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    1 /*
    2   Stockfish, a UCI chess playing engine derived from Glaurung 2.1
    3   Copyright (C) 2004-2008 Tord Romstad (Glaurung author)
    4   Copyright (C) 2008-2015 Marco Costalba, Joona Kiiski, Tord Romstad
    5   Copyright (C) 2015-2020 Marco Costalba, Joona Kiiski, Gary Linscott, Tord Romstad
    6 
    7   Stockfish is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
    8   it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
    9   the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
   10   (at your option) any later version.
   11 
   12   Stockfish is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
   13   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
   14   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
   15   GNU General Public License for more details.
   16 
   17   You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
   18   along with this program.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
   19 */
   20 
   21 #ifndef TYPES_H_INCLUDED
   22 #define TYPES_H_INCLUDED
   23 
   24 /// When compiling with provided Makefile (e.g. for Linux and OSX), configuration
   25 /// is done automatically. To get started type 'make help'.
   26 ///
   27 /// When Makefile is not used (e.g. with Microsoft Visual Studio) some switches
   28 /// need to be set manually:
   29 ///
   30 /// -DNDEBUG      | Disable debugging mode. Always use this for release.
   31 ///
   32 /// -DNO_PREFETCH | Disable use of prefetch asm-instruction. You may need this to
   33 ///               | run on some very old machines.
   34 ///
   35 /// -DUSE_POPCNT  | Add runtime support for use of popcnt asm-instruction. Works
   36 ///               | only in 64-bit mode and requires hardware with popcnt support.
   37 ///
   38 /// -DUSE_PEXT    | Add runtime support for use of pext asm-instruction. Works
   39 ///               | only in 64-bit mode and requires hardware with pext support.
   40 
   41 #include <cassert>
   42 #include <cctype>
   43 #include <climits>
   44 #include <cstdint>
   45 #include <cstdlib>
   46 #include <algorithm>
   47 
   48 #if defined(_MSC_VER)
   49 // Disable some silly and noisy warning from MSVC compiler
   50 #pragma warning(disable: 4127) // Conditional expression is constant
   51 #pragma warning(disable: 4146) // Unary minus operator applied to unsigned type
   52 #pragma warning(disable: 4800) // Forcing value to bool 'true' or 'false'
   53 #endif
   54 
   55 /// Predefined macros hell:
   56 ///
   57 /// __GNUC__           Compiler is gcc, Clang or Intel on Linux
   58 /// __INTEL_COMPILER   Compiler is Intel
   59 /// _MSC_VER           Compiler is MSVC or Intel on Windows
   60 /// _WIN32             Building on Windows (any)
   61 /// _WIN64             Building on Windows 64 bit
   62 
   63 #if defined(_WIN64) && defined(_MSC_VER) // No Makefile used
   64 #  include <intrin.h> // Microsoft header for _BitScanForward64()
   65 #  define IS_64BIT
   66 #endif
   67 
   68 #if defined(USE_POPCNT) && (defined(__INTEL_COMPILER) || defined(_MSC_VER))
   69 #  include <nmmintrin.h> // Intel and Microsoft header for _mm_popcnt_u64()
   70 #endif
   71 
   72 #if !defined(NO_PREFETCH) && (defined(__INTEL_COMPILER) || defined(_MSC_VER))
   73 #  include <xmmintrin.h> // Intel and Microsoft header for _mm_prefetch()
   74 #endif
   75 
   76 #if defined(USE_PEXT)
   77 #  include <immintrin.h> // Header for _pext_u64() intrinsic
   78 #  define pext(b, m) _pext_u64(b, m)
   79 #else
   80 #  define pext(b, m) 0
   81 #endif
   82 
   83 #ifdef USE_POPCNT
   84 constexpr bool HasPopCnt = true;
   85 #else
   86 constexpr bool HasPopCnt = false;
   87 #endif
   88 
   89 #ifdef USE_PEXT
   90 constexpr bool HasPext = true;
   91 #else
   92 constexpr bool HasPext = false;
   93 #endif
   94 
   95 #ifdef IS_64BIT
   96 constexpr bool Is64Bit = true;
   97 #else
   98 constexpr bool Is64Bit = false;
   99 #endif
  100 
  101 typedef uint64_t Key;
  102 typedef uint64_t Bitboard;
  103 
  104 constexpr int MAX_MOVES = 256;
  105 constexpr int MAX_PLY   = 246;
  106 
  107 /// A move needs 16 bits to be stored
  108 ///
  109 /// bit  0- 5: destination square (from 0 to 63)
  110 /// bit  6-11: origin square (from 0 to 63)
  111 /// bit 12-13: promotion piece type - 2 (from KNIGHT-2 to QUEEN-2)
  112 /// bit 14-15: special move flag: promotion (1), en passant (2), castling (3)
  113 /// NOTE: EN-PASSANT bit is set only when a pawn can be captured
  114 ///
  115 /// Special cases are MOVE_NONE and MOVE_NULL. We can sneak these in because in
  116 /// any normal move destination square is always different from origin square
  117 /// while MOVE_NONE and MOVE_NULL have the same origin and destination square.
  118 
  119 enum Move : int {
  120   MOVE_NONE,
  121   MOVE_NULL = 65
  122 };
  123 
  124 enum MoveType {
  125   NORMAL,
  126   PROMOTION = 1 << 14,
  127   ENPASSANT = 2 << 14,
  128   CASTLING  = 3 << 14
  129 };
  130 
  131 enum Color {
  132   WHITE, BLACK, COLOR_NB = 2
  133 };
  134 
  135 enum CastlingRights {
  136   NO_CASTLING,
  137   WHITE_OO,
  138   WHITE_OOO = WHITE_OO << 1,
  139   BLACK_OO  = WHITE_OO << 2,
  140   BLACK_OOO = WHITE_OO << 3,
  141 
  142   KING_SIDE      = WHITE_OO  | BLACK_OO,
  143   QUEEN_SIDE     = WHITE_OOO | BLACK_OOO,
  144   WHITE_CASTLING = WHITE_OO  | WHITE_OOO,
  145   BLACK_CASTLING = BLACK_OO  | BLACK_OOO,
  146   ANY_CASTLING   = WHITE_CASTLING | BLACK_CASTLING,
  147 
  148   CASTLING_RIGHT_NB = 16
  149 };
  150 
  151 enum Phase {
  152   PHASE_ENDGAME,
  153   PHASE_MIDGAME = 128,
  154   MG = 0, EG = 1, PHASE_NB = 2
  155 };
  156 
  157 enum ScaleFactor {
  158   SCALE_FACTOR_DRAW    = 0,
  159   SCALE_FACTOR_NORMAL  = 64,
  160   SCALE_FACTOR_MAX     = 128,
  161   SCALE_FACTOR_NONE    = 255
  162 };
  163 
  164 enum Bound {
  165   BOUND_NONE,
  166   BOUND_UPPER,
  167   BOUND_LOWER,
  168   BOUND_EXACT = BOUND_UPPER | BOUND_LOWER
  169 };
  170 
  171 enum Value : int {
  172   VALUE_ZERO      = