10.1353/tech.2000.0031. ISBN 0-8018-5954-9.
  677 Urbanski, Tadeusz (1967). "Chemistry and Technology of Explosives" III. New York: Pergamon Press..
  678 External links[edit]
  679 	Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gunpowder.
  680 	Look up gunpowder in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  681 Gun and Gunpowder
  682 The Origins of Gunpowder
  683 Cannons and Gunpowder
  684 Oare Gunpowder Works, Kent, UK
  685 Royal Gunpowder Mills
  686 The DuPont Company on the Brandywine A digital exhibit produced by the Hagley Library that covers the founding and early history of the DuPont Company powder yards in Delaware
  687 "Ulrich Bretschler's Gunpowder Chemistry page".
  688 Video Demonstration of the Medieval Siege Society's Guns, Including showing ignition of gunpowder
  689 Black Powder Recipes
  690 "Dr. Sasse's investigations (and others) found via search at US DTIC.MIL These contain scientific studies of BP properties and details of measurement techniques.".
  691 Categories: GunpowderChinese inventionsExplosivesFirearm propellantsPyrotechnic compositionsRocket fuelsSolid fuels
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  817 
  818 
  819 Smokeless powder
  820 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  821 
  822 Finnish smokeless powder
  823 Smokeless powder is the name given to a number of propellants used in firearms and artillery that produce negligible smoke when fired, unlike the black powder they replaced. The term is unique to the United States and is generally not used in other English-speaking countries, which initially used proprietary names such as "Ballistite" and "Cordite" but gradually shifted to "propellant" as the generic term.
  824 The basis of the term smokeless is that the combustion products are mainly gaseous, compared to around 55% solid products (mostly potassium carbonate, potassium sulfate, and potassium sulfide) for black powder.[1] Despite its name, smokeless powder is not completely smoke-free;[2] while there may be little noticeable smoke from small-arms ammunition, smoke from artillery fire can be substantial. This article focuses on nitrocellulose formulations, but the term smokeless powder was also used to describe various picrate mixtures with nitrate, chlorate, or dichromate oxidizers during the late 19th century, before the advantages of nitrocellulose became evident.[3]
  825 Since the 14th century[4] gunpowder was not actually a physical "powder," and smokeless powder can only be produced as a pelletized or extruded granular material. Smokeless powder allowed the development of modern semi- and fully automatic firearms and lighter breeches and barrels for artillery. Burnt black powder leaves a thick, heavy fouling that is hygroscopic and causes rusting of the barrel. The fouling left by smokeless powder exhibits none of these properties (though some primer compounds can leave hygroscopic salts that have a similar effect; non-corrosive primer compounds were introduced in the 1920s[5][6]). This makes an autoloading firearm with many moving parts feasible (which would otherwise jam or seize under heavy black powder fouling).
  826 Smokeless powders are classified as, typically, division 1.3 explosives under the UN Recommendations on the transportation of Dangerous goods – Model Regulations, regional regulations (such as ADR) and national regulations (such the United States' ATF). However, they are used as solid propellants; in normal use, they undergo deflagration rather than detonation.
  827 Contents  [hide] 
  828 1 Background
  829 2 Nitroglycerine and guncotton
  830 3 Propellant improvements
  831 4 Chemical formulations
  832 5 Instability and stabilization
  833 6 Physical variations
  834 7 Smokeless propellant components
  835 8 Manufacturing
  836 9 Flashless propellant
  837 10 See also
  838 11 References
  839 11.1 Notes
  840 11.2 Sources
  841 12 External links
  842 Background[edit]
  843 Military commanders had been complaining since the Napoleonic Wars about the problems of giving orders on a battlefield obscured by the smoke of firing. Verbal commands could not be heard above the noise of the guns, and visual signals could not be seen through the thick smoke from the gunpowder used by the guns. Unless there was a strong wind, after a few shots, soldiers using black powder ammunition would have their view obscured by a huge cloud of smoke. Snipers or other concealed shooters were given away by a cloud of smoke over the firing position. Black powder is also corrosive, making cleaning mandatory after every use. Likewise, black powder's tendency to produce severe fouling caused actions to jam and often made reloading difficult.
  844 Nitroglycerine and guncotton[edit]
  845 Nitroglycerine was synthesized by the Italian chemist Ascanio Sobrero in 1847.[7] It was subsequently developed and manufactured by Alfred Nobel as an industrial explosive, but even then it was unsuitable as a propellant: despite its energetic and smokeless qualities, it detonates instead of deflagrating smoothly, making it more amenable to shattering a gun than propelling a projectile out of it. Nitroglycerine per se is also highly unstable, making it unfit to be carried in battlefield conditions.
  846 A major step forward was the discovery of guncotton, a nitrocellulose-based material, by Swiss chemist Christian Friedrich Schönbein in 1846. He promoted its use as a blasting explosive[8] and sold manufacturing rights to the Austrian Empire. Guncotton was more powerful than gunpowder, but at the same time was once again somewhat more unstable. John Taylor obtained an English patent for guncotton; and John Hall & Sons began manufacture in Faversham.
  847 English interest languished after an explosion destroyed the Faversham factory in 1847. Austrian Baron Wilhelm Lenk von Wolfsberg built two guncotton plants producing artillery propellent, but it too was dangerous under field conditions, and guns that could fire thousands of rounds using gunpowder would reach their service life after only a few hundred shots with the more powerful guncotton. Small arms could not withstand the pressures generated by guncotton at all.
  848 After one of the Austrian factories blew up in 1862, Thomas Prentice & Company began manufacturing guncotton in Stowmarket in 1863; and British War Office chemist Sir Frederick Abel began thorough research at Waltham Abbey Royal Gunpowder Mills leading to a manufacturing process that eliminated the impurities in nitrocellulose making it safer to produce and a stable product safer to handle. Abel patented this process in 1865, when the second Austrian guncotton factory exploded. After the Stowmarket factory exploded in 1871, Waltham Abbey began production of guncotton for torpedo and mine warheads.[9]
  849 Propellant improvements[edit]
  850 In 1863, Prussian artillery captain Johann F. E. Schultze patented a small arms propellent of nitrated hardwood impregnated with saltpetre or barium nitrate. Prentice received an 1866 patent for a sporting powder of nitrated paper manufactured at Stowmarket, but ballistic uniformity suffered as the paper absorbed atmospheric moisture. In 1871, Frederick Volkmann received an Austrian patent for a colloided version of Schultze powder called Collodin, which he manufactured near Vienna for use in sporting firearms. Austrian patents were not published at the time, and the Austrian Empire considered the operation a violation of the government monopoly on explosives manufacture and closed the Volkmann factory in 1875.[9] In 1882, the Explosives Company at Stowmarket patented an improved formulation of nitrated cotton gelatinised by ether-alcohol with nitrates of potassium and barium. These propellants were suitable for shotguns but not rifles.[10]
  851 
  852 Poudre B single-base smokeless powder flakes
  853 In 1884, Paul Vieille invented a smokeless powder called Poudre B (short for poudre blanche—white powder, as distinguished from black powder)[11] made from 68.2% insoluble nitrocellulose, 29.8% soluble nitrocellusose gelatinized with ether and 2% paraffin. This was adopted for the Lebel rifle.[12] It was passed through rollers to form paper thin sheets, which were cut into flakes of the desired size.[11] The resulting propellant, today known as pyrocellulose, contains somewhat less nitrogen than guncotton and is less volatile. A particularly good feature of the propellant is that it will not detonate unless it is compressed, making it very safe to handle under normal conditions.
  854 Vieille's powder revolutionized the effectiveness of small guns, because it gave off almost no smoke and was three times more powerful than black powder. Higher muzzle velocity meant a flatter trajectory and less wind drift and bullet drop, making 1000 meter shots practicable. Since less powder was needed to propel a bullet, the cartridge could be made smaller and lighter. This allowed troops to carry more ammunition for the same weight. Also, it would burn even when wet. Black powder ammunition had to be kept dry and was almost always stored and transported in watertight cartridges.
  855 Other European countries swiftly followed and started using their own versions of Poudre B, the first being Germany and Austria, which introduced new weapons in 1888. Subsequently Poudre B was modified several times with various compounds being added and removed. Krupp began adding diphenylamine as a stabilizer in 1888.[9]
  856 Meanwhile, in 1887, Alfred Nobel obtained an English patent for a smokeless gunpowder he called Ballistite. In this propellant the fibrous structure of cotton (nitro-cellulose) was destroyed by a nitro-glycerine solution instead of a solvent.[13] In England in 1889, a similar powder was patented by Hiram Maxim, and in the USA in 1890 by Hudson Maxim.[14] Ballistite was patented in the United States in 1891.
  857 The Germans adopted ballistite for naval use in 1898, calling it WPC/98. The Italians adopted it as filite, in cord instead of flake form, but realising its drawbacks changed to a formulation with nitroglycerine they called solenite. In 1891 the Russians tasked the chemist Mendeleef with finding a suitable propellant, he created nitrocellulose gelatinised by ether-alcohol, which produced more nitrogen and more uniform colloidal structure than the French use of nitro-cottons in Poudre B. He called it pyro-collodion.[13]
  858 Britain conducted trials on all the various types of propellant brought to their attention, but were dissatisfied with them all and sought something superior to all existing types. In 1889, Sir Frederick Abel, James Dewar and Dr W Kellner patented (Nos 5614 and 11,664 in the names of Abel and Dewar) a new formulation that was manufactured at the Royal Gunpowder Factory at Waltham Abbey. It entered British service in 1891 as Cordite Mark 1. Its main composition was 58% Nitro-glycerine, 37% Guncotton and 3% mineral jelly. A modified version, Cordite MD, entered service in 1901, this increased guncotton to 65% and reduced nitro-glycerine to 30%, this change reduced the combustion temperature and hence erosion and barrel wear. Cordite's advantages over gunpowder were reduced maximum pressure in the chamber (hence lighter breeches, etc.) but longer high pressure. Cordite could be made in any desired shape or size.[15] The creation of cordite led to a lengthy court battle between Nobel, Maxim, and another inventor over alleged British patent infringement.
  859 The Anglo-American Explosives Company began manufacturing its shotgun powder in Oakland, New Jersey in 1890. DuPont began producing guncotton at Carneys Point Township, New Jersey in 1891.[3] Charles E. Munroe of the Naval Torpedo Station in Newport, Rhode Island patented a formulation of guncotton colloided with nitrobenzene, called Indurite, in 1891.[16] Several United States firms began producing smokeless powder when Winchester Repeating Arms Company started loading sporting cartridges with Explosives Company powder in 1893. California Powder Works began producing a mixture of nitroglycerine and nitrocellulose with ammonium picrate as Peyton Powder, Leonard Smokeless Powder Company began producing nitroglycerine-nitrocellulose Ruby powders, Laflin & Rand negotiated a license to produce Ballistite, and DuPont started producing smokeless shotgun powder. The United States Army evaluated 25 varieties of smokeless powder and selected Ruby and Peyton Powders as the most suitable for use in the Krag-Jørgensen service rifle. Ruby was preferred, because tin-plating was required to protect brass cartridge cases from picric acid in the Peyton Powder. Rather than paying the required royalties for Ballistite, Laflin & Rand financed Leonard's reorganization as the American Smokeless Powder Company. United States Army Lieutenant Whistler assisted American Smokeless Powder Company factory superintendent Aspinwall in formulating an improved powder named W.A. for their efforts. W.A. smokeless powder was the standard for United States military service rifles from 1897 until 1908.[3]
  860 In 1897, United States Navy Lieutenant John Bernadou patented a nitrocellulose powder colloided with ether-alcohol.[16] The Navy licensed or sold patents for this formulation to DuPont and the California Powder Works while retaining manufacturing rights for the Naval Powder Factory, Indian Head, Maryland constructed in 1900. The United States Army adopted the Navy single-base formulation in 1908 and began manufacture at Picatinny Arsenal.[3] By that time Laflin & Rand had taken over the American Powder Company to protect their investment, and Laflin & Rand had been purchased by DuPont in 1902.[17] Upon securing a 99-year lease of the Explosives Company in 1903, DuPont enjoyed use of all significant smokeless powder patents in the United States, and was able to optimize production of smokeless powder.[3] When government anti-trust action forced divestiture in 1912, DuPont retained the nitrocellulose smokeless powder formulations used by the United States military and released the double-base formulations used in sporting ammunition to the reorganized Hercules Powder Company. These newer propellants were more stable and thus safer to handle than Poudre B, and also more powerful.
  861 Chemical formulations[edit]
  862 "Double base" redirects here. For the musical instrument, see double bass.
  863 Currently, propellants using nitrocellulose (detonation velocity 7,300 m/s (23,950 ft/s)) (typically an ether-alcohol colloid of nitrocellulose) as the sole explosive propellant ingredient are described as single-base powder.[18]
  864 Propellants mixtures containing nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin (detonation velocity 7,700 m/s (25,260 ft/s)) as explosive propellant ingredients are known as double-base powder.[19]
  865 During the 1930s triple-base propellant containing nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, and a substantial quantity of nitroguanidine (detonation velocity 8,200 m/s (26,900 ft/s)) as explosive propellant ingredients was developed. These propellant mixtures have reduced flash and flame temperature without sacrificing chamber pressure compared to single and double base propellants, albeit at the cost of more smoke.
  866 In practice, triple base propellants are reserved mainly for large caliber ammunition such as used in (naval) artillery and tank guns. During World War II it had some use by British artillery. After that war it became the standard propellant in all British large caliber ammunition designs except small-arms. Most western nations, except the United States, followed a similar path.
  867 In the late 20th century new propellant formulations started to appear. These are based on nitroguanidine and high explosives of the RDX (detonation velocity 8,750 m/s (28,710 ft/s)) type.
  868 Instability and stabilization[edit]
  869 Nitrocellulose deteriorates with time, yielding acidic byproducts. Those byproducts catalyze the further deterioration, increasing its rate. The released heat, in case of bulk storage of the powder, or too large blocks of solid propellant, can cause self-ignition of the material. Single-base nitrocellulose propellants are hygroscopic and most susceptible to degradation; double-base and triple-base propellants tend to deteriorate more slowly. To neutralize the decomposition products, which could otherwise cause corrosion of metals of the cartridges and gun barrels, calcium carbonate is added to some formulations.
  870 To prevent buildup of the deterioration products, stabilizers are added. Diphenylamine is one of the most common stabilizers used. Nitrated analogs of diphenylamine formed in the process of stabilizing decomposing powder are sometimes used as stabilizers themselves.[20][21] The stabilizers are added in the amount of 0.5–2% of the total amount of the formulation; higher amounts tend to degrade its ballistic properties. The amount of the stabilizer is depleted with time. Propellants in storage should be periodically tested for the amount of stabilizer remaining, as its depletion may lead to auto-ignition of the propellant.
  871 Physical variations[edit]
  872 
  873 Ammunition handloading powders
  874 Smokeless powder may be corned into small spherical balls or extruded into cylinders or strips with many cross-sectional shapes (strips with various rectangular proportions, single or multi-hole cylinders, slotted cylinders) using solvents such as ether. These extrusions can be cut into short ('flakes') or long pieces ('cords' many inches long). Cannon powder has the largest pieces.
  875 The properties of the propellant are greatly influenced by the size and shape of its pieces. The specific surface area of the propellant influences the speed of burning, and the size and shape of the particles determine the specific surface area. By manipulation of the shape it is possible to influence the burning rate and hence the rate at which pressure builds during combustion. Smokeless powder burns only on the surfaces of the pieces. Larger pieces burn more slowly, and the burn rate is further controlled by flame-deterrent coatings that retard burning slightly. The intent is to regulate the burn rate so that a more or less constant pressure is exerted on the propelled projectile as long as it is in the barrel so as to obtain the highest velocity. The perforations stabilize the burn rate because as the outside burns inward (thus shrinking the burning surface area) the inside is burning outward (thus increasing the burning surface area, but faster, so as to fill up the increasing volume of barrel presented by the departing projectile).[22] Fast-burning pistol powders are made by extruding shapes with more area such as flakes or by flattening the spherical granules. Drying is usually performed under a vacuum. The solvents are condensed and recycled. The granules are also coated with graphite to prevent static electricity sparks from causing undesired ignitions.[23]
  876 Faster-burning propellants generate higher temperatures and higher pressures, however they also increase wear on gun barrels.
  877 Smokeless propellant components[edit]
  878 The propellant formulations may contain various energetic and auxiliary components:
  879 Propellants:
  880 Nitrocellulose, an energetic component of most smokeless propellants[24]
  881 Nitroglycerin, an energetic component of double-base and triple-base formulations[24]
  882 Nitroguanidine, a component of triple-base formulations[24]
  883 D1NA (bis-nitroxyethylnitramine)[25]
  884 Fivonite (tetramethylolcyclopentanone)[25]
  885 DGN (di-ethylene glycol dinitrate)[26]
  886 Acetyl cellulose[27]
  887 Deterrents, (or moderants), to slow the burning rate
  888 Centralites (symmetrical diphenyl urea—primarily diethyl or dimethyl)[28][29]
  889 Dibutyl phthalate[24][29]
  890 Dinitrotoluene (toxic, carcinogenic, and obsolete)[24][30]
  891 Akardite (asymmetrical diphenyl urea)[26]
  892 ortho-tolyl urethane[31]
  893 Polyester adipate
  894 Camphor (obsolete)[29]
  895 Stabilizers, to prevent or slow down self-decomposition[32]
  896 Diphenylamine[33]
  897 Petroleum jelly[34]
  898 Calcium carbonate[24]
  899 Magnesium oxide[26]
  900 Sodium bicarbonate[27]
  901 beta-naphthol methyl ether[31]
  902 Amyl alcohol (obsolete)[35]
  903 Aniline (obsolete)[36]
  904 Decoppering additives, to hinder the buildup of copper residues from the gun barrel rifling
  905 Tin metal and compounds (e.g., tin dioxide)[24][37]
  906 Bismuth metal and compounds (e.g., bismuth trioxide, bismuth subcarbonate, bismuth nitrate, bismuth antimonide); the bismuth compounds are favored as copper dissolves in molten bismuth, forming brittle and easily removable alloy
  907 Lead foil and lead compounds, phased out due to toxicity[25]
  908 Flash reducers, to reduce the brightness of the muzzle flash (all have a disadvantage: the production of smoke)[38]
  909 Potassium chloride[39]
  910 Potassium nitrate
  911 Potassium sulfate[24][37]
  912 Potassium hydrogen tartarate (a byproduct of wine production formerly used by French artillery)[39]
  913 Wear reduction additives, to lower the wear of the gun barrel liners[40]
  914 Wax
  915 Talc
  916 Titanium dioxide
  917 Polyurethane jackets over the powder bags, in large guns
  918 Other additives
  919 Ethyl acetate, a solvent for manufacture of spherical powder[34]
  920 Rosin, a surfactant to hold the grain shape of spherical powder
  921 Graphite, a lubricant to cover the grains and prevent them from sticking together, and to dissipate static electricity[23]
  922 Manufacturing[edit]
  923 This section describes procedures used in the United States. See Cordite for alternative procedures formerly used in the United Kingdom.
  924 The United States Navy manufactured single-base tubular powder for naval artillery at Indian Head, Maryland, beginning in 1900. Similar procedures were used for United States Army production at Picatinny Arsenal beginning in 1907[18] and for manufacture of smaller grained Improved Military Rifle (IMR) powders after 1914. Short-fiber cotton linter was boiled in a solution of sodium hydroxide to remove vegetable waxes, and then dried before conversion to nitrocellulose by mixing with concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids. Nitrocellulose still resembles fibrous cotton at this point in the manufacturing process, and was typically identified as pyrocellulose because it would spontaneously ignite in air until unreacted acid was removed. The term guncotton was also used; although some references identify guncotton as a more extensively nitrated and refined product used in torpedo and mine warheads prior to use of TNT.[41]
  925 Unreacted acid was removed from pyrocellulose pulp by a multistage draining and water washing process similar to that used in paper mills during production of chemical woodpulp. Pressurized alcohol removed remaining water from drained pyrocellulose prior to mixing with ether and diphenylamine. The mixture was then fed through a press extruding a long turbular cord form to be cut into grains of the desired length.[42]
  926 Alcohol and ether were then evaporated from "green" powder grains to a remaining solvent concentration between 3 percent for rifle powders and 7 percent for large artillery powder grains. Burning rate is inversely proportional to solvent concentration. Grains were coated with electrically conductive graphite to minimize generation of static electricity during subsequent blending. "Lots" containing more than ten tonnes of powder grains were mixed through a tower arrangement of blending hoppers to minimize ballistic differences. Each blended lot was then subjected to testing to determine the correct loading charge for the desired performance.[43][44]
  927 Military quantities of old smokeless powder were sometimes reworked into new lots of propellants.[45] Through the 1920s Dr. Fred Olsen worked at Picatinny Arsenal experimenting with ways to salvage tons of single-base cannon powder manufactured for World War I. Dr. Olsen was employed by Western Cartridge Company in 1929 and developed a process for manufacturing spherical smokeless powder by 1933.[46] Reworked powder or washed pyrocellulose can be dissolved in ethyl acetate containing small quantities of desired stabilizers and other additives. The resultant syrup, combined with water and surfactants, can be heated and agitated in a pressurized container until the syrup forms an emulsion of small spherical globules of the desired size. Ethyl acetate distills off as pressure is slowly reduced to leave small spheres of nitrocellulose and additives. The spheres can be subsequently modified by adding nitroglycerine to increase energy, flattening between rollers to a uniform minimum dimension, coating with phthalate deterrents to retard ignition, and/or glazing with graphite to improve flow characteristics during blending.[47][48]
  928 Modern smokeless powder is produced in the United States by St. Marks Powder, Inc. owned by General Dynamics.[49]
  929 Flashless propellant[edit]
  930 Muzzle flash is the light emitted in the vicinity of the muzzle by the hot propellant gases and the chemical reactions that follow as the gases mix with the surrounding air. Before projectiles exit a slight pre-flash may occur from gases leaking past the projectiles. Following muzzle exit the heat of gases is usually sufficient to emit visible radiation – the primary flash. The gases expand but as they pass through the Mach disc they are re-compressed to produce an intermediate flash. Hot combustible gases (e.g. hydrogen and carbon-monoxide) may follow when they mix with oxygen in the surrounding air to produce the secondary flash, the brightest. The secondary flash does not usually occur with small-arms.[50]
  931 Nitrocellulose contains insufficient oxygen to completely oxidize its carbon and hydrogen. The oxygen deficit is increased by addition of graphite and organic stabilizers. Products of combustion within the gun barrel include flammable gasses like hydrogen and carbon monoxide. At high temperature, these flammable gasses will ignite when turbulently mixed with atmospheric oxygen beyond the muzzle of the gun. During night engagements the flash produced by ignition can reveal the location of the gun to enemy forces[51] and cause temporary night-blindness among the gun crew by photo-bleaching visual purple.[52]
  932 Flash suppressors are commonly used on small arms to reduce the flash signature, but this approach is not practical for artillery. Artillery muzzle flash up to 150 feet (46 m) from the muzzle has been observed, and can be reflected off clouds and be visible for distances up to 30 miles (48 km).[51] For artillery the most effective method is a propellant that produces a large proportion of inert nitrogen at relatively low temperatures that dilutes the combustible gases. Triple based propellants are used for this because of the nitrogen in the nitroguandine.[53]
  933 Before the use of triple based propellants the usual method of flash reduction was to add inorganic salts like potassium chloride so their specific heat capacity might reduce the temperature of combustion gasses and their finely divided particulate smoke might block visible wavelengths of radiant energy of combustion.[39]
  934 See also[edit]
  935 Portal icon	Pyrotechnics portal
  936 Antique guns
  937 Ballistite
  938 Cordite
  939 Firearms
  940 Gunpowder
  941 Nitrocellulose
  942 Small arms
  943 Brown-brown – a drug created by mixing cocaine with cartridge powder
  944 References[edit]
  945 Notes[edit]
  946 Jump up ^ Hatcher, Julian S. and Barr, Al Handloading Hennage Lithograph Company (1951) p.34
  947 Jump up ^ Fairfield, A. P., CDR USN Naval Ordnance Lord Baltimore Press (1921) p.44
  948 ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Sharpe, Philip B. Complete Guide to Handloading 3rd Edition (1953) Funk & Wagnalls pp.146-149
  949 Jump up ^ seegunpowder
  950 Jump up ^ Sharpe, Philip B. Complete Guide To Handloading (1953) Funk & Wagnalls p.60
  951 Jump up ^ Davis, William C., Jr. Handloading (1981) National Rifle Association p.21
  952 Jump up ^ Davis, Tenney L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) page 195
  953 Jump up ^ Davis, William C., Jr. Handloading National Rifle Association of America (1981) p.28
  954 ^ Jump up to: a b c Sharpe, Philip B. Complete Guide to Handloading 3rd Edition (1953) Funk & Wagnalls pp.141-144
  955 Jump up ^ Hogg, Oliver F. G. Artillery: Its Origin, Heyday and Decline (1969) p.138-139
  956 ^ Jump up to: a b Davis, Tenney L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) pages 289–292
  957 Jump up ^ Hogg, Oliver F. G. Artillery: Its Origin, Heyday and Decline (1969) p.139
  958 ^ Jump up to: a b Hogg, Oliver F. G. Artillery: Its Origin, Heyday and Decline (1969) p.140
  959 Jump up ^ U.S. Patent 430,212 – Manufacture of explosive – H. S. Maxim
  960 Jump up ^ Hogg, Oliver F. G. Artillery: Its Origin, Heyday and Decline (1969) p.141
  961 ^ Jump up to: a b Davis, Tenney L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) pages 296-297
  962 Jump up ^ "Laflin & Rand Powder Company". DuPont. Retrieved 2012-02-24.
  963 ^ Jump up to: a b Davis, Tenny L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) p.297
  964 Jump up ^ Davis, Tenny L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) p.298
  965 Jump up ^ Fairfield, A. P., CDR USN Naval Ordnance Lord Baltimore Press (1921) p.28
  966 Jump up ^ Davis, Tenny L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) p. 310
  967 Jump up ^ Fairfield, A. P., CDR USN Naval Ordnance Lord Baltimore Press (1921) pp.41–43
  968 ^ Jump up to: a b Davis, Tenny L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) p.306
  969 ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h Campbell, John Naval Weapons of World War Two (1985) p. 5
  970 ^ Jump up to: a b c Campbell, John Naval Weapons of World War Two (1985) p. 104
  971 ^ Jump up to: a b c Campbell, John Naval Weapons of World War Two (1985) p. 221
  972 ^ Jump up to: a b Campbell, John Naval Weapons of World War Two (1985) p. 318
  973 Jump up ^ Davis, Tenny L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) pages 317–320
  974 ^ Jump up to: a b c Davis, William C., Jr. Handloading National Rifle Association of America (1981) p.30
  975 Jump up ^ Davis, William C., Jr. Handloading National Rifle Association of America (1981) p.31
  976 ^ Jump up to: a b Campbell, John Naval Weapons of World War Two (1985) p. 174
  977 Jump up ^ Davis, Tenny L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) pages 307–311
  978 Jump up ^ Davis, Tenny L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) p. 302
  979 ^ Jump up to: a b Davis, Tenny L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) p. 296
  980 Jump up ^ Davis, Tenny L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) p. 307
  981 Jump up ^ Davis, Tenny L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) p. 308
  982 ^ Jump up to: a b Davis, William C., Jr. Handloading National Rifle Association of America (1981) p.32
  983 Jump up ^ Davis, Tenny L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) pages 322–327
  984 ^ Jump up to: a b c Davis, Tenny L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) pages 323–327
  985 Jump up ^ "USA 16"/50 (40.6 cm) Mark 7". NavWeaps. 2008-11-03. Retrieved 2008-12-05.
  986 Jump up ^ Fairfield, A. P., CDR USN Naval Ordnance Lord Baltimore Press (1921) pages 28–31
  987 Jump up ^ Fairfield, A. P., CDR USN Naval Ordnance Lord Baltimore Press (1921) pages 31–35
  988 Jump up ^ Fairfield, A. P., CDR USN Naval Ordnance Lord Baltimore Press (1921) pages 35–41
  989 Jump up ^ Davis, Tenny L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) pages 293 & 306
  990 Jump up ^ Fairfield, A. P., CDR USN Naval Ordnance Lord Baltimore Press (1921) p.39
  991 Jump up ^ Matunas, E. A. Winchester-Western Ball Powder Loading Data Olin Corporation (1978) p.3
  992 Jump up ^ Davis, Tenny L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) pages 328–330
  993 Jump up ^ Wolfe, Dave Propellant Profiles Volume 1 Wolfe Publishing Company (1982) pages 136–137
  994 Jump up ^ General Dynamics Commercial Powder Applications.
  995 Jump up ^ Moss G. M., Leeming D. W., Farrar C. L. Military Ballisitcs (1969) pages 55–56
  996 ^ Jump up to: a b Davis, Tenny L. The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (1943) pages 322–323
  997 Jump up ^ Milner p.68
  998 Jump up ^ Moss G. M., Leeming D. W., Farrar C. L. Military Ballisitcs (1969) pages 59–60
  999 Sources[edit]
 1000 Campbell, John (1985). Naval Weapons of World War Two. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-459-4.
 1001 Davis, Tenney L. (1943). The Chemistry of Powder & Explosives (Angriff Press [1992] ed.). John Wiley & Sons Inc. ISBN 0-913022-00-4.
 1002 Davis, William C., Jr. (1981). Handloading. National Rifle Association of America. ISBN 0-935998-34-9.
 1003 Fairfield, A. P., CDR USN (1921). Naval Ordnance. Lord Baltimore Press.
 1004 Hatcher, Julian S. and Barr, Al (1951). Handloading. Hennage Lithograph Company.
 1005 Matunas, E. A. (1978). Winchester-Western Ball Powder Loading Data. Olin Corporation.
 1006 Milner, Marc (1985). North Atlantic Run. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 0-87021-450-0.
 1007 Wolfe, Dave (1982). Propellant Profiles Volume 1. Wolfe Publishing Company. ISBN 0-935632-10-7.
 1008 External links[edit]
 1009 The Manufacture of Smokeless Powders and their Forensic Analysis: A Brief Review – Robert M. Heramb, Bruce R. McCord
 1010 Hudson Maxim papers (1851-1925) at Hagley Museum and Library. Collection includes material relating to Maxim's patent on the process of making smokeless powder.
 1011 Categories: CorditeExplosivesFirearm propellantsSolid fuels
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 1065 
 1066 
 1067 Deflagration
 1068 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 1069 
 1070 [hide]This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
 1071 This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2011)
 1072 This article may be too technical for most readers to understand. (December 2013)
 1073 
 1074 A log in a fireplace.
 1075 Deflagration [1] (Lat: de + flagrare, "to burn down") is a term describing subsonic combustion propagating through heat transfer; hot burning material heats the next layer of cold material and ignites it. Most "fire" found in daily life, from flames to explosions, is deflagration. Deflagration is different from detonation, which is supersonic and propagates through shock.
 1076 Contents  [hide] 
 1077 1 Applications
 1078 2 Oil/wax fire and water
 1079 3 Flame physics
 1080 4 Damaging deflagration events
 1081 5 See also
 1082 6 References
 1083 Applications[edit]
 1084 In engineering applications, deflagrations are easier to control than detonations. Consequently, they are better suited when the goal is to move an object (a bullet in a gun, or a piston in an internal combustion engine) with the force of the expanding gas. Typical examples of deflagrations are the combustion of a gas-air mixture in a gas stove or a fuel-air mixture in an internal combustion engine, and the rapid burning of gunpowder in a firearm or of pyrotechnic mixtures in fireworks. Deflagration systems and products can also be used in mining, demolition and stone quarrying via gas pressure blasting as a beneficial alternative to high explosives.
 1085 Oil/wax fire and water[edit]
 1086 Adding water to a burning hydrocarbon such as oil or wax produces a deflagration. The water boils rapidly and ejects the burning material as a fine spray of droplets. A deflagration then occurs as the fine mist of oil ignites and burns extremely rapidly. These are particularly common in chip pan fires, which are responsible for one in five household fires in Britain.[2]
 1087 Flame physics[edit]
 1088 The underlying flame physics can be understood with the help of an idealized model consisting of a uniform one-dimensional tube of unburnt and burned gaseous fuel, separated by a thin transitional region of width \delta\;  in which the burning occurs. The burning region is commonly referred to as the flame or flame front. In equilibrium, thermal diffusion across the flame front is balanced by the heat supplied by burning.
 1089 There are two characteristic timescales which are important here. The first is the thermal diffusion timescale \tau_d\;, which is approximately equal to
 1090 \tau_d \simeq \delta^2 / \kappa,
 1091 where \kappa \; is the thermal diffusivity. The second is the burning timescale \tau_b that strongly decreases with temperature, typically as
 1092 \tau_b\propto \exp[\Delta U/(k_B T_f)],
 1093 where \Delta U\; is the activation barrier for the burning reaction and T_f\; is the temperature developed as the result of burning; the value of this so-called "flame temperature" can be determined from the laws of thermodynamics.
 1094 For a stationary moving deflagration front, these two timescales must be equal: the heat generated by burning is equal to the heat carried away by heat transfer. This makes it possible to calculate the characteristic width \delta\; of the flame front:
 1095 \tau_b = \tau_d\;,
 1096 thus
 1097  \delta \simeq \sqrt {\kappa \tau_b} .
 1098 Now, the thermal flame front propagates at a characteristic speed S_l\;, which is simply equal to the flame width divided by the burn time:
 1099 S_l \simeq \delta / \tau_b \simeq \sqrt {\kappa  / \tau_b} .
 1100 This simplified model neglects the change of temperature and thus the burning rate across the deflagration front. This model also neglects the possible influence of turbulence. As a result, this derivation gives only the laminar flame speed -- hence the designation S_l\;.
 1101 Damaging deflagration events[edit]
 1102 Damage to buildings, equipment and people can result from a large-scale, short-duration deflagration. The potential damage is primarily a function of the total amount of fuel burned in the event (total energy available), the maximum flame velocity that is achieved, and the manner in which the expansion of the combustion gases is contained.
 1103 In free-air deflagrations, there is a continuous variation in deflagration effects relative to the maximum flame velocity. When flame velocities are low, the effect of a deflagration is to release heat. Some authors use the term flash fire to describe these low-speed deflagrations. At flame velocities near the speed of sound, the energy released is in the form of pressure and the results resemble a detonation. Between these extremes both heat and pressure are released.
 1104 When a low-speed deflagration occurs within a closed vessel or structure, pressure effects can produce damage due to expansion of gases as a secondary effect. The heat released by the deflagration causes the combustion gases and excess air to expand thermally. The net result is that the volume of the vessel or structure must expand to accommodate the hot combustion gases, or the vessel must be strong enough to withstand the additional internal pressure, or it fails, allowing the gases to escape. The risks of deflagration inside waste storage drums is a growing concern in storage facilities.
 1105 See also[edit]
 1106 	Look up deflagration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
 1107 Pressure piling
 1108 References[edit]
 1109 Jump up ^ "Glossary D-H". Hutchisonrodway.co.nz. Retrieved 2013-12-29.
 1110 Jump up ^ UK Fire Service advice on chip pan fires
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 1160 
 1161 
 1162 United Kingdom
 1163 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 1164 This article is about the sovereign state. For the island, see Great Britain. For other uses, see United Kingdom (disambiguation) and UK (disambiguation).
 1165 Page semi-protected
 1166 United Kingdom of Great
 1167 Britain and Northern Ireland[show]
 1168 
 1169 A flag featuring both cross and saltire in red, white and blue	Coat of arms containing shield and crown in centre, flanked by lion and unicorn
 1170 Flag	Royal coat of arms[nb 1]
 1171 Anthem: "God Save the Queen"[nb 2]
 1172 MENU0:00
 1173 Two islands to the north-west of continental Europe. Highlighted are the larger island and the north-eastern fifth of the smaller island to the west.
 1174 Location of the  United Kingdom  (dark green)
 1175 – in Europe  (green & dark grey)
 1176 – in the European Union  (green)
 1177 Capital
 1178 and largest city	London
 1179 51°30′N 0°7′W
 1180 Official language
 1181 and national language	English
 1182 Recognised regional
 1183 languages	Cornish, Irish, Scots, Scottish Gaelic, Ulster-Scots, Welsh[nb 3]
 1184 Ethnic groups (2011)	87.1% White
 1185 7.0% Asian
 1186 3.0% Black
 1187 2.0% Mixed
 1188 0.9% Other
 1189 Demonym	British, Briton
 1190 Government	Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
 1191  - 	Monarch	Elizabeth II
 1192  - 	Prime Minister	David Cameron
 1193 Legislature	Parliament
 1194  - 	Upper house	House of Lords
 1195  - 	Lower house	House of Commons
 1196 Formation
 1197  - 	Acts of Union 1707	1 May 1707 
 1198  - 	Acts of Union 1800	1 January 1801 
 1199  - 	Irish Free State Constitution Act	5 December 1922 
 1200 Area
 1201  - 	Total	243,610 km2 (80th)
 1202 94,060 sq mi
 1203  - 	Water (%)	1.34
 1204 Population
 1205  - 	2013 estimate	64,100,000[3] (22nd)
 1206  - 	2011 census	63,181,775[4] (22nd)
 1207  - 	Density	255.6/km2 (51st)
 1208 661.9/sq mi
 1209 GDP (PPP)	2014 estimate
 1210  - 	Total	$2.435 trillion[5] (10th)
 1211  - 	Per capita	$37,744[5] (27th)
 1212 GDP (nominal)	2014 estimate
 1213  - 	Total	$2.848 trillion[5] (6th)
 1214  - 	Per capita	$44,141[5] (22nd)
 1215 Gini (2012)	positive decrease 32.8[6]
 1216 medium · 33rd
 1217 HDI (2013)	Steady 0.892[7]
 1218 very high · 14th
 1219 Currency	Pound sterling (GBP)
 1220 Time zone	GMT (UTC​)
 1221  - 	Summer (DST)	BST (UTC+1)
 1222 Date format	dd/mm/yyyy (AD)
 1223 Drives on the	left
 1224 Calling code	+44
 1225 ISO 3166 code	GB
 1226 Internet TLD	.uk
 1227 The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Listeni/ɡreɪt ˈbrɪt(ə)n ənd ˈnɔːð(ə)n ˈʌɪələnd/, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the country includes the island of Great Britain (a term also applied loosely to refer to the whole country),[8] the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another state: the Republic of Ireland.[nb 4] Apart from this land border, the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea in the east and the English Channel in the south. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland. The UK has an area of 243,610 square kilometres (94,060 sq mi), making it the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe.
 1228 The United Kingdom is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 64.1 million inhabitants.[3] It is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance.[9][10] Its capital city is London, an important global city and financial centre with the fourth-largest urban area in Europe.[11] The current monarch—since 6 February 1952—is Queen Elizabeth II. The UK consists of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.[12] The latter three have devolved administrations,[13] each with varying powers,[14][15] based in their capitals, Edinburgh, Cardiff, and Belfast, respectively. Guernsey, Jersey, and the Isle of Man are not part of the United Kingdom, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation.[16] The UK has fourteen Overseas Territories,[17] including the disputed Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, and Indian Ocean Territory.
 1229 The relationships among the countries of the United Kingdom have changed over time. Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Acts of Union of 1536 and 1543. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, which in 1801, merged with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922, five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the country, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.[nb 5] British Overseas Territories, formerly colonies, are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, encompassed almost a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language, culture, and legal systems of many of its former colonies.
 1230 The United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. The country is considered to have a high-income economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index, currently ranking 14th in the world. It was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries.[18][19] The UK remains a great power with considerable economic, cultural, military, scientific, and political influence internationally.[20][21] It is a recognised nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fifth or sixth in the world.[22][23] The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946. It has been a member state of the European Union (EU) and its predecessor, the European Economic Community (EEC), since 1973; it is also a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G8, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the World Trade Organization (WTO).
 1231 Contents  [hide] 
 1232 1 Etymology and terminology
 1233 2 History
 1234 2.1 Before 1707
 1235 2.2 Since the Acts of Union of 1707
 1236 3 Geography
 1237 3.1 Climate
 1238 3.2 Administrative divisions
 1239 4 Dependencies
 1240 5 Politics
 1241 5.1 Government
 1242 5.2 Devolved administrations
 1243 5.3 Law and criminal justice
 1244 5.4 Foreign relations
 1245 5.5 Military
 1246 6 Economy
 1247 6.1 Science and technology
 1248 6.2 Transport
 1249 6.3 Energy
 1250 7 Demographics
 1251 7.1 Ethnic groups
 1252 7.2 Languages
 1253 7.3 Religion
 1254 7.4 Migration
 1255 7.5 Education
 1256 7.6 Healthcare
 1257 8 Culture
 1258 8.1 Literature
 1259 8.2 Music
 1260 8.3 Visual art
 1261 8.4 Cinema
 1262 8.5 Media
 1263 8.6 Philosophy
 1264 8.7 Sport
 1265 8.8 Symbols
 1266 9 See also
 1267 10 Notes
 1268 11 References
 1269 12 Further reading
 1270 13 External links
 1271 Etymology and terminology
 1272 See also: Britain (placename) and Terminology of the British Isles
 1273 The 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain", though the new state is also referred to in the Acts as the "Kingdom of Great Britain", "United Kingdom of Great Britain" and "United Kingdom".[24][25][nb 6] However, the term "united kingdom" is only found in informal use during the 18th century and the country was only occasionally referred to as he "United Kingdom of Great Britain".[26] The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The name "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" was adopted following the independence of the Irish Free State, and the partition of Ireland, in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the UK.[27]
 1274 Although the United Kingdom, as a sovereign state, is a country, England, Scotland, Wales, and to a lesser degree, Northern Ireland, are also regarded as countries, though they are not sovereign states.[28][29] Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government.[30][31] The British Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom.[12] Some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the UK, also refer to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland as "regions".[32][33] Northern Ireland is also referred to as a "province".[28][34] With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice often revealing one's political preferences."[35]
 1275 The term Britain is often used as synonym for the United Kingdom. The term Great Britain, by contrast, refers conventionally to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England, Scotland and Wales in combination.[36][37][38] However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole.[39][40] GB and GBR are the standard country codes for the United Kingdom (see ISO 3166-2 and ISO 3166-1 alpha-3) and are consequently used by international organisations to refer to the United Kingdom. Additionally, the United Kingdom's Olympic team competes under the name "Great Britain" or "Team GB".[41][42]
 1276 The adjective British is commonly used to refer to matters relating to the United Kingdom. The term has no definite legal connotation, but is used in law to refer to UK citizenship and matters to do with nationality.[43] People of the United Kingdom use a number of different terms to describe their national identity and may identify themselves as being British; or as being English, Scottish, Welsh, Northern Irish, or Irish;[44] or as being both.[45]
 1277 In 2006, a new design of British passport was introduced. Its first page shows the long form name of the state in English, Welsh and Scottish Gaelic.[46] In Welsh, the long form name of the state is "Teyrnas Unedig Prydain Fawr a Gogledd Iwerddon" with "Teyrnas Unedig" being used as a short form name on government websites.[47] In Scottish Gaelic, the long form is "Rìoghachd Aonaichte Bhreatainn is Èireann a Tuath" and the short form "Rìoghachd Aonaichte".
 1278 History
 1279 See also: History of the British Isles
 1280 Before 1707
 1281 
 1282 Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, was erected around 2500 BC.
 1283 Main articles: History of England, History of Wales, History of Scotland, History of Ireland and History of the formation of the United Kingdom
 1284 Settlement by anatomically modern humans of what was to become the United Kingdom occurred in waves beginning by about 30,000 years ago.[48] By the end of the region's prehistoric period, the population is thought to have belonged, in the main, to a culture termed Insular Celtic, comprising Brythonic Britain and Gaelic Ireland.[49] The Roman conquest, beginning in 43 AD, and the 400-year rule of southern Britain, was followed by an invasion by Germanic Anglo-Saxon settlers, reducing the Brythonic area mainly to what was to become Wales and the historic Kingdom of Strathclyde.[50] Most of the region settled by the Anglo-Saxons became unified as the Kingdom of England in the 10th century.[51] Meanwhile, Gaelic-speakers in north west Britain (with connections to the north-east of Ireland and traditionally supposed to have migrated from there in the 5th century)[52][53] united with the Picts to create the Kingdom of Scotland in the 9th century.[54]
 1285 In 1066, the Normans invaded England from France and after its conquest, seized large parts of Wales, conquered much of Ireland and were invited to settle in Scotland, bringing to each country feudalism on the Northern French model and Norman-French culture.[55] The Norman elites greatly influenced, but eventually assimilated with, each of the local cultures.[56] Subsequent medieval English kings completed the conquest of Wales and made an unsuccessful attempt to annex Scotland. Thereafter, Scotland maintained its independence, albeit in near-constant conflict with England. The English monarchs, through inheritance of substantial territories in France and claims to the French crown, were also heavily involved in conflicts in France, most notably the Hundred Years War, while the Kings of Scots were in an alliance with the French during this period.[57]
 1286 
 1287 The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it.
 1288 The early modern period saw religious conflict resulting from the Reformation and the introduction of Protestant state churches in each country.[58] Wales was fully incorporated into the Kingdom of England,[59] and Ireland was constituted as a kingdom in personal union with the English crown.[60] In what was to become Northern Ireland, the lands of the independent Catholic Gaelic nobility were confiscated and given to Protestant settlers from England and Scotland.[61]
 1289 In 1603, the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland were united in a personal union when James VI, King of Scots, inherited the crowns of England and Ireland and moved his court from Edinburgh to London; each country nevertheless remained a separate political entity and retained its separate political, legal, and religious institutions.[62][63]
 1290 In the mid-17th century, all three kingdoms were involved in a series of connected wars (including the English Civil War) which led to the temporary overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the short-lived unitary republic of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.[64][65]
 1291 Although the monarchy was restored, it ensured (with the Glorious Revolution of 1688) that, unlike much of the rest of Europe, royal absolutism would not prevail, and a professed Catholic could never accede to the throne. The British constitution would develop on the basis of constitutional monarchy and the parliamentary system.[66] During this period, particularly in England, the development of naval power (and the interest in voyages of discovery) led to the acquisition and settlement of overseas colonies, particularly in North America.[67][68]
 1292 Since the Acts of Union of 1707
 1293 Main article: History of the United Kingdom
 1294 
 1295 The Treaty of Union led to a single united kingdom encompassing all Great Britain.
 1296 On 1 May 1707, the united kingdom of Great Britain came into being, the result of Acts of Union being passed by the parliaments of England and Scotland to ratify the 1706 Treaty of Union and so unite the two kingdoms.[69][70][71]
 1297 In the 18th century, cabinet government developed under Robert Walpole, in practice the first prime minister (1721–1742). A series of Jacobite Uprisings sought to remove the Protestant House of Hanover from the British throne and restore the Catholic House of Stuart. The Jacobites were finally defeated at the Battle of Culloden in 1746, after which the Scottish Highlanders were brutally suppressed. The British colonies in North America that broke away from Britain in the American War of Independence became the United States of America in 1782. British imperial ambition turned elsewhere, particularly to India.[72]
 1298 During the 18th century, Britain was involved in the Atlantic slave trade. British ships transported an estimated 2 million slaves from Africa to the West Indies before banning the trade in 1807.[73] The term 'United Kingdom' became official in 1801 when the parliaments of Britain and Ireland each passed an Act of Union, uniting the two kingdoms and creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.[74]
 1299 In the early 19th century, the British-led Industrial Revolution began to transform the country. It slowly led to a shift in political power away from the old Tory and Whig landowning classes towards the new industrialists. An alliance of merchants and industrialists with the Whigs would lead to a new party, the Liberals, with an ideology of free trade and laissez-faire. In 1832 Parliament passed the Great Reform Act, which began the transfer of political power from the aristocracy to the middle classes. In the countryside, enclosure of the land was driving small farmers out. Towns and cities began to swell with a new urban working class. Few ordinary workers had the vote, and they created their own organisations in the form of trade unions.
 1300 Painting of a bloody battle. Horses and infantry fight or lie on grass.
 1301 The Battle of Waterloo marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars and the start of Pax Britannica.
 1302 After the defeat of France in the Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars (1792–1815), the UK emerged as the principal naval and imperial power of the 19th century (with London the largest city in the world from about 1830).[75] Unchallenged at sea, British dominance was later described as Pax Britannica.[76][77] By the time of the Great Exhibition of 1851, Britain was described as the "workshop of the world".[78] The British Empire was expanded to include India, large parts of Africa and many other territories throughout the world. Alongside the formal control it exerted over its own colonies, British dominance of much of world trade meant that it effectively controlled the economies of many countries, such as China, Argentina and Siam.[79][80] Domestically, political attitudes favoured free trade and laissez-faire policies and a gradual widening of the voting franchise. During the century, the population increased at a dramatic rate, accompanied by rapid urbanisation, causing significant social and economic stresses.[81] After 1875, the UK's industrial monopoly was challenged by Germany and the USA. To seek new markets and sources of raw materials, the Conservative Party under Disraeli launched a period of imperialist expansion in Egypt, South Africa and elsewhere. Canada, Australia and New Zealand became self-governing dominions.[82]
 1303 Social reform and home rule for Ireland were important domestic issues after 1900. The Labour Party emerged from an alliance of trade unions and small Socialist groups in 1900, and suffragettes campaigned for women's right to vote before 1914.
 1304 Black-and-white photo of two dozen men in military uniforms and metal helmets sitting or standing in a muddy trench.
 1305 Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme. More than 885,000 British soldiers died on the battlefields of World War I.
 1306 The UK fought with France, Russia and (after 1917) the US, against Germany and its allies in World War I (1914–18).[83] The UK armed forces were engaged across much of the British Empire and in several regions of Europe, particularly on the Western front.[84] The high fatalities of trench warfare caused the loss of much of a generation of men, with lasting social effects in the nation and a great disruption in the social order.
 1307 After the war, the UK received the League of Nations mandate over a number of former German and Ottoman colonies. The British Empire reached its greatest extent, covering a fifth of the world's land surface and a quarter of its population.[85] However, the UK had suffered 2.5 million casualties and finished the war with a huge national debt.[84] The rise of Irish Nationalism and disputes within Ireland over the terms of Irish Home Rule led eventually to the partition of the island in 1921,[86] and the Irish Free State became independent with Dominion status in 1922. Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom.[87] A wave of strikes in the mid-1920s culminated in the UK General Strike of 1926. The UK had still not recovered from the effects of the war when the Great Depression (1929–32) occurred. This led to considerable unemployment and hardship in the old industrial areas, as well as political and social unrest in the 1930s. A coalition government was formed in 1931.[88]
 1308 The UK entered World War II by declaring war on Germany in 1939, after it had invaded Poland and Czechoslovakia. In 1940, Winston Churchill became prime minister and head of a coalition government. Despite the defeat of its European allies in the first year of the war, the UK continued the fight alone against Germany. In 1940, the RAF defeated the German Luftwaffe in a struggle for control of the skies in the Battle of Britain. The UK suffered heavy bombing during the Blitz. There were also eventual hard-fought victories in the Battle of the Atlantic, the North Africa campaign and Burma campaign. UK forces played an important role in the Normandy landings of 1944, achieved with its ally the US. After Germany's defeat, the UK was one of the Big Three powers who met to plan the post-war world; it was an original signatory to the Declaration of the United Nations. The UK became one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. However, the war left the UK severely weakened and depending financially on Marshall Aid and loans from the United States.[89]
 1309 Map of the world. Canada, the eastern United States, countries in east Africa, India, most of Australasia and some other countries are highlighted in pink.
 1310 Territories that were at one time part of the British Empire. Current British Overseas Territories are underlined in red.
 1311 In the immediate post-war years, the Labour government initiated a radical programme of reforms, which had a significant effect on British society in the following decades.[90] Major industries and public utilities were nationalised, a Welfare State was established, and a comprehensive, publicly funded healthcare system, the National Health Service, was created.[91] The rise of nationalism in the colonies coincided with Britain's now much-diminished economic position, so that a policy of decolonisation was unavoidable. Independence was granted to India and Pakistan in 1947.[92] Over the next three decades, most colonies of the British Empire gained their independence. Many became members of the Commonwealth of Nations.[93]
 1312 Although the UK was the third country to develop a nuclear weapons arsenal (with its first atomic bomb test in 1952), the new post-war limits of Britain's international role were illustrated by the Suez Crisis of 1956. The international spread of the English language ensured the continuing international influence of its literature and culture. From the 1960s onward, its popular culture was also influential abroad. As a result of a shortage of workers in the 1950s, the UK government encouraged immigration from Commonwealth countries. In the following decades, the UK became a multi-ethnic society.[94] Despite rising living standards in the late 1950s and 1960s, the UK's economic performance was not as successful as many of its competitors, such as West Germany and Japan. In 1973, the UK joined the European Economic Community (EEC), and when the EEC became the European Union (EU) in 1992, it was one of the 12 founding members.
 1313 
 1314 After the two vetos of France in 1961 and 1967, the UK entered in the European Union in 1973. In 1975, 67% of Britons voted yes to the permanence in the European Union.
 1315 From the late 1960s, Northern Ireland suffered communal and paramilitary violence (sometimes affecting other parts of the UK) conventionally known as the Troubles. It is usually considered to have ended with the Belfast "Good Friday" Agreement of 1998.[95][96][97]
 1316 Following a period of widespread economic slowdown and industrial strife in the 1970s, the Conservative Government of the 1980s initiated a radical policy of monetarism, deregulation, particularly of the financial sector (for example, Big Bang in 1986) and labour markets, the sale of state-owned companies (privatisation), and the withdrawal of subsidies to others.[98] This resulted in high unemployment and social unrest, but ultimately also economic growth, particularly in the services sector. From 1984, the economy was helped by the inflow of substantial North Sea oil revenues.[99]
 1317 Around the end of the 20th century there were major changes to the governance of the UK with the establishment of devolved administrations for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.[13][100] The statutory incorporation followed acceptance of the European Convention on Human Rights. The UK is still a key global player diplomatically and militarily. It plays leading roles in the EU, UN and NATO. However, controversy surrounds some of Britain's overseas military deployments, particularly in Afghanistan and Iraq.[101]
 1318 The 2008 global financial crisis severely affected the UK economy. The coalition government of 2010 introduced austerity measures intended to tackle the substantial public deficits which resulted.[102] In 2014 the Scottish Government held a referendum on Scottish independence, with the majority of voters rejecting the independence proposal and opting to remain within the United Kingdom.[103]
 1319 Geography
 1320 Main article: Geography of the United Kingdom
 1321 Map of United Kingdom showing hilly regions to north and west, and flattest region in the south-east.
 1322 The topography of the UK
 1323 The total area of the United Kingdom is approximately 243,610 square kilometres (94,060 sq mi). The country occupies the major part of the British Isles[104] archipelago and includes the island of Great Britain, the northeastern one-sixth of the island of Ireland and some smaller surrounding islands. It lies between the North Atlantic Ocean and the North Sea with the south-east coast coming within 22 miles (35 km) of the coast of northern France, from which it is separated by the English Channel.[105] In 1993 10% of the UK was forested, 46% used for pastures and 25% cultivated for agriculture.[106] The Royal Greenwich Observatory in London is the defining point of the Prime Meridian.[107]
 1324 The United Kingdom lies between latitudes 49° to 61° N, and longitudes 9° W to 2° E. Northern Ireland shares a 224-mile (360 km) land boundary with the Republic of Ireland.[105] The coastline of Great Britain is 11,073 miles (17,820 km) long.[108] It is connected to continental Europe by the Channel Tunnel, which at 31 miles (50 km) (24 miles (38 km) underwater) is the longest underwater tunnel in the world.[109]
 1325 England accounts for just over half of the total area of the UK, covering 130,395 square kilometres (50,350 sq mi).[110] Most of the country consists of lowland terrain,[106] with mountainous terrain north-west of the Tees-Exe line; including the Cumbrian Mountains of the Lake District, the Pennines and limestone hills of the Peak District, Exmoor and Dartmoor. The main rivers and estuaries are the Thames, Severn and the Humber. England's highest mountain is Scafell Pike (978 metres (3,209 ft)) in the Lake District. Its principal rivers are the Severn, Thames, Humber, Tees, Tyne, Tweed, Avon, Exe and Mersey.[106]
 1326 Scotland accounts for just under a third of the total area of the UK, covering 78,772 square kilometres (30,410 sq mi)[111] and including nearly eight hundred islands,[112] predominantly west and north of the mainland; notably the Hebrides, Orkney Islands and Shetland Islands. The topography of Scotland is distinguished by the Highland Boundary Fault – a geological rock fracture – which traverses Scotland from Arran in the west to Stonehaven in the east.[113] The faultline separates two distinctively different regions; namely the Highlands to the north and west and the lowlands to the south and east. The more rugged Highland region contains the majority of Scotland's mountainous land, including Ben Nevis which at 1,343 metres (4,406 ft) is the highest point in the British Isles.[114] Lowland areas – especially the narrow waist of land between the Firth of Clyde and the Firth of Forth known as the Central Belt – are flatter and home to most of the population including Glasgow, Scotland's largest city, and Edinburgh, its capital and political centre.
 1327 A view of Ben Nevis in the distance, fronted by rolling plains
 1328 Ben Nevis, in Scotland, is the highest point in the British Isles
 1329 Wales accounts for less than a tenth of the total area of the UK, covering 20,779 square kilometres (8,020 sq mi).[115] Wales is mostly mountainous, though South Wales is less mountainous than North and mid Wales. The main population and industrial areas are in South Wales, consisting of the coastal cities of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport, and the South Wales Valleys to their north. The highest mountains in Wales are in Snowdonia and include Snowdon (Welsh: Yr Wyddfa) which, at 1,085 metres (3,560 ft), is the highest peak in Wales.[106] The 14, or possibly 15, Welsh mountains over 3,000 feet (914 m) high are known collectively as the Welsh 3000s. Wales has over 2,704 kilometres (1,680 miles) of coastline.[116] Several islands lie off the Welsh mainland, the largest of which is Anglesey (Ynys Môn) in the northwest.
 1330 Northern Ireland, separated from Great Britain by the Irish Sea and North Channel, has an area of 14,160 square kilometres (5,470 sq mi) and is mostly hilly. It includes Lough Neagh which, at 388 square kilometres (150 sq mi), is the largest lake in the British Isles by area.[117] The highest peak in Northern Ireland is Slieve Donard in the Mourne Mountains at 852 metres (2,795 ft).[106]
 1331 Climate
 1332 Main article: Climate of the United Kingdom
 1333 The United Kingdom has a temperate climate, with plentiful rainfall all year round.[105] The temperature varies with the seasons seldom dropping below −11 °C (12 °F) or rising above 35 °C (95 °F).[118] The prevailing wind is from the south-west and bears frequent spells of mild and wet weather from the Atlantic Ocean,[105] although the eastern parts are mostly sheltered from this wind since the majority of the rain falls over the western regions the eastern parts are therefore the driest. Atlantic currents, warmed by the Gulf Stream, bring mild winters; especially in the west where winters are wet and even more so over high ground. Summers are warmest in the south-east of England, being closest to the European mainland, and coolest in the north. Heavy snowfall can occur in winter and early spring on high ground, and occasionally settles to great depth away from the hills.
 1334 Administrative divisions
 1335 Main article: Administrative geography of the United Kingdom
 1336 Each country of the United Kingdom has its own system of administrative and geographic demarcation, whose origins often pre-date the formation of the United Kingdom. Thus there is "no common stratum of administrative unit encompassing the United Kingdom".[119] Until the 19th century there was little change to those arrangements, but there has since been a constant evolution of role and function.[120] Change did not occur in a uniform manner and the devolution of power over local government to Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland means that future changes are unlikely to be uniform either.
 1337 The organisation of local government in England is complex, with the distribution of functions varying according to local arrangements. Legislation concerning local government in England is the responsibility of the UK parliament and the Government of the United Kingdom, as England has no devolved parliament. The upper-tier subdivisions of England are the nine Government office regions or European Union government office regions.[121] One region, Greater London, has had a directly elected assembly and mayor since 2000 following popular support for the proposal in a referendum.[122] It was intended that other regions would also be given their own elected regional assemblies, but a proposed assembly in the North East region was rejected by a referendum in 2004.[123] Below the regional tier, some parts of England have county councils and district councils and others have unitary authorities; while London consists of 32 London boroughs and the City of London. Councillors are elected by the first-past-the-post system in single-member wards or by the multi-member plurality system in multi-member wards.[124]
 1338 For local government purposes, Scotland is divided into 32 council areas, with wide variation in both size and population. The cities of Glasgow, Edinburgh, Aberdeen and Dundee are separate council areas, as is the Highland Council which includes a third of Scotland's area but only just over 200,000 people. Local councils are made up of elected councillors, of whom there are currently 1,222;[125] they are paid a part-time salary. Elections are conducted by single transferable vote in multi-member wards that elect either three or four councillors. Each council elects a Provost, or Convenor, to chair meetings of the council and to act as a figurehead for the area. Councillors are subject to a code of conduct enforced by the Standards Commission for Scotland.[126] The representative association of Scotland's local authorities is the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities (COSLA).[127]
 1339 Local government in Wales consists of 22 unitary authorities. These include the cities of Cardiff, Swansea and Newport which are unitary authorities in their own right.[128] Elections are held every four years under the first-past-the-post system.[129] The most recent elections were held in May 2012, except for the Isle of Anglesey. The Welsh Local Government Association represents the interests of local authorities in Wales.[130]
 1340 Local government in Northern Ireland has since 1973 been organised into 26 district councils, each elected by single transferable vote. Their powers are limited to services such as collecting waste, controlling dogs and maintaining parks and cemeteries.[131] On 13 March 2008 the executive agreed on proposals to create 11 new councils and replace the present system.[132] The next local elections were postponed until 2016 to facilitate this.[133]
 1341 Dependencies
 1342 
 1343 A view of the Caribbean Sea from the Cayman Islands, one of the world's foremost international financial centres[134] and tourist destinations.[135]
 1344 Main articles: British Overseas Territories, Crown dependencies and British Islands
 1345 The United Kingdom has sovereignty over seventeen territories which do not form part of the United Kingdom itself: fourteen British Overseas Territories[136] and three Crown dependencies.[137]
 1346 The fourteen British Overseas Territories are: Anguilla; Bermuda; the British Antarctic Territory; the British Indian Ocean Territory; the British Virgin Islands; the Cayman Islands; the Falkland Islands; Gibraltar; Montserrat; Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; the Turks and Caicos Islands; the Pitcairn Islands; South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; and Sovereign Base Areas on Cyprus.[138] British claims in Antarctica are not universally recognised.[139] Collectively Britain's overseas territories encompass an approximate land area of 1,727,570 square kilometres (667,018 sq mi) and a population of approximately 260,000 people.[140] They are the remnants of the British Empire and several have specifically voted to remain British territories (Bermuda in 1995, Gibraltar in 2002 and the Falkland Islands in 2013).[141]
 1347 The Crown dependencies are possessions of the Crown, as opposed to overseas territories of the UK.[142] They comprise three independently administered jurisdictions: the Channel Islands of Jersey and Guernsey in the English Channel, and the Isle of Man in the Irish Sea. By mutual agreement, the British Government manages the islands' foreign affairs and defence and the UK Parliament has the authority to legislate on their behalf. However, internationally, they are regarded as "territories for which the United Kingdom is responsible".[143] The power to pass legislation affecting the islands ultimately rests with their own respective legislative assemblies, with the assent of the Crown (Privy Council or, in the case of the Isle of Man, in certain circumstances the Lieutenant-Governor).[144] Since 2005 each Crown dependency has had a Chief Minister as its head of government.[145]
 1348 Politics
 1349 Main articles: Politics of the United Kingdom, Monarchy of the United Kingdom and Elections in the United Kingdom
 1350 Elderly lady with a yellow hat and grey hair is smiling in outdoor setting.
 1351 Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms
 1352 The United Kingdom is a unitary state under a constitutional monarchy. Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state of the UK as well as monarch of fifteen other independent Commonwealth countries. The monarch has "the right to be consulted, the right to encourage, and the right to warn".[146] The United Kingdom is one of only four countries in the world to have an uncodified constitution.[147][nb 7] The Constitution of the United Kingdom thus consists mostly of a collection of disparate written sources, including statutes, judge-made case law and international treaties, together with constitutional conventions. As there is no technical difference between ordinary statutes and "constitutional law", the UK Parliament can perform "constitutional reform" simply by passing Acts of Parliament, and thus has the political power to change or abolish almost any written or unwritten element of the constitution. However, no Parliament can pass laws that future Parliaments cannot change.[148]
 1353 Government
 1354 Main article: Government of the United Kingdom
 1355 The UK has a parliamentary government based on the Westminster system that has been emulated around the world: a legacy of the British Empire. The parliament of the United Kingdom that meets in the Palace of Westminster has two houses; an elected House of Commons and an appointed House of Lords. All bills passed are given Royal Assent before becoming law.
 1356 The position of prime minister,[nb 8] the UK's head of government,[149] belongs to the person most likely to command the confidence of the House of Commons; this individual is typically the leader of the political party or coalition of parties that holds the largest number of seats in that chamber. The prime minister chooses a cabinet and they are formally appointed by the monarch to form Her Majesty's Government. By convention, the Queen respects the prime minister's decisions of government.[150]
 1357 Large sand-coloured building of Gothic design beside brown river and road bridge. The building has several large towers, including large clock-tower.
 1358 The Palace of Westminster, seat of both houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom
 1359 The cabinet is traditionally drawn from members of a prime minister's party or coalition and mostly from the House of Commons but always from both legislative houses, the cabinet being responsible to both. Executive power is exercised by the prime minister and cabinet, all of whom are sworn into the Privy Council of the United Kingdom, and become Ministers of the Crown. The current Prime Minister is David Cameron, who has been in office since 11 May 2010.[151] Cameron is the leader of the Conservative Party and heads a coalition with the Liberal Democrats. For elections to the House of Commons, the UK is currently divided into 650 constituencies,[152] each electing a single member of parliament (MP) by simple plurality. General elections are called by the monarch when the prime minister so advises. The Parliament Acts 1911 and 1949 require that a new election must be called no later than five years after the previous general election.[153]
 1360 The UK's three major political parties are the Conservative Party (Tories), the Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats, representing the British traditions of conservatism, socialism and social liberalism, respectively. During the 2010 general election these three parties won 622 out of 650 seats available in the House of Commons.[154][155] Most of the remaining seats were won by parties that contest elections only in one part of the UK: the Scottish National Party (Scotland only); Plaid Cymru (Wales only); and the Alliance Party, Democratic Unionist Party, Social Democratic and Labour Party and Sinn Féin (Northern Ireland only[nb 9]). In accordance with party policy, no elected Sinn Féin members of parliament have ever attended the House of Commons to speak on behalf of their constituents because of the requirement to take an oath of allegiance to the monarch.
 1361 Devolved administrations
 1362 Main articles: Devolution in the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland Executive, Scottish Government and Welsh Government
 1363 Modern one-story building with grass on roof and large sculpted grass area in front. Behind are residential buildings in a mixture of styles.
 1364 The Scottish Parliament Building in Holyrood is the seat of the Scottish Parliament.
 1365 Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland each have their own government or executive, led by a First Minister (or, in the case of Northern Ireland, a diarchal First Minister and deputy First Minister), and a devolved unicameral legislature. England, the largest country of the United Kingdom, has no such devolved executive or legislature and is administered and legislated for directly by the UK government and parliament on all issues. This situation has given rise to the so-called West Lothian question which concerns the fact that members of parliament from Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland can vote, sometimes decisively,[156] on matters that only affect England.[157] The McKay Commission reported on this matter in March 2013 recommending that laws affecting only England should need support from a majority of English members of parliament.[158]
 1366 The Scottish Government and Parliament have wide-ranging powers over any matter that has not been specifically reserved to the UK parliament, including education, healthcare, Scots law and local government.[159] At the 2011 elections the Scottish National Party won re-election and achieved an overall majority in the Scottish parliament, with its leader, Alex Salmond, as First Minister of Scotland.[160][161] In 2012, the UK and Scottish governments signed the Edinburgh Agreement setting out the terms for a referendum on Scottish independence in 2014, which was defeated 55% to 45%.
 1367 The Welsh Government and the National Assembly for Wales have more limited powers than those devolved to Scotland.[162] The Assembly is able to legislate on devolved matters through Acts of the Assembly, which require no prior consent from Westminster. The 2011 elections resulted in a minority Labour administration led by Carwyn Jones.[163]
 1368 The Northern Ireland Executive and Assembly have powers similar to those devolved to Scotland. The Executive is led by a diarchy representing unionist and nationalist members of the Assembly. Currently, Peter Robinson (Democratic Unionist Party) and Martin McGuinness (Sinn Féin) are First Minister and deputy First Minister respectively.[164] Devolution to Northern Ireland is contingent on participation by the Northern Ireland administration in the North-South Ministerial Council, where the Northern Ireland Executive cooperates and develops joint and shared policies with the Government of Ireland. The British and Irish governments co-operate on non-devolved matters affecting Northern Ireland through the British–Irish Intergovernmental Conference, which assumes the responsibilities of the Northern Ireland administration in the event of its non-operation.
 1369 The UK does not have a codified constitution and constitutional matters are not among the powers devolved to Scotland, Wales or Northern Ireland. Under the doctrine of parliamentary sovereignty, the UK Parliament could, in theory, therefore, abolish the Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly or Northern Ireland Assembly.[165][166] Indeed, in 1972, the UK Parliament unilaterally prorogued the Parliament of Northern Ireland, setting a precedent relevant to contemporary devolved institutions.[167] In practice, it would be politically difficult for the UK Parliament to abolish devolution to the Scottish Parliament and the Welsh Assembly, given the political entrenchment created by referendum decisions.[168] The political constraints placed upon the UK Parliament's power to interfere with devolution in Northern Ireland are even greater than in relation to Scotland and Wales, given that devolution in Northern Ireland rests upon an international agreement with the Government of Ireland.[169]
 1370 Law and criminal justice
 1371 Main article: Law of the United Kingdom
 1372 
 1373 The Royal Courts of Justice of England and Wales
 1374 The United Kingdom does not have a single legal system, as Article 19 of the 1706 Treaty of Union provided for the continuation of Scotland's separate legal system.[170] Today the UK has three distinct systems of law: English law, Northern Ireland law and Scots law. A new Supreme Court of the United Kingdom came into being in October 2009 to replace the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords.[171][172] The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, including the same members as the Supreme Court, is the highest court of appeal for several independent Commonwealth countries, the British Overseas Territories and the Crown Dependencies.[173]
 1375 Both English law, which applies in England and Wales, and Northern Ireland law are based on common-law principles.[174] The essence of common law is that, subject to statute, the law is developed by judges in courts, applying statute, precedent and common sense to the facts before them to give explanatory judgements of the relevant legal principles, which are reported and binding in future similar cases (stare decisis).[175] The courts of England and Wales are headed by the Senior Courts of England and Wales, consisting of the Court of Appeal, the High Court of Justice (for civil cases) and the Crown Court (for criminal cases). The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land for both criminal and civil appeal cases in England, Wales and Northern Ireland and any decision it makes is binding on every other court in the same jurisdiction, often having a persuasive effect in other jurisdictions.[176]
 1376 
 1377 The High Court of Justiciary – the supreme criminal court of Scotland.
 1378 Scots law is a hybrid system based on both common-law and civil-law principles. The chief courts are the Court of Session, for civil cases,[177] and the High Court of Justiciary, for criminal cases.[178] The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom serves as the highest court of appeal for civil cases under Scots law.[179] Sheriff courts deal with most civil and criminal cases including conducting criminal trials with a jury, known as sheriff solemn court, or with a sheriff and no jury, known as sheriff summary Court.[180] The Scots legal system is unique in having three possible verdicts for a criminal trial: "guilty", "not guilty" and "not proven". Both "not guilty" and "not proven" result in an acquittal.[181]
 1379 Crime in England and Wales increased in the period between 1981 and 1995, though since that peak there has been an overall fall of 48% in crime from 1995 to 2007/08,[182] according to crime statistics. The prison population of England and Wales has almost doubled over the same period, to over 80,000, giving England and Wales the highest rate of incarceration in Western Europe at 147 per 100,000.[183] Her Majesty's Prison Service, which reports to the Ministry of Justice, manages most of the prisons within England and Wales. Crime in Scotland fell to its lowest recorded level for 32 years in 2009/10, falling by ten per cent.[184] At the same time Scotland's prison population, at over 8,000,[185] is at record levels and well above design capacity.[186] The Scottish Prison Service, which reports to the Cabinet Secretary for Justice, manages Scotland's prisons.
 1380 Foreign relations
 1381 Main article: Foreign relations of the United Kingdom
 1382 
 1383 The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, David Cameron, and the President of the United States, Barack Obama, during the 2010 G-20 Toronto summit.
 1384 The UK is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of NATO, the Commonwealth of Nations, G7, G8, G20, the OECD, the WTO, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, and is a member state of the European Union. The UK is said to have a "Special Relationship" with the United States and a close partnership with France—the "Entente cordiale"—and shares nuclear weapons technology with both countries.[187][188] The UK is also closely linked with the Republic of Ireland; the two countries share a Common Travel Area and co-operate through the British-Irish Intergovernmental Conference and the British-Irish Council. Britain's global presence and influence is further amplified through its trading relations, foreign investments, official development assistance and military engagements.[189]
 1385 Military
 1386 
 1387 Troopers of the Blues and Royals during the 2007 Trooping the Colour ceremony
 1388 Main article: British Armed Forces
 1389 The armed forces of the United Kingdom—officially, Her Majesty's Armed Forces—consist of three professional service branches: the Royal Navy and Royal Marines (forming the Naval Service), the British Army and the Royal Air Force.[190] The forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence and controlled by the Defence Council, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Commander-in-Chief is the British monarch, Elizabeth II, to whom members of the forces swear an oath of allegiance.[191] The Armed Forces are charged with protecting the UK and its overseas territories, promoting the UK's global security interests and supporting international peacekeeping efforts. They are active and regular participants in NATO, including the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps, as well as the Five Power Defence Arrangements, RIMPAC and other worldwide coalition operations. Overseas garrisons and facilities are maintained in Ascension Island, Belize, Brunei, Canada, Cyprus, Diego Garcia, the Falkland Islands, Germany, Gibraltar, Kenya and Qatar.[192]
 1390 The British armed forces played a key role in establishing the British Empire as the dominant world power in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries. Throughout its unique history the British forces have seen action in a number of major wars, such as the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War, World War I and World War II—as well as many colonial conflicts. By emerging victorious from such conflicts, Britain has often been able to decisively influence world events. Since the end of the British Empire, the UK has nonetheless remained a major military power. Following the end of the Cold War, defence policy has a stated assumption that "the most demanding operations" will be undertaken as part of a coalition.[193] Setting aside the intervention in Sierra Leone, recent UK military operations in Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq and, most recently, Libya, have followed this approach. The last time the British military fought alone was the Falklands War of 1982.
 1391 According to various sources, including the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and the International Institute for Strategic Studies, the United Kingdom has the fifth- or sixth-highest military expenditure in the world. Total defence spending currently accounts for around 2.4% of total national GDP.[22][23]
 1392 Economy
 1393 Main article: Economy of the United Kingdom
 1394 
 1395 The Bank of England – the central bank of the United Kingdom
 1396 The UK has a partially regulated market economy.[194] Based on market exchange rates the UK is today the sixth-largest economy in the world and the third-largest in Europe after Germany and France, having fallen behind France for the first time in over a decade in 2008.[195] HM Treasury, led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, is responsible for developing and executing the British government's public finance policy and economic policy. The Bank of England is the UK's central bank and is responsible for issuing notes and coins in the nation's currency, the pound sterling. Banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland retain the right to issue their own notes, subject to retaining enough Bank of England notes in reserve to cover their issue. Pound sterling is the world's third-largest reserve currency (after the US Dollar and the Euro).[196] Since 1997 the Bank of England's Monetary Policy Committee, headed by the Governor of the Bank of England, has been responsible for setting interest rates at the level necessary to achieve the overall inflation target for the economy that is set by the Chancellor each year.[197]
 1397 The UK service sector makes up around 73% of GDP.[198] London is one of the three "command centres" of the global economy (alongside New York City and Tokyo),[199] it is the world's largest financial centre alongside New York,[200][201][202] and it has the largest city GDP in Europe.[203] Edinburgh is also one of the largest financial centres in Europe.[204] Tourism is very important to the British economy and, with over 27 million tourists arriving in 2004, the United Kingdom is ranked as the sixth major tourist destination in the world and London has the most international visitors of any city in the world.[205][206] The creative industries accounted for 7% GVA in 2005 and grew at an average of 6% per annum between 1997 and 2005.[207]
 1398 
 1399 The Airbus A350 has its wings and engines manufactured in the UK.
 1400 The Industrial Revolution started in the UK with an initial concentration on the textile industry,[208] followed by other heavy industries such as shipbuilding, coal mining and steelmaking.[209][210]
 1401 The empire was exploited as an overseas market for British products, allowing the UK to dominate international trade in the 19th century. As other nations industrialised, coupled with economic decline after two world wars, the United Kingdom began to lose its competitive advantage and heavy industry declined, by degrees, throughout the 20th century. Manufacturing remains a significant part of the economy but accounted for only 16.7% of national output in 2003.[211]
 1402 The automotive industry is a significant part of the UK manufacturing sector and employs over 800,000 people, with a turnover of some £52 billion, generating £26.6 billion of exports.[212]
 1403 The aerospace industry of the UK is the second- or third-largest national aerospace industry in the world depending upon the method of measurement and has an annual turnover of around £20 billion. The wings for the Airbus A380 and the A350 XWB are designed and manufactured at Airbus UK's world-leading Broughton facility, whilst over a quarter of the value of the Boeing 787 comes from UK manufacturers including Eaton (fuel subsystem pumps), Messier-Bugatti-Dowty (the landing gear) and Rolls-Royce (the engines). Other key names include GKN Aerospace – an expert in metallic and composite aerostructures that's involved in almost every civil and military fixed and rotary wing aircraft in production and development today.[213][214][215][216]
 1404 BAE Systems - plays a critical role on some of the world's biggest defence aerospace projects. The company makes large sections of the Typhoon Eurofighter at its sub-assembly plant in Salmesbury and assembles the aircraft for the RAF at its Warton Plant, near Preston. It is also a principal subcontractor on the F35 Joint Strike Fighter - the world's largest single defence project - for which it designs and manufactures a range of components including the aft fuselage, vertical and horizontal tail and wing tips and fuel system. As well as this it manufactures the Hawk, the world's most successful jet training aircraft.[216] Airbus UK also manufactures the wings for the A400m military transporter. Rolls-Royce, is the world's second-largest aero-engine manufacturer. Its engines power more than 30 types of commercial aircraft and it has more than 30,000 engines currently in service across both the civil and defence sectors. Agusta Westland designs and manufactures complete helicopters in the UK.[216]
 1405 The UK space industry is growing very fast. Worth £9.1bn in 2011 and employing 29,000 people, it is growing at a rate of some 7.5 per cent annually, according to its umbrella organisation, the UK Space Agency. Government strategy is for the space industry to be a £40bn business for the UK by 2030, capturing a 10 per cent share of the $250bn world market for commercial space technology.[216] On 16 July 2013, the British government pledged £60m to the Skylon project: this investment will provide support at a "crucial stage" to allow a full-scale prototype of the SABRE engine to be built.
 1406 The pharmaceutical industry plays an important role in the UK economy and the country has the third-highest share of global pharmaceutical R&D expenditures (after the United States and Japan).[217][218]
 1407 Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanised and efficient by European standards, producing about 60% of food needs with less than 1.6% of the labour force (535,000 workers).[219] Around two-thirds of production is devoted to livestock, one-third to arable crops. Farmers are subsidised by the EU's Common Agricultural Policy. The UK retains a significant, though much reduced fishing industry. It is also rich in a number of natural resources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica and an abundance of arable land.
 1408 
 1409 The City of London is the world's largest financial centre alongside New York[200][201][202]
 1410 In the final quarter of 2008 the UK economy officially entered recession for the first time since 1991.[220] Unemployment increased from 5.2% in May 2008 to 7.6% in May 2009 and by January 2012 the unemployment rate among 18 to 24-year-olds had risen from 11.9% to 22.5%, the highest since current records began in 1992.[221][222] Total UK government debt rose from 44.4% of GDP in 2007 to 82.9% of GDP in 2011.[223] In February 2013, the UK lost its top AAA credit rating for the first time since 1978.[224]
 1411 Inflation-adjusted wages in the UK fell by 3.2% between the third quarter of 2010 and the third quarter of 2012.[225] Since the 1980s, economic inequality has grown faster in the UK than in any other developed country.[226]
 1412 The poverty line in the UK is commonly defined as being 60% of the median household income.[nb 10] In 2007–2008 13.5 million people, or 22% of the population, lived below this line. This is a higher level of relative poverty than all but four other EU members.[227] In the same year 4.0 million children, 31% of the total, lived in households below the poverty line after housing costs were taken into account. This is a decrease of 400,000 children since 1998–1999.[228] The UK imports 40% of its food supplies.[229] The Office for National Statistics has estimated that in 2011, 14 million people were at risk of poverty or social exclusion, and that one person in 20 (5.1%) was now experiencing "severe material depression,"[230] up from 3 million people in 1977.[231][232]
 1413 Science and technology
 1414 Main article: Science and technology in the United Kingdom
 1415 
 1416 Charles Darwin (1809–82), whose theory of evolution by natural selection is the foundation of modern biological sciences
 1417 England and Scotland were leading centres of the Scientific Revolution from the 17th century[233] and the United Kingdom led the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century,[208] and has continued to produce scientists and engineers credited with important advances.[234] Major theorists from the 17th and 18th centuries include Isaac Newton, whose laws of motion and illumination of gravity have been seen as a keystone of modern science;[235] from the 19th century Charles Darwin, whose theory of evolution by natural selection was fundamental to the development of modern biology, and James Clerk Maxwell, who formulated classical electromagnetic theory; and more recently Stephen Hawking, who has advanced major theories in the fields of cosmology, quantum gravity and the investigation of black holes.[236] Major scientific discoveries from the 18th century include hydrogen by Henry Cavendish;[237] from the 20th century penicillin by Alexander Fleming,[238] and the structure of DNA, by Francis Crick and others.[239] Major engineering projects and applications by people from the UK in the 18th century include the steam locomotive, developed by Richard Trevithick and Andrew Vivian;[240] from the 19th century the electric motor by Michael Faraday, the incandescent light bulb by Joseph Swan,[241] and the first practical telephone, patented by Alexander Graham Bell;[242] and in the 20th century the world's first working television system by John Logie Baird and others,[243] the jet engine by Frank Whittle, the basis of the modern computer by Alan Turing, and the World Wide Web by Tim Berners-Lee.[244]
 1418 Scientific research and development remains important in British universities, with many establishing science parks to facilitate production and co-operation with industry.[245] Between 2004 and 2008 the UK produced 7% of the world's scientific research papers and had an 8% share of scientific citations, the third and second highest in the world (after the United States and China, and the United States, respectively).[246] Scientific journals produced in the UK include Nature, the British Medical Journal and The Lancet.[247]
 1419 Transport
 1420 Main article: Transport in the United Kingdom
 1421 
 1422 Heathrow Terminal 5 building. London Heathrow Airport has the most international passenger traffic of any airport in the world.[248][249]
 1423 A radial road network totals 29,145 miles (46,904 km) of main roads, 2,173 miles (3,497 km) of motorways and 213,750 miles (344,000 km) of paved roads.[105] In 2009 there were a total of 34 million licensed vehicles in Great Britain.[250]
 1424 The UK has a railway network of 10,072 miles (16,209 km) in Great Britain and 189 miles (304 km) in Northern Ireland. Railways in Northern Ireland are operated by NI Railways, a subsidiary of state-owned Translink. In Great Britain, the British Rail network was privatised between 1994 and 1997. Network Rail owns and manages most of the fixed assets (tracks, signals etc.). About 20 privately owned (and foreign state-owned railways including: Deutsche Bahn; SNCF and Nederlandse Spoorwegen) Train Operating Companies (including state-owned East Coast), operate passenger trains and carry over 18,000 passenger trains daily. There are also some 1,000 freight trains in daily operation.[105] The UK government is to spend £30 billion on a new high-speed railway line, HS2, to be operational by 2025.[251] Crossrail, under construction in London, Is Europe's largest construction project with a £15 billion projected cost.[252][253]
 1425 In the year from October 2009 to September 2010 UK airports handled a total of 211.4 million passengers.[254] In that period the three largest airports were London Heathrow Airport (65.6 million passengers), Gatwick Airport (31.5 million passengers) and London Stansted Airport (18.9 million passengers).[254] London Heathrow Airport, located 15 miles (24 km) west of the capital, has the most international passenger traffic of any airport in the world[248][249] and is the hub for the UK flag carrier British Airways, as well as for BMI and Virgin Atlantic.[255]
 1426 Energy
 1427 Main article: Energy in the United Kingdom
 1428 
 1429 An oil platform in the North Sea
 1430 In 2006, the UK was the world's ninth-largest consumer of energy and the 15th-largest producer.[256] The UK is home to a number of large energy companies, including two of the six oil and gas "supermajors" – BP and Royal Dutch Shell – and BG Group.[257][258] In 2011, 40% of the UK's electricity was produced by gas, 30% by coal, 19% by nuclear power and 4.2% by wind, hydro, biofuels and wastes.[259]
 1431 In 2009, the UK produced 1.5 million barrels per day (bbl/d) of oil and consumed 1.7 million bbl/d.[260] Production is now in decline and the UK has been a net importer of oil since 2005.[260] In 2010 the UK had around 3.1 billion barrels of proven crude oil reserves, the largest of any EU member state.[260] In 2009, 66.5% of the UK's oil supply was imported.[261]
 1432 In 2009, the UK was the 13th-largest producer of natural gas in the world and the largest producer in the EU.[262] Production is now in decline and the UK has been a net importer of natural gas since 2004.[262] In 2009, half of British gas was supplied from imports and this is expected to increase to at least 75% by 2015, as domestic reserves are depleted.[259]
 1433 Coal production played a key role in the UK economy in the 19th and 20th centuries. In the mid-1970s, 130 million tonnes of coal was being produced annually, not falling below 100 million tonnes until the early 1980s. During the 1980s and 1990s the industry was scaled back considerably. In 2011, the UK produced 18.3 million tonnes of coal.[263] In 2005 it had proven recoverable coal reserves of 171 million tons.[263] The UK Coal Authority has stated there is a potential to produce between 7 billion tonnes and 16 billion tonnes of coal through underground coal gasification (UCG) or 'fracking',[264] and that, based on current UK coal consumption, such reserves could last between 200 and 400 years.[265] However, environmental and social concerns have been raised over chemicals getting into the water table and minor earthquakes damaging homes.[266][267]
 1434 In the late 1990s, nuclear power plants contributed around 25% of total annual electricity generation in the UK, but this has gradually declined as old plants have been shut down and ageing-related problems affect plant availability. In 2012, the UK had 16 reactors normally generating about 19% of its electricity. All but one of the reactors will be retired by 2023. Unlike Germany and Japan, the UK intends to build a new generation of nuclear plants from about 2018.[259]
 1435 Demographics
 1436 Main article: Demographics of the United Kingdom
 1437 
 1438 Map of population density in the UK as at the 2011 census.
 1439 A census is taken simultaneously in all parts of the UK every ten years.[268] The Office for National Statistics is responsible for collecting data for England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency each being responsible for censuses in their respective countries.[269] In the 2011 census the total population of the United Kingdom was 63,181,775.[270] It is the third-largest in the European Union, the fifth-largest in the Commonwealth and the 21st-largest in the world. 2010 was the third successive year in which natural change contributed more to population growth than net long-term international migration.[271][271] Between 2001 and 2011 the population increased by an average annual rate of approximately 0.7 per cent.[270] This compares to 0.3 per cent per year in the period 1991 to 2001 and 0.2 per cent in the decade 1981 to 1991.[271] The 2011 census also confirmed that the proportion of the population aged 0–14 has nearly halved (31 per cent in 1911 compared to 18 in 2011) and the proportion of older people aged 65 and over has more than trebled (from 5 to 16 per cent).[270] It has been estimated that the number of people aged 100 or over will rise steeply to reach over 626,000 by 2080.[272]
 1440 England's population in 2011 was found to be 53 million.[273] It is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with 383 people resident per square kilometre in mid-2003,[274] with a particular concentration in London and the south-east.[275] The 2011 census put Scotland's population at 5.3 million,[276] Wales at 3.06 million and Northern Ireland at 1.81 million.[273] In percentage terms England has had the fastest growing population of any country of the UK in the period from 2001 to 2011, with an increase of 7.9%.
 1441 In 2012 the average total fertility rate (TFR) across the UK was 1.92 children per woman.[277] While a rising birth rate is contributing to current population growth, it remains considerably below the 'baby boom' peak of 2.95 children per woman in 1964,[278] below the replacement rate of 2.1, but higher than the 2001 record low of 1.63.[277] In 2012, Scotland had the lowest TFR at only 1.67, followed by Wales at 1.88, England at 1.94, and Northern Ireland at 2.03.[277] In 2011, 47.3% of births in the UK were to unmarried women.[279] A government figure estimated that there are 3.6 million homosexual people in Britain comprising 6 per cent of the population.[280]
 1442 view talk edit
 1443 view talk edit
 1444 Largest urban areas of the United Kingdom
 1445 United Kingdom 2011 census Built-up areas[281][282][283]
 1446 Rank	Urban area	Pop.	Principal settlement	Rank	Urban area	Pop.	Principal settlement	
 1447 Greater London Urban Area
 1448 Greater London Urban Area
 1449 Greater Manchester Urban Area
 1450 Greater Manchester Urban Area
 1451 1	Greater London Urban Area	9,787,426	London	11	Bristol Urban Area	617,280	Bristol	West Midlands Urban Area
 1452 West Midlands Urban Area
 1453 West Yorkshire Urban Area
 1454 West Yorkshire Urban Area
 1455 2	Greater Manchester Urban Area	2,553,379	Manchester	12	Belfast Metropolitan Urban Area	579,236	Belfast
 1456 3	West Midlands Urban Area	2,440,986	Birmingham	13	Leicester Urban Area	508,916	Leicester
 1457 4	West Yorkshire Urban Area	1,777,934	Leeds	14	Edinburgh	488,610	Edinburgh
 1458 5	Greater Glasgow	976,970	Glasgow	15	Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton	474,485	Brighton
 1459 6	Liverpool Urban Area	864,122	Liverpool	16	South East Dorset conurbation	466,266	Bournemouth
 1460 7	South Hampshire	855,569	Southampton	17	Cardiff Urban Area	390,214	Cardiff
 1461 8	Tyneside	774,891	Newcastle	18	Teesside	376,633	Middlesbrough
 1462 9	Nottingham Urban Area	729,977	Nottingham	19	The Potteries Urban Area	372,775	Stoke-on-Trent
 1463 10	Sheffield Urban Area	685,368	Sheffield	20	Coventry and Bedworth Urban Area	359,262	Coventry
 1464 
 1465 Ethnic groups
 1466 
 1467 Map showing the percentage of the population who are not white according to the 2011 census.
 1468 Ethnic group	2011
 1469 population	2011
 1470 %
 1471 White	55,010,359	87.1
 1472 White: Irish Traveller	63,193	0.1
 1473 Asian or Asian British: Indian	1,451,862	
 1474 2.3
 1475 Asian or Asian British: Pakistani	1,173,892	
 1476 1.9
 1477 Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi	451,529	
 1478 0.7
 1479 Asian or Asian British: Chinese	433,150	
 1480 0.7
 1481 Asian or Asian British: Asian Other	861,815	
 1482 1.4
 1483 Asian or Asian British: Total	4,373,339	
 1484 7.0
 1485 Black or Black British	1,904,684	
 1486 3.0
 1487 British Mixed	1,250,229	
 1488 2.0
 1489 Other: Total	580,374	
 1490 0.9
 1491 Total[284]	63,182,178	
 1492 100
 1493 Historically, indigenous British people were thought to be descended from the various ethnic groups that settled there before the 11th century: the Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxons, Norse and the Normans. Welsh people could be the oldest ethnic group in the UK.[285] A 2006 genetic study shows that more than 50 per cent of England's gene pool contains Germanic Y chromosomes.[286] Another 2005 genetic analysis indicates that "about 75 per cent of the traceable ancestors of the modern British population had arrived in the British isles by about 6,200 years ago, at the start of the British Neolithic or Stone Age", and that the British broadly share a common ancestry with the Basque people.[287][288][289]
 1494 The UK has a history of small-scale non-white immigration, with Liverpool having the oldest Black population in the country dating back to at least the 1730s during the period of the African slave trade,[290] and the oldest Chinese community in Europe, dating to the arrival of Chinese seamen in the 19th century.[291] In 1950 there were probably fewer than 20,000 non-white residents in Britain, almost all born overseas.[292]
 1495 Since 1948 substantial immigration from Africa, the Caribbean and South Asia has been a legacy of ties forged by the British Empire. Migration from new EU member states in Central and Eastern Europe since 2004 has resulted in growth in these population groups but, as of 2008, the trend is reversing. Many of these migrants are returning to their home countries, leaving the size of these groups unknown.[293] In 2011, 86% of the population identified themselves as White, meaning 12.9% of the UK population identify themselves as of mixed ethnic minority.
 1496 Ethnic diversity varies significantly across the UK. 30.4% of London's population and 37.4% of Leicester's was estimated to be non-white in 2005,[294][295] whereas less than 5% of the populations of North East England, Wales and the South West were from ethnic minorities, according to the 2001 census.[296] In 2011, 26.5% of primary and 22.2% of secondary pupils at state schools in England were members of an ethnic minority.[297]
 1497 The non-white British population of England and Wales increased by 38% from 6.6 million in 2001 to 9.1 million in 2009.[298] The fastest-growing group was the mixed-ethnicity population, which doubled from 672,000 in 2001 to 986,600 in 2009. Also in the same period, a decrease of 36,000 white British people was recorded.[299]
 1498 Languages
 1499 Main article: Languages of the United Kingdom
 1500 
 1501 The English-speaking world. Countries in dark blue have a majority of native speakers; countries where English is an official but not a majority language are shaded in light blue. English is one of the official languages of the European Union[300] and the United Nations[301]
 1502 The UK's de facto official language is English.[302][303] It is estimated that 95% of the UK's population are monolingual English speakers.[304] 5.5% of the population are estimated to speak languages brought to the UK as a result of relatively recent immigration.[304] South Asian languages, including Bengali, Tamil, Punjabi, Hindi and Gujarati, are the largest grouping and are spoken by 2.7% of the UK population.[304] According to the 2011 census, Polish has become the second-largest language spoken in England and has 546,000 speakers.[305]
 1503 Four Celtic languages are spoken in the UK: Welsh; Irish; Scottish Gaelic; and Cornish. All are recognised as regional or minority languages, subject to specific measures of protection and promotion under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages[2][306] and the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities.[307] In the 2001 Census over a fifth (21%) of the population of Wales said they could speak Welsh,[308] an increase from the 1991 Census (18%).[309] In addition it is estimated that about 200,000 Welsh speakers live in England.[310] In the same census in Northern Ireland 167,487 people (10.4%) stated that they had "some knowledge of Irish" (see Irish language in Northern Ireland), almost exclusively in the nationalist (mainly Catholic) population. Over 92,000 people in Scotland (just under 2% of the population) had some Gaelic language ability, including 72% of those living in the Outer Hebrides.[311] The number of schoolchildren being taught through Welsh, Scottish Gaelic and Irish is increasing.[312] Among emigrant-descended populations some Scottish Gaelic is still spoken in Canada (principally Nova Scotia and Cape Breton Island),[313] and Welsh in Patagonia, Argentina.[314]
 1504 Scots, a language descended from early northern Middle English, has limited recognition alongside its regional variant, Ulster Scots in Northern Ireland, without specific commitments to protection and promotion.[2][315]
 1505 It is compulsory for pupils to study a second language up to the age of 14 in England,[316] and up to age 16 in Scotland. French and German are the two most commonly taught second languages in England and Scotland. All pupils in Wales are taught Welsh as a second language up to age 16, or are taught in Welsh.[317]
 1506 Religion
 1507 Main article: Religion in the United Kingdom
 1508 
 1509 Westminster Abbey is used for the coronation of British monarchs
 1510 Forms of Christianity have dominated religious life in what is now the United Kingdom for over 1,400 years.[318] Although a majority of citizens still identify with Christianity in many surveys, regular church attendance has fallen dramatically since the middle of the 20th century,[319] while immigration and demographic change have contributed to the growth of other faiths, most notably Islam.[320] This has led some commentators to variously describe the UK as a multi-faith,[321] secularised,[322] or post-Christian society.[323]
 1511 In the 2001 census 71.6% of all respondents indicated that they were Christians, with the next largest faiths (by number of adherents) being Islam (2.8%), Hinduism (1.0%), Sikhism (0.6%), Judaism (0.5%), Buddhism (0.3%) and all other religions (0.3%).[324] 15% of respondents stated that they had no religion, with a further 7% not stating a religious preference.[325] A Tearfund survey in 2007 showed only one in ten Britons actually attend church weekly.[326] Between the 2001 and 2011 census there was a decrease in the amount of people who identified as Christian by 12%, whilst the percentage of those reporting no religious affiliation doubled. This contrasted with growth in the other main religious group categories, with the number of Muslims increasing by the most substantial margin to a total of about 5%.[327]
 1512 The Church of England is the established church in England.[328] It retains a representation in the UK Parliament and the British monarch is its Supreme Governor.[329] In Scotland the Presbyterian Church of Scotland is recognised as the national church. It is not subject to state control, and the British monarch is an ordinary member, required to swear an oath to "maintain and preserve the Protestant Religion and Presbyterian Church Government" upon his or her accession.[330][331] The (Anglican) Church in Wales was disestablished in 1920 and, as the (Anglican) Church of Ireland was disestablished in 1870 before the partition of Ireland, there is no established church in Northern Ireland.[332] Although there are no UK-wide data in the 2001 census on adherence to individual Christian denominations, it has been estimated that 62% of Christians are Anglican, 13.5% Catholic, 6% Presbyterian, 3.4% Methodist with small numbers of other Protestant denominations such as Open Brethren, and Orthodox churches.[333]
 1513 Migration
 1514 Main article: Immigration to the United Kingdom since 1922
 1515 See also: Foreign-born population of the United Kingdom
 1516 
 1517 Estimated foreign-born population by country of birth, April 2007 – March 2008
 1518 The United Kingdom has experienced successive waves of migration. The Great Famine in Ireland, then part of the United Kingdom, resulted in perhaps a million people migrating to Great Brtain.[334] Unable to return to Poland at the end of World War II, over 120,000 Polish veterans remained in the UK permanently.[335] After World War II, there was significant immigration from the colonies and newly independent former colonies, partly as a legacy of empire and partly driven by labour shortages. Many of these migrants came from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent.[336] The British Asian population has increased from 2.2 million in 2001 to over 4.2 million in 2011.[337]
 1519 One of the more recent trends in migration has been the arrival of workers from the new EU member states in Eastern Europe. In 2010, there were 7.0 million foreign-born residents in the UK, corresponding to 11.3% of the total population. Of these, 4.76 million (7.7%) were born outside the EU and 2.24 million (3.6%) were born in another EU Member State.[338] The proportion of foreign-born people in the UK remains slightly below that of many other European countries.[339] However, immigration is now contributing to a rising population[340] with arrivals and UK-born children of migrants accounting for about half of the population increase between 1991 and 2001. Analysis of Office for National Statistics (ONS) data shows that a net total of 2.3 million migrants moved to the UK in the 15 years from 1991 to 2006.[341][342] In 2008 it was predicted that migration would add 7 million to the UK population by 2031,[343] though these figures are disputed.[344] The ONS reported that net migration rose from 2009 to 2010 by 21 per cent to 239,000.[345] In 2011 the net increase was 251,000: immigration was 589,000, while the number of people emigrating (for more than 12 months) was 338,000.[346][347]
 1520 195,046 foreign nationals became British citizens in 2010,[348] compared to 54,902 in 1999.[348][349] A record 241,192 people were granted permanent settlement rights in 2010, of whom 51 per cent were from Asia and 27 per cent from Africa.[350] 25.5 per cent of babies born in England and Wales in 2011 were born to mothers born outside the UK, according to official statistics released in 2012.[351]
 1521 Citizens of the European Union, including those of the UK, have the right to live and work in any EU member state.[352] The UK applied temporary restrictions to citizens of Romania and Bulgaria, which joined the EU in January 2007.[353] Research conducted by the Migration Policy Institute for the Equality and Human Rights Commission suggests that, between May 2004 and September 2009, 1.5 million workers migrated from the new EU member states to the UK, two-thirds of them Polish, but that many subsequently returned home, resulting in a net increase in the number of nationals of the new member states in the UK of some 700,000 over that period.[354][355] The late-2000s recession in the UK reduced the economic incentive for Poles to migrate to the UK,[356] the migration becoming temporary and circular.[357] In 2009, for the first time since enlargement, more nationals of the eight central and eastern European states that had joined the EU in 2004 left the UK than arrived.[358] In 2011, citizens of the new EU member states made up 13% of the immigrants entering the country.[346]
 1522 
 1523 Estimated number of British citizens living overseas by country, 2006
 1524 The UK government has introduced a points-based immigration system for immigration from outside the European Economic Area to replace former schemes, including the Scottish Government's Fresh Talent Initiative.[359] In June 2010 the UK government introduced a temporary limit of 24,000 on immigration from outside the EU, aiming to discourage applications before a permanent cap was imposed in April 2011.[360] The cap has caused tension within the coalition: business secretary Vince Cable has argued that it is harming British businesses.[361]
 1525 Emigration was an important feature of British society in the 19th century. Between 1815 and 1930 around 11.4 million people emigrated from Britain and 7.3 million from Ireland. Estimates show that by the end of the 20th century some 300 million people of British and Irish descent were permanently settled around the globe.[362] Today, at least 5.5 million UK-born people live abroad,[363][364][365] mainly in Australia, Spain, the United States and Canada.[363][366]
 1526 Education
 1527 Main article: Education in the United Kingdom
 1528 See also: Education in England, Education in Northern Ireland, Education in Scotland and Education in Wales
 1529 
 1530 King's College, part of the University of Cambridge, which was founded in 1209
 1531 Education in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter, with each country having a separate education system.
 1532 Whilst education in England is the responsibility of the Secretary of State for Education, the day-to-day administration and funding of state schools is the responsibility of local authorities.[367] Universally free of charge state education was introduced piecemeal between 1870 and 1944.[368][369] Education is now mandatory from ages five to sixteen (15 if born in late July or August). In 2011, the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) rated 13–14-year-old pupils in England and Wales 10th in the world for maths and 9th for science.[370] The majority of children are educated in state-sector schools, a small proportion of which select on the grounds of academic ability. Two of the top ten performing schools in terms of GCSE results in 2006 were state-run grammar schools. Over half of students at the leading universities of Cambridge and Oxford had attended state schools.[371] Despite a fall in actual numbers the proportion of children in England attending private schools has risen to over 7%.[372] In 2010, more than 45% of places at the University of Oxford and 40% at the University of Cambridge were taken by students from private schools, even though they educate just 7% of the population.[373] England has the two oldest universities in English-speaking world, Universities of Oxford and Cambridge (jointly known as "Oxbridge") with history of over eight centuries. The United Kingdom has 9 universities featured in the Times Higher Education top 100 rankings, making it second to the United States in terms of representation.[374]
 1533 
 1534 Queen's University Belfast, built in 1849[375]
 1535 Education in Scotland is the responsibility of the Cabinet Secretary for Education and Lifelong Learning, with day-to-day administration and funding of state schools the responsibility of Local Authorities. Two non-departmental public bodies have key roles in Scottish education. The Scottish Qualifications Authority is responsible for the development, accreditation, assessment and certification of qualifications other than degrees which are delivered at secondary schools, post-secondary colleges of further education and other centres.[376] The Learning and Teaching Scotland provides advice, resources and staff development to education professionals.[377] Scotland first legislated for compulsory education in 1496.[378] The proportion of children in Scotland attending private schools is just over 4%, and it has been rising slowly in recent years.[379] Scottish students who attend Scottish universities pay neither tuition fees nor graduate endowment charges, as fees were abolished in 2001 and the graduate endowment scheme was abolished in 2008.[380]
 1536 The Welsh Government has responsibility for education in Wales. A significant number of Welsh students are taught either wholly or largely in the Welsh language; lessons in Welsh are compulsory for all until the age of 16.[381] There are plans to increase the provision of Welsh-medium schools as part of the policy of creating a fully bilingual Wales.
 1537 Education in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Minister of Education and the Minister for Employment and Learning, although responsibility at a local level is administered by five education and library boards covering different geographical areas. The Council for the Curriculum, Examinations & Assessment (CCEA) is the body responsible for advising the government on what should be taught in Northern Ireland's schools, monitoring standards and awarding qualifications.[382]
 1538 A government commission's report in 2014 found that privately educated people comprise 7% of the general population of the UK but much larger percentages of the top professions, the most extreme case quoted being 71% of senior judges.[383][384]
 1539 Healthcare
 1540 Main article: Healthcare in the United Kingdom
 1541 
 1542 The Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital, an NHS Scotland specialist children's hospital
 1543 Healthcare in the United Kingdom is a devolved matter and each country has its own system of private and publicly funded health care, together with alternative, holistic and complementary treatments. Public healthcare is provided to all UK permanent residents and is mostly free at the point of need, being paid for from general taxation. The World Health Organization, in 2000, ranked the provision of healthcare in the United Kingdom as fifteenth best in Europe and eighteenth in the world.[385][386]
 1544 Regulatory bodies are organised on a UK-wide basis such as the General Medical Council, the Nursing and Midwifery Council and non-governmental-based, such as the Royal Colleges. However, political and operational responsibility for healthcare lies with four national executives; healthcare in England is the responsibility of the UK Government; healthcare in Northern Ireland is the responsibility of the Northern Ireland Executive; healthcare in Scotland is the responsibility of the Scottish Government; and healthcare in Wales is the responsibility of the Welsh Assembly Government. Each National Health Service has different policies and priorities, resulting in contrasts.[387][388]
 1545 Since 1979 expenditure on healthcare has been increased significantly to bring it closer to the European Union average.[389] The UK spends around 8.4 per cent of its gross domestic product on healthcare, which is 0.5 percentage points below the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development average and about one percentage point below the average of the European Union.[390]
 1546 Culture
 1547 Main article: Culture of the United Kingdom
 1548 The culture of the United Kingdom has been influenced by many factors including: the nation's island status; its history as a western liberal democracy and a major power; as well as being a political union of four countries with each preserving elements of distinctive traditions, customs and symbolism. As a result of the British Empire, British influence can be observed in the language, culture and legal systems of many of its former colonies including Australia, Canada, India, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States. The substantial cultural influence of the United Kingdom has led it to be described as a "cultural superpower."[391][392]
 1549 Literature
 1550 Main article: British literature
 1551 
 1552 The Chandos portrait, believed to depict William Shakespeare
 1553 'British literature' refers to literature associated with the United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Channel Islands. Most British literature is in the English language. In 2005, some 206,000 books were published in the United Kingdom and in 2006 it was the largest publisher of books in the world.[393]
 1554 The English playwright and poet William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest dramatist of all time,[394][395][396] and his contemporaries Christopher Marlowe and Ben Jonson have also been held in continuous high esteem. More recently the playwrights Alan Ayckbourn, Harold Pinter, Michael Frayn, Tom Stoppard and David Edgar have combined elements of surrealism, realism and radicalism.
 1555 Notable pre-modern and early-modern English writers include Geoffrey Chaucer (14th century), Thomas Malory (15th century), Sir Thomas More (16th century), John Bunyan (17th century) and John Milton (17th century). In the 18th century Daniel Defoe (author of Robinson Crusoe) and Samuel Richardson were pioneers of the modern novel. In the 19th century there followed further innovation by Jane Austen, the gothic novelist Mary Shelley, the children's writer Lewis Carroll, the Brontë sisters, the social campaigner Charles Dickens, the naturalist Thomas Hardy, the realist George Eliot, the visionary poet William Blake and romantic poet William Wordsworth. 20th-century English writers include the science-fiction novelist H. G. Wells; the writers of children's classics Rudyard Kipling, A. A. Milne (the creator of Winnie-the-Pooh), Roald Dahl and Enid Blyton; the controversial D. H. Lawrence; the modernist Virginia Woolf; the satirist Evelyn Waugh; the prophetic novelist George Orwell; the popular novelists W. Somerset Maugham and Graham Greene; the crime writer Agatha Christie (the best-selling novelist of all time);[397] Ian Fleming (the creator of James Bond); the poets T.S. Eliot, Philip Larkin and Ted Hughes; the fantasy writers J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis and J. K. Rowling; the graphic novelist Alan Moore, whose novel Watchmen is often cited by critics as comic's greatest series and graphic novel[398] and one of the best-selling graphic novels ever published.[399]
 1556 
 1557 A photograph of Victorian era novelist Charles Dickens
 1558 Scotland's contributions include the detective writer Arthur Conan Doyle (the creator of Sherlock Holmes), romantic literature by Sir Walter Scott, the children's writer J. M. Barrie, the epic adventures of Robert Louis Stevenson and the celebrated poet Robert Burns. More recently the modernist and nationalist Hugh MacDiarmid and Neil M. Gunn contributed to the Scottish Renaissance. A more grim outlook is found in Ian Rankin's stories and the psychological horror-comedy of Iain Banks. Scotland's capital, Edinburgh, was UNESCO's first worldwide City of Literature.[400]
 1559 Britain's oldest known poem, Y Gododdin, was composed in Yr Hen Ogledd (The Old North), most likely in the late 6th century. It was written in Cumbric or Old Welsh and contains the earliest known reference to King Arthur.[401] From around the seventh century, the connection between Wales and the Old North was lost, and the focus of Welsh-language culture shifted to Wales, where Arthurian legend was further developed by Geoffrey of Monmouth.[402] Wales's most celebrated medieval poet, Dafydd ap Gwilym (fl.1320–1370), composed poetry on themes including nature, religion and especially love. He is widely regarded as one of the greatest European poets of his age.[403] Until the late 19th century the majority of Welsh literature was in Welsh and much of the prose was religious in character. Daniel Owen is credited as the first Welsh-language novelist, publishing Rhys Lewis in 1885. The best-known of the Anglo-Welsh poets are both Thomases. Dylan Thomas became famous on both sides of the Atlantic in the mid-20th century. He is remembered for his poetry – his "Do not go gentle into that good night; Rage, rage against the dying of the light." is one of the most quoted couplets of English language verse – and for his 'play for voices', Under Milk Wood. The influential Church in Wales 'poet-priest' and Welsh nationalist R. S. Thomas was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1996. Leading Welsh novelists of the twentieth century include Richard Llewellyn and Kate Roberts.[404][405]
 1560 Authors of other nationalities, particularly from Commonwealth countries, the Republic of Ireland and the United States, have lived and worked in the UK. Significant examples through the centuries include Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde, Bram Stoker, George Bernard Shaw, Joseph Conrad, T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound and more recently British authors born abroad such as Kazuo Ishiguro and Sir Salman Rushdie.[406][407]
 1561 Music
 1562 Main article: Music of the United Kingdom
 1563 See also: British rock
 1564 
 1565 The Beatles are the most commercially successful and critically acclaimed band in the history of music, selling over a billion records internationally.[408][409][410]
 1566 Various styles of music are popular in the UK from the indigenous folk music of England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland to heavy metal. Notable composers of classical music from the United Kingdom and the countries that preceded it include William Byrd, Henry Purcell, Sir Edward Elgar, Gustav Holst, Sir Arthur Sullivan (most famous for working with the librettist Sir W. S. Gilbert), Ralph Vaughan Williams and Benjamin Britten, pioneer of modern British opera. Sir Peter Maxwell Davies is one of the foremost living composers and current Master of the Queen's Music. The UK is also home to world-renowned symphonic orchestras and choruses such as the BBC Symphony Orchestra and the London Symphony Chorus. Notable conductors include Sir Simon Rattle, John Barbirolli and Sir Malcolm Sargent. Some of the notable film score composers include John Barry, Clint Mansell, Mike Oldfield, John Powell, Craig Armstrong, David Arnold, John Murphy, Monty Norman and Harry Gregson-Williams. George Frideric Handel, although born German, was a naturalised British citizen[411] and some of his best works, such as Messiah, were written in the English language.[412] Andrew Lloyd Webber has achieved enormous worldwide commercial success and is a prolific composer of musical theatre, works which have dominated London's West End for a number of years and have travelled to Broadway in New York.[413]
 1567 The Beatles have international sales of over one billion units and are the biggest-selling and most influential band in the history of popular music.[408][409][410][414] Other prominent British contributors to have influenced popular music over the last 50 years include; The Rolling Stones, Led Zeppelin, Pink Floyd, Queen, the Bee Gees, and Elton John, all of whom have world wide record sales of 200 million or more.[415][416][417][418][419][420] The Brit Awards are the BPI's annual music awards, and some of the British recipients of the Outstanding Contribution to Music award include; The Who, David Bowie, Eric Clapton, Rod Stewart and The Police.[421] More recent UK music acts that have had international success include Coldplay, Radiohead, Oasis, Spice Girls, Robbie Williams, Amy Winehouse and Adele.[422]
 1568 A number of UK cities are known for their music. Acts from Liverpool have had more UK chart number one hit singles per capita (54) than any other city worldwide.[423] Glasgow's contribution to music was recognised in 2008 when it was named a UNESCO City of Music, one of only three cities in the world to have this honour.[424]
 1569 Visual art
 1570 Main article: Art of the United Kingdom
 1571 
 1572 J. M. W. Turner self-portrait, oil on canvas, c. 1799
 1573 The history of British visual art forms part of western art history. Major British artists include: the Romantics William Blake, John Constable, Samuel Palmer and J.M.W. Turner; the portrait painters Sir Joshua Reynolds and Lucian Freud; the landscape artists Thomas Gainsborough and L. S. Lowry; the pioneer of the Arts and Crafts Movement William Morris; the figurative painter Francis Bacon; the Pop artists Peter Blake, Richard Hamilton and David Hockney; the collaborative duo Gilbert and George; the abstract artist Howard Hodgkin; and the sculptors Antony Gormley, Anish Kapoor and Henry Moore. During the late 1980s and 1990s the Saatchi Gallery in London helped to bring to public attention a group of multi-genre artists who would become known as the "Young British Artists": Damien Hirst, Chris Ofili, Rachel Whiteread, Tracey Emin, Mark Wallinger, Steve McQueen, Sam Taylor-Wood and the Chapman Brothers are among the better-known members of this loosely affiliated movement.
 1574 The Royal Academy in London is a key organisation for the promotion of the visual arts in the United Kingdom. Major schools of art in the UK include: the six-school University of the Arts London, which includes the Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design and Chelsea College of Art and Design; Goldsmiths, University of London; the Slade School of Fine Art (part of University College London); the Glasgow School of Art; the Royal College of Art; and The Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art (part of the University of Oxford). The Courtauld Institute of Art is a leading centre for the teaching of the history of art. Important art galleries in the United Kingdom include the National Gallery, National Portrait Gallery, Tate Britain and Tate Modern (the most-visited modern art gallery in the world, with around 4.7 million visitors per year).[425]
 1575 Cinema
 1576 Main article: Cinema of the United Kingdom
 1577 
 1578 Film director Alfred Hitchcock
 1579 The United Kingdom has had a considerable influence on the history of the cinema. The British directors Alfred Hitchcock, whose film Vertigo is considered by some critics as the best film of all time,[426] and David Lean are among the most critically acclaimed of all-time.[427] Other important directors including Charlie Chaplin,[428] Michael Powell,[429] Carol Reed[430] and Ridley Scott.[431] Many British actors have achieved international fame and critical success, including: Julie Andrews,[432] Richard Burton,[433] Michael Caine,[434] Charlie Chaplin,[435] Sean Connery,[436] Vivien Leigh,[437] David Niven,[438] Laurence Olivier,[439] Peter Sellers,[440] Kate Winslet,[441] and Daniel Day-Lewis, the only person to win an Oscar in the best actor category three times.[442] Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in the United Kingdom, including the two highest-grossing film franchises (Harry Potter and James Bond).[443] Ealing Studios has a claim to being the oldest continuously working film studio in the world.[444]
 1580 Despite a history of important and successful productions, the industry has often been characterised by a debate about its identity and the level of American and European influence. British producers are active in international co-productions and British actors, directors and crew feature regularly in American films. Many successful Hollywood films have been based on British people, stories or events, including Titanic, The Lord of the Rings, Pirates of the Caribbean.
 1581 In 2009, British films grossed around $2 billion worldwide and achieved a market share of around 7% globally and 17% in the United Kingdom.[445] UK box-office takings totalled £944 million in 2009, with around 173 million admissions.[445] The British Film Institute has produced a poll ranking of what it considers to be the 100 greatest British films of all time, the BFI Top 100 British films.[446] The annual British Academy Film Awards, hosted by the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, are the British equivalent of the Oscars.[447]
 1582 Media
 1583 Main article: Media of the United Kingdom
 1584 
 1585 Broadcasting House in London, headquarters of the BBC, the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world.[448][449][450]
 1586 The BBC, founded in 1922, is the UK's publicly funded radio, television and Internet broadcasting corporation, and is the oldest and largest broadcaster in the world.[448][449][450] It operates numerous television and radio stations in the UK and abroad and its domestic services are funded by the television licence.[451][452] Other major players in the UK media include ITV plc, which operates 11 of the 15 regional television broadcasters that make up the ITV Network,[453] and News Corporation, which owns a number of national newspapers through News International such as the most popular tabloid The Sun and the longest-established daily "broadsheet" The Times,[454] as well as holding a large stake in satellite broadcaster British Sky Broadcasting.[455] London dominates the media sector in the UK: national newspapers and television and radio are largely based there, although Manchester is also a significant national media centre. Edinburgh and Glasgow, and Cardiff, are important centres of newspaper and broadcasting production in Scotland and Wales respectively.[456] The UK publishing sector, including books, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news agencies, has a combined turnover of around £20 billion and employs around 167,000 people.[457]
 1587 In 2009, it was estimated that individuals viewed a mean of 3.75 hours of television per day and 2.81 hours of radio. In that year the main BBC public service broadcasting channels accounted for an estimated 28.4% of all television viewing; the three main independent channels accounted for 29.5% and the increasingly important other satellite and digital channels for the remaining 42.1%.[458] Sales of newspapers have fallen since the 1970s and in 2009 42% of people reported reading a daily national newspaper.[459] In 2010 82.5% of the UK population were Internet users, the highest proportion amongst the 20 countries with the largest total number of users in that year.[460]
 1588 Philosophy
 1589 Main article: British philosophy
 1590 The United Kingdom is famous for the tradition of 'British Empiricism', a branch of the philosophy of knowledge that states that only knowledge verified by experience is valid, and 'Scottish Philosophy', sometimes referred to as the 'Scottish School of Common Sense'.[461] The most famous philosophers of British Empiricism are John Locke, George Berkeley and David Hume; while Dugald Stewart, Thomas Reid and William Hamilton were major exponents of the Scottish "common sense" school. Two Britons are also notable for a theory of moral philosophy utilitarianism, first used by Jeremy Bentham and later by John Stuart Mill in his short work Utilitarianism.[462][463] Other eminent philosophers from the UK and the unions and countries that preceded it include Duns Scotus, John Lilburne, Mary Wollstonecraft, Sir Francis Bacon, Adam Smith, Thomas Hobbes, William of Ockham, Bertrand Russell and A.J. "Freddie" Ayer. Foreign-born philosophers who settled in the UK include Isaiah Berlin, Karl Marx, Karl Popper and Ludwig Wittgenstein.
 1591 Sport
 1592 Main article: Sport in the United Kingdom
 1593 
 1594 Wembley Stadium, London, home of the England national football team, is one of the most expensive stadia ever built.[464]
 1595 Major sports, including association football, tennis, rugby union, rugby league, golf, boxing, rowing and cricket, originated or were substantially developed in the UK and the states that preceded it. With the rules and codes of many modern sports invented and codified in late 19th-century Victorian Britain, in 2012, the President of the IOC, Jacques Rogge, stated; "This great, sports-loving country is widely recognized as the birthplace of modern sport. It was here that the concepts of sportsmanship and fair play were first codified into clear rules and regulations. It was here that sport was included as an educational tool in the school curriculum".[465][466]
 1596 In most international competitions, separate teams represent England, Scotland and Wales. Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland usually field a single team representing all of Ireland, with notable exceptions being association football and the Commonwealth Games. In sporting contexts, the English, Scottish, Welsh and Irish / Northern Irish teams are often referred to collectively as the Home Nations. There are some sports in which a single team represents the whole of United Kingdom, including the Olympics, where the UK is represented by the Great Britain team. The 1908, 1948 and 2012 Summer Olympics were held in London, making it the first city to host the games three times. Britain has participated in every modern Olympic Games to date and is third in the medal count.
 1597 A 2003 poll found that football is the most popular sport in the United Kingdom.[467] Each of the Home Nations has its own football association, national team and league system. The English top division, the Premier League, is the most watched football league in the world.[468] The first-ever international football match was contested by England and Scotland on 30 November 1872.[469] England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland compete as separate countries in international competitions.[470] A Great Britain Olympic football team was assembled for the first time to compete in the London 2012 Olympic Games. However, the Scottish, Welsh and Northern Irish football associations declined to participate, fearing that it would undermine their independent status – a fear confirmed by FIFA president Sepp Blatter.[471]
 1598 
 1599 The Millennium Stadium, Cardiff, opened for the 1999 Rugby World Cup.
 1600 Cricket was invented in England. The England cricket team, controlled by the England and Wales Cricket Board,[472] is the only national team in the UK with Test status. Team members are drawn from the main county sides, and include both English and Welsh players. Cricket is distinct from football and rugby where Wales and England field separate national teams, although Wales had fielded its own team in the past. Irish and Scottish players have played for England because neither Scotland nor Ireland have Test status and have only recently started to play in One Day Internationals.[473][474] Scotland, England (and Wales), and Ireland (including Northern Ireland) have competed at the Cricket World Cup, with England reaching the finals on three occasions. There is a professional league championship in which clubs representing 17 English counties and 1 Welsh county compete.[475]
 1601 Rugby league is a popular sport in some regions of the UK. It originated in Huddersfield and is generally played in Northern England.[476] A single 'Great Britain Lions' team had competed in the Rugby League World Cup and Test match games, but this changed in 2008 when England, Scotland and Ireland competed as separate nations.[477] Great Britain is still being retained as the full national team for Ashes tours against Australia, New Zealand and France. Super League is the highest level of professional rugby league in the UK and Europe. It consists of 11 teams from Northern England, 1 from London, 1 from Wales and 1 from France.
 1602 In rugby union, England, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, France and Italy compete in the Six Nations Championship; the premier international tournament in the northern hemisphere. Sport governing bodies in England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland organise and regulate the game separately.[478] If any of the British teams or the Irish team beat the other three in a tournament, then it is awarded the Triple Crown.[479]
 1603 
 1604 The Wimbledon Championships, a Grand Slam tennis tournament, is held in Wimbledon, London every June or July.
 1605 Thoroughbred racing, which originated under Charles II of England as the "sport of kings", is popular throughout the UK with world-famous races including the Grand National, the Epsom Derby, Royal Ascot and the Cheltenham National Hunt Festival (including the Cheltenham Gold Cup). The UK has proved successful in the international sporting arena in rowing.
 1606 The UK is closely associated with motorsport. Many teams and drivers in Formula One (F1) are based in the UK, and the country has won more drivers' and constructors' titles than any other. The UK hosted the very first F1 Grand Prix in 1950 at Silverstone, the current location of the British Grand Prix held each year in July. The country also hosts legs of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing, World Rally Championship and FIA World Endurance Championship. The premier national auto racing event is the British Touring Car Championship (BTCC). Motorcycle road racing has a long tradition with races such as the Isle of Man TT and the North West 200.
 1607 Golf is the sixth-most popular sport, by participation, in the UK. Although The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews in Scotland is the sport's home course,[480] the world's oldest golf course is actually Musselburgh Links' Old Golf Course.[481]
 1608 Snooker is one of the UK's popular sporting exports, with the world championships held annually in Sheffield.[482] The modern game of lawn tennis first originated in the city of Birmingham between 1859 and 1865.[483] The Championships, Wimbledon are international tennis events held in Wimbledon in south London every summer and are regarded as the most prestigious event of the global tennis calendar. In Northern Ireland Gaelic football and hurling are popular team sports, both in terms of participation and spectating, and Irish expatriates in the UK and the US also play them.[484] Shinty (or camanachd) is popular in the Scottish Highlands.[485]
 1609 Symbols
 1610 Main article: Symbols of the United Kingdom, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man
 1611 
 1612 The Statue of Britannia in Plymouth. Britannia is a national personification of the UK.
 1613 The flag of the United Kingdom is the Union Flag (also referred to as the Union Jack). It was created in 1606 by the superimposition of the Flag of England on the Flag of Scotland and updated in 1801 with the addition of Saint Patrick's Flag. Wales is not represented in the Union Flag, as Wales had been conquered and annexed to England prior to the formation of the United Kingdom. The possibility of redesigning the Union Flag to include representation of Wales has not been completely ruled out.[486] The national anthem of the United Kingdom is "God Save the King", with "King" replaced with "Queen" in the lyrics whenever the monarch is a woman.
 1614 Britannia is a national personification of the United Kingdom, originating from Roman Britain.[487] Britannia is symbolised as a young woman with brown or golden hair, wearing a Corinthian helmet and white robes. She holds Poseidon's three-pronged trident and a shield, bearing the Union Flag. Sometimes she is depicted as riding on the back of a lion. Since the height of the British Empire in the late 19th century, Britannia has often been associated with British maritime dominance, as in the patriotic song "Rule, Britannia!". Up until 2008, the lion symbol was depicted behind Britannia on the British fifty pence coin and on the back of the British ten pence coin. It is also used as a symbol on the non-ceremonial flag of the British Army. The bulldog is sometimes used as a symbol of the United Kingdom and has been associated with Winston Churchill's defiance of Nazi Germany.[488]
 1615 See also
 1616 Outline of the United Kingdom
 1617  United Kingdom – Wikipedia book
 1618 Walking in the United Kingdom
 1619 Flag of the United Kingdom.svgUnited Kingdom portal Flag of Europe.svgEuropean Union portal Europe green light.pngEurope portal
 1620 Notes
 1621 Jump up ^ The Royal coat of arms used in Scotland:
 1622  Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Scotland).svg
 1623 Jump up ^ There is no authorised version of the national anthem as the words are a matter of tradition; only the first verse is usually sung.[1] No law was passed making "God Save the Queen" the official anthem. In the English tradition, such laws are not necessary; proclamation and usage are sufficient to make it the national anthem. "God Save the Queen" also serves as the Royal anthem for several other countries, namely certain Commonwealth realms.
 1624 Jump up ^ Under the Council of Europe's European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Scots, Ulster-Scots, Welsh, Cornish, Irish and Scottish Gaelic, are officially recognised as regional or minority languages by the British government for the purposes of the Charter. See also Languages of the United Kingdom.[2]
 1625 Jump up ^ Although Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another state, two of its Overseas Territories also share land borders with other states. Gibraltar shares a border with Spain, while the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia share borders with the Republic of Cyprus, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus and UN buffer zone separating the two Cypriot polities.
 1626 Jump up ^ The Anglo-Irish Treaty was signed on 6 December 1921 to resolve the Irish War of Independence. Effective one year later, it established the Irish Free State as a separate dominion within the Commonwealth. The UK's current name was adopted in 1927 to reflect the change.
 1627 Jump up ^ Compare to section 1 of both of the 1800 Acts of Union which reads: the Kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland shall...be united into one Kingdom, by the Name of "The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland"
 1628 Jump up ^ New Zealand, Israel and San Marino are the other countries with uncodified constitutions.
 1629 Jump up ^ Since the early twentieth century the prime minister has held the office of First Lord of the Treasury, and in recent decades has also held the office of Minister for the Civil Service.
 1630 Jump up ^ Sinn Féin, an Irish republican party, also contests elections in the Republic of Ireland.
 1631 Jump up ^ In 2007–2008, this was calculated to be £115 per week for single adults with no dependent children; £199 per week for couples with no dependent children; £195 per week for single adults with two dependent children under 14; and £279 per week for couples with two dependent children under 14.
 1632 References
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 2015 Jump up ^ Elitist Britain?, Social Mobility and Child Poverty Commission, 28 August 2014
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 2031 Jump up ^ Johnston, Rich."Before Watchmen To Double Up For Hardcover Collections". Bleeding Cool. 10 December 2012. Retrieved 15 August 2013.
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 2035 Jump up ^ "Dafydd ap Gwilym". Academi website. Academi. 2011. Retrieved 3 January 2011. Dafydd ap Gwilym is widely regarded as one of the greatest Welsh poets of all time, and amongst the leading European poets of the Middle Ages.
 2036 Jump up ^ True birthplace of Wales's literary hero. BBC News. Retrieved 28 April 2012
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 2038 Jump up ^ Swift, Jonathan; Fox, Christopher (1995). Gulliver's travels: complete, authoritative text with biographical and historical contexts, critical history, and essays from five contemporary critical perspectives. Basingstoke: Macmillan. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-333-63438-7.
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 2045 Jump up ^ Citron, Stephen (2001). Sondheim and Lloyd-Webber: The new musical. London: Chatto & Windus. ISBN 978-1-85619-273-6.
 2046 Jump up ^ "Beatles a big hit with downloads". Belfast Telegraph. 25 November 2010. Retrieved 16 May 2011.
 2047 Jump up ^ "British rock legends get their own music title for PlayStation3 and PlayStation2" (Press release). EMI. 2 February 2009.
 2048 Jump up ^ Khan, Urmee (17 July 2008). "Sir Elton John honoured in Ben and Jerry ice cream". The Daily Telegraph (London).
 2049 Jump up ^ Alleyne, Richard (19 April 2008). "Rock group Led Zeppelin to reunite". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 31 March 2010.
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 2051 Jump up ^ Holton, Kate (17 January 2008). "Rolling Stones sign Universal album deal". Reuters. Retrieved 26 October 2008.
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 2053 Jump up ^ "Brit awards winners list 2012: every winner since 1977". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 28 February 2012.
 2054 Jump up ^ Corner, Lewis (16 February 2012). "Adele, Coldplay biggest-selling UK artists worldwide in 2011". Digital Spy. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
 2055 Jump up ^ Hughes, Mark (14 January 2008). "A tale of two cities of culture: Liverpool vs Stavanger". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2 August 2009.
 2056 Jump up ^ "Glasgow gets city of music honour". BBC News. 20 August 2008. Retrieved 2 August 2009.
 2057 Jump up ^ Bayley, Stephen (24 April 2010). "The startling success of Tate Modern". The Times (London). Retrieved 19 January 2011. (subscription required)
 2058 Jump up ^ "Vertigo is named 'greatest film of all time'". BBC News. 2 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
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 2074 Jump up ^ "Daniel Day-Lewis makes Oscar history with third award"'. BBC News. Retrieved 15 August 2013
 2075 Jump up ^ "Harry Potter becomes highest-grossing film franchise". The Guardian (London). 11 September 2007. Retrieved 2 November 2010.
 2076 Jump up ^ "History of Ealing Studios". Ealing Studios. Retrieved 5 June 2010.
 2077 ^ Jump up to: a b "UK film – the vital statistics". UK Film Council. Retrieved 22 October 2010.[dead link]
 2078 Jump up ^ "The BFI 100". British Film Institute. 6 September 2006. Archived from the original on 1 April 2011.
 2079 Jump up ^ "Baftas fuel Oscars race". BBC News. 26 February 2001. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
 2080 ^ Jump up to: a b "BBC: World's largest broadcaster & Most trusted media brand". Media Newsline. Archived from the original on 5 October 2010. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
 2081 ^ Jump up to: a b "Digital licence". Prospect. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
 2082 ^ Jump up to: a b "About the BBC – What is the BBC". BBC Online. Retrieved 23 September 2010.
 2083 Jump up ^ Newswire7 (13 August 2009). "BBC: World's largest broadcaster & Most trusted media brand". Media Newsline. Archived from the original on 17 June 2011.
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 2088 Jump up ^ William, D. (2010). UK Cities: A Look at Life and Major Cities in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. Eastbourne: Gardners Books. ISBN 978-9987-16-021-1, pp. 22, 46, 109 and 145.
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 2093 Jump up ^ Fieser, James, ed. (2000). A bibliography of Scottish common sense philosophy: Sources and origins. Bristol: Thoemmes Press. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
 2094 Jump up ^ Palmer, Michael (1999). Moral Problems in Medicine: A Practical Coursebook. Cambridge: Lutterworth Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-7188-2978-0.
 2095 Jump up ^ Scarre, Geoffrey (1995). Utilitarianism. London: Routledge. p. 82. ISBN 978-0-415-12197-2.
 2096 Jump up ^ Gysin, Christian (9 March 2007). "Wembley kick-off: Stadium is ready and England play first game in fortnight". Daily Mail (London). Retrieved 19 March 2007.
 2097 Jump up ^ "Opening ceremony of the games of the XXX Olympiad". Olympic.org. Retrieved 30 November 2013
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 2099 Jump up ^ "Rugby Union 'Britain's Second Most Popular Sport'". Ipsos-Mori. 22 December 2003. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
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 2102 Jump up ^ "Why is there no GB Olympics football team?". BBC Sport. 5 August 2008. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
 2103 Jump up ^ "Blatter against British 2012 team". BBC News. 9 March 2008. Retrieved 2 April 2008.
 2104 Jump up ^ "About ECB". England and Wales Cricket Board. n.d. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
 2105 Jump up ^ McLaughlin, Martyn (4 August 2009). "Howzat happen? England fields a Gaelic-speaking Scotsman in Ashes". The Scotsman (Edinburgh). Retrieved 30 December 2010.
 2106 Jump up ^ "Uncapped Joyce wins Ashes call up". BBC Sport. 15 November 2006. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
 2107 Jump up ^ "Glamorgan". BBC South East Wales. August 2009. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
 2108 Jump up ^ Ardener, Shirley (2007). Professional identities: policy and practice in business and bureaucracy. New York: Berghahn. p. 27. ISBN 978-1-84545-054-0.
 2109 Jump up ^ "Official Website of Rugby League World Cup 2008". Archived from the original on 16 October 2007.
 2110 Jump up ^ Louw, Jaco; Nesbit, Derrick (2008). The Girlfriends Guide to Rugby. Johannesburg: South Publishers. ISBN 978-0-620-39541-0.
 2111 Jump up ^ "Triple Crown". RBS 6 Nations. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
 2112 Jump up ^ "Tracking the Field". Ipsos MORI. Archived from the original on 5 February 2009. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
 2113 Jump up ^ "Links plays into the record books". BBC News. 17 March 2009.
 2114 Jump up ^ Chowdhury, Saj (22 January 2007). "China in Ding's hands". BBC Sport. Retrieved 2 January 2011.
 2115 Jump up ^ "Lawn Tennis and Major T.Gem". The Birmingham Civic Society. Archived from the original on 18 August 2011. Retrieved 31 December 2010.
 2116 Jump up ^ Gould, Joe (10 April 2007). "The ancient Irish sport of hurling catches on in America". Columbia News Service (Columbia Journalism School). Retrieved 17 May 2011.
 2117 Jump up ^ "Shinty". Scottishsport.co.uk. Retrieved 28 April 2013.
 2118 Jump up ^ "Welsh dragon call for Union flag". BBC News. 27 November 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2008.
 2119 Jump up ^ "Britannia on British Coins". Chard. Retrieved 25 June 2006.
 2120 Jump up ^ Baker, Steve (2001). Picturing the Beast. University of Illinois Press. p. 52. ISBN 0-252-07030-5.
 2121 Further reading
 2122 Hitchens, Peter (2000). The Abolition of Britain: from Winston Churchill to Princess Diana. Second ed. San Francisco, Calif.: Encounter Books. xi, 332 p. ISBN 1-893554-18-X.
 2123 Lambert, Richard S. (1964). The Great Heritage: a History of Britain for Canadians. House of Grant, 1964 (and earlier editions and/or printings).
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 2461 This page was last modified on 22 November 2014 at 11:19.
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 2464 
 2465 
 2466 World Trade Organization
 2467 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
 2468 "WTO" redirects here. For other uses, see WTO (disambiguation).
 2469 World Trade Organization (English)
 2470 Organisation mondiale du commerce (French)
 2471 Organización Mundial del Comercio (Spanish)
 2472 World Trade Organization (logo and wordmark).svg
 2473 Official logo of WTO
 2474 WTO members and observers.svg
 2475   Members
 2476   Members, dually represented by the EU
 2477   Observers
 2478   Non-members
 2479 Abbreviation	WTO
 2480 Formation	1 January 1995; 19 years ago
 2481 Type	International trade organization
 2482 Purpose	Liberalize international trade
 2483 Headquarters	Centre William Rappard, Geneva, Switzerland
 2484 Coordinates	46.12°N 6.09°ECoordinates: 46.12°N 6.09°E
 2485 Region served	Worldwide
 2486 Membership	160 member states[1]
 2487 Official language	English, French, Spanish[2]
 2488 Director-General	Roberto Azevêdo
 2489 Budget	196 million Swiss francs (approx. 209 million US$) in 2011.[3]
 2490 Staff	640[4]
 2491 Website	www.wto.org
 2492 The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an organization that intends to supervise and liberalize international trade. The organization officially commenced on 1 January 1995 under the Marrakech Agreement, replacing the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which commenced in 1948.[5] The organization deals with regulation of trade between participating countries by providing a framework for negotiating and formalizing trade agreements and a dispute resolution process aimed at enforcing participants' adherence to WTO agreements, which are signed by representatives of member governments[6]:fol.9–10 and ratified by their parliaments.[7] Most of the issues that the WTO focuses on derive from previous trade negotiations, especially from the Uruguay Round (1986–1994).
 2493 The organization is attempting to complete negotiations on the Doha Development Round, which was launched in 2001 with an explicit focus on addressing the needs of developing countries. As of June 2012, the future of the Doha Round remained uncertain: the work programme lists 21 subjects in which the original deadline of 1 January 2005 was missed, and the round is still incomplete.[8] The conflict between free trade on industrial goods and services but retention of protectionism on farm subsidies to domestic agricultural sector (requested by developed countries) and the substantiation of the international liberalization of fair trade on agricultural products (requested by developing countries) remain the major obstacles. These points of contention have hindered any progress to launch new WTO negotiations beyond the Doha Development Round. As a result of this impasse, there has been an increasing number of bilateral free trade agreements signed.[9] As of July 2012, there were various negotiation groups in the WTO system for the current agricultural trade negotiation which is in the condition of stalemate.[10]
 2494 WTO's current Director-General is Roberto Azevêdo,[11][12] who leads a staff of over 600 people in Geneva, Switzerland.[13] A trade facilitation agreement known as the Bali Package was reached by all members on 7 December 2013, the first comprehensive agreement in the organization's history.[14][15]
 2495 Contents  [hide] 
 2496 1 History
 2497 1.1 GATT rounds of negotiations
 2498 1.1.1 From Geneva to Tokyo
 2499 1.1.2 Uruguay Round
 2500 1.2 Ministerial conferences
 2501 1.3 Doha Round (Doha Agenda)
 2502 2 Functions
 2503 3 Principles of the trading system
 2504 4 Organizational structure
 2505 5 Decision-making
 2506 6 Dispute settlement
 2507 7 Accession and membership
 2508 7.1 Accession process
 2509 7.2 Members and observers
 2510 8 Agreements
 2511 9 Office of director-general
 2512 9.1 List of directors-general
 2513 10 See also
 2514 11 Notes and references
 2515 12 External links
 2516 History
 2517 
 2518 The economists Harry White (left) and John Maynard Keynes at the Bretton Woods Conference. Both had been strong advocates of a central-controlled international trade environment and recommended the establishment of three institutions: the IMF (for fiscal and monetary issues); the World Bank (for financial and structural issues); and the ITO (for international economic cooperation).[16]
 2519 The WTO's predecessor, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), was established after World War II in the wake of other new multilateral institutions dedicated to international economic cooperation – notably the Bretton Woods institutions known as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. A comparable international institution for trade, named the International Trade Organization was successfully negotiated. The ITO was to be a United Nations specialized agency and would address not only trade barriers but other issues indirectly related to trade, including employment, investment, restrictive business practices, and commodity agreements. But the ITO treaty was not approved by the U.S. and a few other signatories and never went into effect.[17][18][19]
 2520 In the absence of an international organization for trade, the GATT would over the years "transform itself" into a de facto international organization.[20]
 2521 GATT rounds of negotiations
 2522 See also: General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
 2523 The GATT was the only multilateral instrument governing international trade from 1946 until the WTO was established on 1 January 1995.[21] Despite attempts in the mid-1950s and 1960s to create some form of institutional mechanism for international trade, the GATT continued to operate for almost half a century as a semi-institutionalized multilateral treaty regime on a provisional basis.[22]
 2524 From Geneva to Tokyo
 2525 Seven rounds of negotiations occurred under GATT. The first real GATT trade rounds concentrated on further reducing tariffs. Then, the Kennedy Round in the mid-sixties brought about a GATT anti-dumping Agreement and a section on development. The Tokyo Round during the seventies was the first major attempt to tackle trade barriers that do not take the form of tariffs, and to improve the system, adopting a series of agreements on non-tariff barriers, which in some cases interpreted existing GATT rules, and in others broke entirely new ground. Because these plurilateral agreements were not accepted by the full GATT membership, they were often informally called "codes". Several of these codes were amended in the Uruguay Round, and turned into multilateral commitments accepted by all WTO members. Only four remained plurilateral (those on government procurement, bovine meat, civil aircraft and dairy products), but in 1997 WTO members agreed to terminate the bovine meat and dairy agreements, leaving only two.[21]
 2526 Uruguay Round
 2527 Main article: Uruguay Round
 2528 
 2529 During the Doha Round, the US government blamed Brazil and India for being inflexible and the EU for impeding agricultural imports.[23] The then-President of Brazil, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (above right), responded to the criticisms by arguing that progress would only be achieved if the richest countries (especially the US and countries in the EU) made deeper cuts in agricultural subsidies and further opened their markets for agricultural goods.[24]
 2530 Well before GATT's 40th anniversary, its members concluded that the GATT system was straining to adapt to a new globalizing world economy.[25][26] In response to the problems identified in the 1982 Ministerial Declaration (structural deficiencies, spill-over impacts of certain countries' policies on world trade GATT could not manage etc.), the eighth GATT round – known as the Uruguay Round – was launched in September 1986, in Punta del Este, Uruguay.[25]
 2531 It was the biggest negotiating mandate on trade ever agreed: the talks were going to extend the trading system into several new areas, notably trade in services and intellectual property, and to reform trade in the sensitive sectors of agriculture and textiles; all the original GATT articles were up for review.[26] The Final Act concluding the Uruguay Round and officially establishing the WTO regime was signed 15 April 1994, during the ministerial meeting at Marrakesh, Morocco, and hence is known as the Marrakesh Agreement.[27]
 2532 The GATT still exists as the WTO's umbrella treaty for trade in goods, updated as a result of the Uruguay Round negotiations (a distinction is made between GATT 1994, the updated parts of GATT, and GATT 1947, the original agreement which is still the heart of GATT 1994).[25] GATT 1994 is not however the only legally binding agreement included via the Final Act at Marrakesh; a long list of about 60 agreements, annexes, decisions and understandings was adopted. The agreements fall into a structure with six main parts:
 2533 The Agreement Establishing the WTO
 2534 Goods and investment – the Multilateral Agreements on Trade in Goods including the GATT 1994 and the Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMS)
 2535 Services — the General Agreement on Trade in Services
 2536 Intellectual property – the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
 2537 Dispute settlement (DSU)
 2538 Reviews of governments' trade policies (TPRM)[28]
 2539 In terms of the WTO's principle relating to tariff "ceiling-binding" (No. 3), the Uruguay Round has been successful in increasing binding commitments by both developed and developing countries, as may be seen in the percentages of tariffs bound before and after the 1986–1994 talks.[29]
 2540 Ministerial conferences
 2541 
 2542 The World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1998, in the Palace of Nations (Geneva, Switzerland).
 2543 The highest decision-making body of the WTO is the Ministerial Conference, which usually meets every two years. It brings together all members of the WTO, all of which are countries or customs unions. The Ministerial Conference can take decisions on all matters under any of the multilateral trade agreements. The inaugural ministerial conference was held in Singapore in 1996. Disagreements between largely developed and developing economies emerged during this conference over four issues initiated by this conference, which led to them being collectively referred to as the "Singapore issues". The second ministerial conference was held in Geneva in Switzerland. The third conference in Seattle, Washington ended in failure, with massive demonstrations and police and National Guard crowd-control efforts drawing worldwide attention. The fourth ministerial conference was held in Doha in the Persian Gulf nation of Qatar. The Doha Development Round was launched at the conference. The conference also approved the joining of China, which became the 143rd member to join. The fifth ministerial conference was held in Cancún, Mexico, aiming at forging agreement on the Doha round. An alliance of 22 southern states, the G20 developing nations (led by India, China,[30] Brazil, ASEAN led by the Philippines), resisted demands from the North for agreements on the so-called "Singapore issues" and called for an end to agricultural subsidies within the EU and the US. The talks broke down without progress.
 2544 The sixth WTO ministerial conference was held in Hong Kong from 13–18 December 2005. It was considered vital if the four-year-old Doha Development Round negotiations were to move forward sufficiently to conclude the round in 2006. In this meeting, countries agreed to phase out all their agricultural export subsidies by the end of 2013, and terminate any cotton export subsidies by the end of 2006. Further concessions to developing countries included an agreement to introduce duty-free, tariff-free access for goods from the Least Developed Countries, following the Everything but Arms initiative of the European Union — but with up to 3% of tariff lines exempted. Other major issues were left for further negotiation to be completed by the end of 2010. The WTO General Council, on 26 May 2009, agreed to hold a seventh WTO ministerial conference session in Geneva from 30 November-3 December 2009. A statement by chairman Amb. Mario Matus acknowledged that the prime purpose was to remedy a breach of protocol requiring two-yearly "regular" meetings, which had lapsed with the Doha Round failure in 2005, and that the "scaled-down" meeting would not be a negotiating session, but "emphasis will be on transparency and open discussion rather than on small group processes and informal negotiating structures". The general theme for discussion was "The WTO, the Multilateral Trading System and the Current Global Economic Environment"[31]
 2545 Doha Round (Doha Agenda)
 2546 Main article: Doha Development Round
 2547 
 2548 The Doha Development Round started in 2001 is at an impasse.
 2549 The WTO launched the current round of negotiations, the Doha Development Round, at the fourth ministerial conference in Doha, Qatar in November 2001. This was to be an ambitious effort to make globalization more inclusive and help the world's poor, particularly by slashing barriers and subsidies in farming.[32] The initial agenda comprised both further trade liberalization and new rule-making, underpinned by commitments to strengthen substantial assistance to developing countries.[33]
 2550 The negotiations have been highly contentious. Disagreements still continue over several key areas including agriculture subsidies, which emerged as critical in July 2006.[34] According to a European Union statement, "The 2008 Ministerial meeting broke down over a disagreement between exporters of agricultural bulk commodities and countries with large numbers of subsistence farmers on the precise terms of a 'special safeguard measure' to protect farmers from surges in imports."[35] The position of the European Commission is that "The successful conclusion of the Doha negotiations would confirm the central role of multilateral liberalisation and rule-making. It would confirm the WTO as a powerful shield against protectionist backsliding."[33] An impasse remains and, as of August 2013, agreement has not been reached, despite intense negotiations at several ministerial conferences and at other sessions. On 27 March 2013, the chairman of agriculture talks announced "a proposal to loosen price support disciplines for developing countries’ public stocks and domestic food aid." He added: “...we are not yet close to agreement—in fact, the substantive discussion of the proposal is only beginning.”[36]
 2551 [show]v · t · eGATT and WTO trade rounds[37]
 2552 Functions
 2553 Among the various functions of the WTO, these are regarded by analysts as the most important:
 2554 It oversees the implementation, administration and operation of the covered agreements.[38][39]
 2555 It provides a forum for negotiations and for settling disputes.[40][41]
 2556 Additionally, it is the WTO's duty to review and propagate the national trade policies, and to ensure the coherence and transparency of trade policies through surveillance in global economic policy-making.[39][41] Another priority of the WTO is the assistance of developing, least-developed and low-income countries in transition to adjust to WTO rules and disciplines through technical cooperation and training.[42]
 2557 (i) The WTO shall facilitate the implementation, administration and operation and further the objec­tives of this Agreement and of the Multilateral Trade Agreements, and shall also provide the frame work for the implementation, administration and operation of the multilateral Trade Agreements.
 2558 (ii) The WTO shall provide the forum for negotiations among its members concerning their multilateral trade relations in matters dealt with under the Agreement in the Annexes to this Agreement.
 2559 (iii) The WTO shall administer the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes.
 2560 (iv) The WTO shall administer Trade Policy Review Mechanism.
 2561 (v) With a view to achieving greater coherence in global economic policy making, the WTO shall cooperate, as appropriate, with the international Monetary Fund (IMF) and with the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and its affiliated agencies. [43]
 2562 The above five listings are the additional functions of the World Trade Organization. As globalization proceeds in today's society, the necessity of an International Organization to manage the trading systems has been of vital importance. As the trade volume increases, issues such as protectionism, trade barriers, subsidies, violation of intellectual property arise due to the differences in the trading rules of every nation. The World Trade Organization serves as the mediator between the nations when such problems arise. WTO could be referred to as the product of globalization and also as one of the most important organizations in today's globalized society.
 2563 The WTO is also a center of economic research and analysis: regular assessments of the global trade picture in its annual publications and research reports on specific topics are produced by the organization.[44] Finally, the WTO cooperates closely with the two other components of the Bretton Woods system, the IMF and the World Bank.[40]
 2564 Principles of the trading system
 2565 The WTO establishes a framework for trade policies; it does not define or specify outcomes. That is, it is concerned with setting the rules of the trade policy games.[45] Five principles are of particular importance in understanding both the pre-1994 GATT and the WTO:
 2566 Non-discrimination. It has two major components: the most favoured nation (MFN) rule, and the national treatment policy. Both are embedded in the main WTO rules on goods, services, and intellectual property, but their precise scope and nature differ across these areas. The MFN rule requires that a WTO member must apply the same conditions on all trade with other WTO members, i.e. a WTO member has to grant the most favorable conditions under which it allows trade in a certain product type to all other WTO members.[45] "Grant someone a special favour and you have to do the same for all other WTO members."[29] National treatment means that imported goods should be treated no less favorably than domestically produced goods (at least after the foreign goods have entered the market) and was introduced to tackle non-tariff barriers to trade (e.g. technical standards, security standards et al. discriminating against imported goods).[45]
 2567 Reciprocity. It reflects both a desire to limit the scope of free-riding that may arise because of the MFN rule, and a desire to obtain better access to foreign markets. A related point is that for a nation to negotiate, it is necessary that the gain from doing so be greater than the gain available from unilateral liberalization; reciprocal concessions intend to ensure that such gains will materialise.[46]
 2568 Binding and enforceable commitments. The tariff commitments made by WTO members in a multilateral trade negotiation and on accession are enumerated in a schedule (list) of concessions. These schedules establish "ceiling bindings": a country can change its bindings, but only after negotiating with its trading partners, which could mean compensating them for loss of trade. If satisfaction is not obtained, the complaining country may invoke the WTO dispute settlement procedures.[29][46]
 2569 Transparency. The WTO members are required to publish their trade regulations, to maintain institutions allowing for the review of administrative decisions affecting trade, to respond to requests for information by other members, and to notify changes in trade policies to the WTO. These internal transparency requirements are supplemented and facilitated by periodic country-specific reports (trade policy reviews) through the Trade Policy Review Mechanism (TPRM).[47] The WTO system tries also to improve predictability and stability, discouraging the use of quotas and other measures used to set limits on quantities of imports.[29]
 2570 Safety valves. In specific circumstances, governments are able to restrict trade. The WTO's agreements permit members to take measures to protect not only the environment but also public health, animal health and plant health.[48]
 2571 There are three types of provision in this direction:
 2572 articles allowing for the use of trade measures to attain non-economic objectives;
 2573 articles aimed at ensuring "fair competition"; members must not use environmental protection measures as a means of disguising protectionist policies.[48]
 2574 provisions permitting intervention in trade for economic reasons.[47]
 2575 Exceptions to the MFN principle also allow for preferential treatment of developing countries, regional free trade areas and customs unions.[6]:fol.93
 2576 Organizational structure
 2577 The General Council has the following subsidiary bodies which oversee committees in different areas:
 2578 Council for Trade in Goods
 2579 There are 11 committees under the jurisdiction of the Goods Council each with a specific task. All members of the WTO participate in the committees. The Textiles Monitoring Body is separate from the other committees but still under the jurisdiction of Goods Council. The body has its own chairman and only 10 members. The body also has several groups relating to textiles.[49]
 2580 Council for Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights
 2581 Information on intellectual property in the WTO, news and official records of the activities of the TRIPS Council, and details of the WTO's work with other international organizations in the field.[50]
 2582 Council for Trade in Services
 2583 The Council for Trade in Services operates under the guidance of the General Council and is responsible for overseeing the functioning of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS). It is open to all WTO members, and can create subsidiary bodies as required.[51]
 2584 Trade Negotiations Committee
 2585 The Trade Negotiations Committee (TNC) is the committee that deals with the current trade talks round. The chair is WTO's director-general. As of June 2012 the committee was tasked with the Doha Development Round.[52]
 2586 The Service Council has three subsidiary bodies: financial services, domestic regulations, GATS rules and specific commitments.[49] The council has several different committees, working groups, and working parties.[53] There are committees on the following: Trade and Environment; Trade and Development (Subcommittee on Least-Developed Countries); Regional Trade Agreements; Balance of Payments Restrictions; and Budget, Finance and Administration. There are working parties on the following: Accession. There are working groups on the following: Trade, debt and finance; and Trade and technology transfer.
 2587 Decision-making
 2588 The WTO describes itself as "a rules-based, member-driven organization — all decisions are made by the member governments, and the rules are the outcome of negotiations among members".[54] The WTO Agreement foresees votes where consensus cannot be reached, but the practice of consensus dominates the process of decision-making.[55]
 2589 Richard Harold Steinberg (2002) argues that although the WTO's consensus governance model provides law-based initial bargaining, trading rounds close through power-based bargaining favouring Europe and the U.S., and may not lead to Pareto improvement.[56]
 2590 Dispute settlement
 2591 Main article: Dispute settlement in the WTO
 2592 In 1994, the WTO members agreed on the Understanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes (DSU) annexed to the "Final Act" signed in Marrakesh in 1994.[57] Dispute settlement is regarded by the WTO as the central pillar of the multilateral trading system, and as a "unique contribution to the stability of the global economy".[58] WTO members have agreed that, if they believe fellow-members are violating trade rules, they will use the multilateral system of settling disputes instead of taking action unilaterally.[59]
 2593 The operation of the WTO dispute settlement process involves the DSB panels, the Appellate Body, the WTO Secretariat, arbitrators, independent experts and several specialized institutions.[60] Bodies involved in the dispute settlement process, World Trade Organization.
 2594 Accession and membership
 2595 Main article: World Trade Organization accession and membership
 2596 The process of becoming a WTO member is unique to each applicant country, and the terms of accession are dependent upon the country's stage of economic development and current trade regime.[61] The process takes about five years, on average, but it can last more if the country is less than fully committed to the process or if political issues interfere. The shortest accession negotiation was that of the Kyrgyz Republic, while the longest was that of Russia, which, having first applied to join GATT in 1993, was approved for membership in December 2011 and became a WTO member on 22 August 2012.[62] The second longest was that of Vanuatu, whose Working Party on the Accession of Vanuatu was established on 11 July 1995. After a final meeting of the Working Party in October 2001, Vanuatu requested more time to consider its accession terms. In 2008, it indicated its interest to resume and conclude its WTO accession. The Working Party on the Accession of Vanuatu was reconvened informally on 4 April 2011 to discuss Vanuatu's future WTO membership. The re-convened Working Party completed its mandate on 2 May 2011. The General Council formally approved the Accession Package of Vanuatu on 26 October 2011. On 24 August 2012, the WTO welcomed Vanuatu as its 157th member.[63] An offer of accession is only given once consensus is reached among interested parties.[64]
 2597 Accession process
 2598 
 2599 WTO accession progress:
 2600   Members (including dual-representation with the European Union)
 2601   Draft Working Party Report or Factual Summary adopted
 2602   Goods and/or Services offers submitted
 2603   Memorandum on Foreign Trade Regime (FTR) submitted
 2604   Observer, negotiations to start later or no Memorandum on FTR submitted
 2605   Frozen procedures or no negotiations in the last 3 years
 2606   No official interaction with the WTO
 2607 A country wishing to accede to the WTO submits an application to the General Council, and has to describe all aspects of its trade and economic policies that have a bearing on WTO agreements.[65] The application is submitted to the WTO in a memorandum which is examined by a working party open to all interested WTO Members.[66]
 2608 After all necessary background information has been acquired, the working party focuses on issues of discrepancy between the WTO rules and the applicant's international and domestic trade policies and laws. The working party determines the terms and conditions of entry into the WTO for the applicant nation, and may consider transitional periods to allow countries some leeway in complying with the WTO rules.[61]
 2609 The final phase of accession involves bilateral negotiations between the applicant nation and other working party members regarding the concessions and commitments on tariff levels and market access for goods and services. The new member's commitments are to apply equally to all WTO members under normal non-discrimination rules, even though they are negotiated bilaterally.[65]
 2610 When the bilateral talks conclude, the working party sends to the general council or ministerial conference an accession package, which includes a summary of all the working party meetings, the Protocol of Accession (a draft membership treaty), and lists ("schedules") of the member-to-be's commitments. Once the general council or ministerial conference approves of the terms of accession, the applicant's parliament must ratify the Protocol of Accession before it can become a member.[67] Some countries may have faced tougher and a much longer accession process due to challenges during negotiations with other WTO members, such as Vietnam, whose negotiations took more than 11 years before it became official member in January 2007.[68]
 2611 Members and observers
 2612 The WTO has 160 members and 24 observer governments.[69] In addition to states, the European Union is a member. WTO members do not have to be full sovereign nation-members. Instead, they must be a customs territory with full autonomy in the conduct of their external commercial relations. Thus Hong Kong has been a member since 1995 (as "Hong Kong, China" since 1997) predating the People's Republic of China, which joined in 2001 after 15 years of negotiations. The Republic of China (Taiwan) acceded to the WTO in 2002 as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu" (Chinese Taipei) despite its disputed status.[70] The WTO Secretariat omits the official titles (such as Counselor, First Secretary, Second Secretary and Third Secretary) of the members of Chinese Taipei's Permanent Mission to the WTO, except for the titles of the Permanent Representative and the Deputy Permanent Representative.[71]
 2613 As of 2007, WTO member states represented 96.4% of global trade and 96.7% of global GDP.[72] Iran, followed by Algeria, are the economies with the largest GDP and trade outside the WTO, using 2005 data.[73][74] With the exception of the Holy See, observers must start accession negotiations within five years of becoming observers. A number of international intergovernmental organizations have also been granted observer status to WTO bodies.[75] 14 UN member states have no official affiliation with the WTO.
 2614 Agreements
 2615 Further information: Uruguay Round
 2616 The WTO oversees about 60 different agreements which have the status of international legal texts. Member countries must sign and ratify all WTO agreements on accession.[76] A discussion of some of the most important agreements follows. The Agreement on Agriculture came into effect with the establishment of the WTO at the beginning of 1995. The AoA has three central concepts, or "pillars": domestic support, market access and export subsidies. The General Agreement on Trade in Services was created to extend the multilateral trading system to service sector, in the same way as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) provided such a system for merchandise trade. The agreement entered into force in January 1995. The Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights sets down minimum standards for many forms of intellectual property (IP) regulation. It was negotiated at the end of the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1994.[77]
 2617 The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures—also known as the SPS Agreement—was negotiated during the Uruguay Round of GATT, and entered into force with the establishment of the WTO at the beginning of 1995. Under the SPS agreement, the WTO sets constraints on members' policies relating to food safety (bacterial contaminants, pesticides, inspection and labelling) as well as animal and plant health (imported pests and diseases). The Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade is an international treaty of the World Trade Organization. It was negotiated during the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, and entered into force with the establishment of the WTO at the end of 1994. The object ensures that technical negotiations and standards, as well as testing and certification procedures, do not create unnecessary obstacles to trade".[78] The Agreement on Customs Valuation, formally known as the Agreement on Implementation of Article VII of GATT, prescribes methods of customs valuation that Members are to follow. Chiefly, it adopts the "transaction value" approach.
 2618 In December 2013, the biggest agreement within the WTO was signed and known as the Bali Package.[79]
 2619 Office of director-general
 2620 
 2621 The headquarters of the World Trade Organization, in Geneva, Switzerland.
 2622 The procedures for the appointment of the WTO director-general were published in January 2003.[80] Additionally, there are four deputy directors-general. As of 1 October 2013, under director-general Roberto Azevêdo, the four deputy directors-general are Yi Xiaozhun of China, Karl-Ernst Brauner of Germany, Yonov Frederick Agah of Nigeria and David Shark of the United States.[81]
 2623 List of directors-general
 2624 Source: Official website[82]
 2625 Brazil Roberto Azevedo, 2013–
 2626 France Pascal Lamy, 2005–2013
 2627 Thailand Supachai Panitchpakdi, 2002–2005
 2628 New Zealand Mike Moore, 1999–2002
 2629 Italy Renato Ruggiero, 1995–1999
 2630 Republic of Ireland Peter Sutherland, 1995
 2631 (Heads of the precursor organization, GATT):
 2632 Republic of Ireland Peter Sutherland, 1993–1995
 2633 Switzerland Arthur Dunkel, 1980–1993
 2634 Switzerland Olivier Long, 1968–1980
 2635 United Kingdom Eric Wyndham White, 1948–1968
 2636 See also
 2637 Agreement on Trade Related Investment Measures (TRIMS)
 2638 Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS)
 2639 Aide-mémoire non-paper
 2640 Anti-globalization movement
 2641 Criticism of the World Trade Organization
 2642 Foreign Affiliate Trade Statistics
 2643 Global administrative law
 2644 Globality
 2645 Information Technology Agreement
 2646 International Trade Centre
 2647 Labour Standards in the World Trade Organisation
 2648 List of member states of the World Trade Organization
 2649 North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
 2650 Subsidy
 2651 Swiss Formula
 2652 Trade bloc
 2653 Washington Consensus
 2654 World Trade Report
 2655 World Trade Organization Ministerial Conference of 1999 protest activity
 2656 China and the World Trade Organization
 2657 Notes and references
 2658 Jump up ^ Members and Observers at WTO official website
 2659 Jump up ^ Languages, Documentation and Information Management Division at WTO official site
 2660 Jump up ^ "WTO Secretariat budget for 2011". WTO official site. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
 2661 Jump up ^ Understanding the WTO: What We Stand For_ Fact File
 2662 Jump up ^ World Trade Organization - UNDERSTANDING THE WTO: BASICS
 2663 ^ Jump up to: a b Understanding the WTO Handbook at WTO official website. (Note that the document's printed folio numbers do not match the pdf page numbers.)
 2664 Jump up ^ Malanczuk, P. (1999). "International Organisations and Space Law: World Trade Organization". Encyclopaedia Britannica 442. p. 305. Bibcode:1999ESASP.442..305M.
 2665 Jump up ^ Understanding the WTO: The Doha Agenda
 2666 Jump up ^ The Challenges to the World Trade Organization: It’s All About Legitimacy THE BROOKINGS INSTITUTION, Policy Paper 2011-04
 2667 Jump up ^ GROUPS IN THE WTO Updated 1 July 2013
 2668 Jump up ^ Bourcier, Nicolas (21 May 2013). "Roberto Azevedo's WTO appointment gives Brazil a seat at the top table". Guardian Weekly. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
 2669 Jump up ^ "Roberto Azevêdo takes over". WTO official website. 1 September 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
 2670 Jump up ^ "Overview of the WTO Secretariat". WTO official website. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
 2671 Jump up ^ Ninth WTO Ministerial Conference | WTO - MC9
 2672 Jump up ^ BBC News - WTO agrees global trade deal worth $1tn
 2673 Jump up ^ A.E. Eckes Jr., US Trade History, 73
 2674 * A. Smithies, Reflections on the Work of Keynes, 578–601
 2675 * N. Warren, Internet and Globalization, 193
 2676 Jump up ^ P. van den Bossche, The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization, 80
 2677 Jump up ^ Palmeter-Mavroidis, Dispute Settlement, 2
 2678 Jump up ^ Fergusson, Ian F. (9 May 2007). "The World Trade Organization: Background and Issues" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. p. 4. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
 2679 Jump up ^ It was contemplated that the GATT would be applied for several years until the ITO came into force. However, since the ITO was never brought into being, the GATT gradually became the focus for international governmental cooperation on trade matters with economist Nicholas Halford overseeing the implementation of GATT in members policies. (P. van den Bossche, The Law and Policy of the World Trade Organization, 81; J.H. Jackson, Managing the Trading System, 134).
 2680 ^ Jump up to: a b The GATT Years: from Havana to Marrakesh, WTO official site
 2681 Jump up ^ Footer, M. E. Analysis of the World Trade Organization, 17
 2682 Jump up ^ B.S. Klapper, With a "Short Window"
 2683 Jump up ^ Lula, Time to Get Serious about Agricultural Subsidies
 2684 ^ Jump up to: a b c P. Gallagher, The First Ten Years of the WTO, 4
 2685 ^ Jump up to: a b The Uruguay Round, WTO official site
 2686 Jump up ^ "Legal texts – Marrakesh agreement". WTO. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
 2687 Jump up ^ Overview: a Navigational Guide, WTO official site. For the complete list of "The Uruguay Round Agreements", see WTO legal texts, WTO official site, and Uruguay Round Agreements, Understandings, Decisions and Declarations, WorldTradeLaw.net
 2688 ^ Jump up to: a b c d Principles of the Trading System, WTO official site
 2689 Jump up ^ "Five Years of China WTO Membership. EU and US Perspectives about China's Compliance with Transparency Commitments and the Transitional Review Mechanism". Papers.ssrn.com. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
 2690 Jump up ^ WTO to hold 7th Ministerial Conference on 30 November-2 December 2009 WTO official website
 2691 Jump up ^ "In the twilight of Doha". The Economist (The Economist): 65. 27 July 2006.
 2692 ^ Jump up to: a b European Commission The Doha Round
 2693 Jump up ^ Fergusson, Ian F. (18 January 2008). "World Trade Organization Negotiations: The Doha Development Agenda" (PDF). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 13 April 2012. Page 9 (folio CRS-6)
 2694 Jump up ^ WTO trade negotiations: Doha Development Agenda Europa press release, 31 October 2011
 2695 Jump up ^ "Members start negotiating proposal on poor countries’ food stockholding". WTO official website. 27 March 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
 2696 Jump up ^ a)The GATT years: from Havana to Marrakesh, World Trade Organization
 2697 b)Timeline: World Trade Organization – A chronology of key events, BBC News
 2698 c)Brakman-Garretsen-Marrewijk-Witteloostuijn, Nations and Firms in the Global Economy, Chapter 10: Trade and Capital Restriction
 2699 Jump up ^ Functions of the WTO, IISD
 2700 ^ Jump up to: a b Main Functions, WTO official site
 2701 ^ Jump up to: a b A Bredimas, International Economic Law, II, 17
 2702 ^ Jump up to: a b C. Deere, Decision-making in the WTO: Medieval or Up-to-Date?
 2703 Jump up ^ WTO Assistance for Developing Countries[dead link], WTO official site
 2704 Jump up ^ Sinha, Aparijita. [1]. "What are the functions and objectives of the WTO?". Retrieved on 13 April, 2014.
 2705 Jump up ^ Economic research and analysis, WTO official site
 2706 ^ Jump up to: a b c B. Hoekman, The WTO: Functions and Basic Principles, 42
 2707 ^ Jump up to: a b B. Hoekman, The WTO: Functions and Basic Principles, 43
 2708 ^ Jump up to: a b B. Hoekman, The WTO: Functions and Basic Principles, 44
 2709 ^ Jump up to: a b Understanding the WTO: What we stand for
 2710 ^ Jump up to: a b "Fourth level: down to the nitty-gritty". WTO official site. Retrieved 18 August 2008.
 2711 Jump up ^ "Intellectual property – overview of TRIPS Agreement". Wto.org. 15 April 1994. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
 2712 Jump up ^ "The Services Council, its Committees and other subsidiary bodies". WTO official site. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
 2713 Jump up ^ "The Trade Negotiations Committee". WTO official site. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
 2714 Jump up ^ "WTO organization chart". WTO official site. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
 2715 Jump up ^ Decision-making at WTO official site
 2716 Jump up ^ Decision-Making in the World Trade Organization Abstract from Journal of International Economic Law at Oxford Journals
 2717 Jump up ^ Steinberg, Richard H. "In the Shadow of Law or Power? Consensus-based Bargaining and Outcomes in the GATT/WTO." International Organization. Spring 2002. pp. 339–374.
 2718 Jump up ^ Stewart-Dawyer, The WTO Dispute Settlement System, 7
 2719 Jump up ^ S. Panitchpakdi, The WTO at ten, 8.
 2720 Jump up ^ Settling Disputes:a Unique Contribution, WTO official site
 2721 Jump up ^ "Disputes – Dispute Settlement CBT – WTO Bodies involved in the dispute settlement process – The Dispute Settlement Body (DSB) – Page 1". WTO. 25 July 1996. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
 2722 ^ Jump up to: a b Accessions Summary, Center for International Development
 2723 Jump up ^ Ministerial Conference approves Russia's WTO membership WTO News Item, 16 December 2011
 2724 Jump up ^ Accession status: Vanuatu. WTO. Retrieved on 12 July 2013.
 2725 Jump up ^ C. Michalopoulos, WTO Accession, 64
 2726 ^ Jump up to: a b Membership, Alliances and Bureaucracy, WTO official site
 2727 Jump up ^ C. Michalopoulos, WTO Accession, 62–63
 2728 Jump up ^ How to Become a Member of the WTO, WTO official site
 2729 Jump up ^ Napier, Nancy K.; Vuong, Quan Hoang (2013). What we see, why we worry, why we hope: Vietnam going forward. Boise, ID, USA: Boise State University CCI Press. p. 140. ISBN 978-0985530587.
 2730 Jump up ^ "Members and Observers". World Trade Organization. 24 August 2012.
 2731 Jump up ^ Jackson, J. H. Sovereignty, 109
 2732 Jump up ^ ROC Government Publication
 2733 Jump up ^ "Accession in perspective". World Trade Organization. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
 2734 Jump up ^ "ANNEX 1. STATISTICAL SURVEY". World Trade Organization. 2005. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
 2735 Jump up ^ Arjomandy, Danial (21 November 2013). "Iranian Membership in the World Trade Organization: An Unclear Future". Iranian Studies. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
 2736 Jump up ^ International intergovernmental organizations granted observer status to WTO bodies at WTO official website
 2737 Jump up ^ "Legal texts – the WTO agreements". WTO. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
 2738 Jump up ^ Understanding the WTO - Intellectual property: protection and enforcement. WTO. Retrieved on 29 July 2013.
 2739 Jump up ^ "A Summary of the Final Act of the Uruguay Round". Wto.org. Retrieved 30 May 2010.
 2740 Jump up ^ Zarocostas, John (7 December 2013). "Global Trade Deal Reached". WWD. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
 2741 Jump up ^ "WT/L/509". WTO. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
 2742 Jump up ^ "Director-General Elect Azevêdo announces his four Deputy Directors-General". 17 August 2013. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
 2743 Jump up ^ "Previous GATT and WTO Directors-General". WTO. Retrieved 21 May 2011.
 2744 External links
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 2747 Official pages
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 2749 WTO 10th Anniversary PDF (1.40 MB) — Highlights of the first decade, Annual Report 2005 pages 116–166
 2750 Glossary of terms—a guide to 'WTO-speak'
 2751 International Trade Centre — joint UN/WTO agency
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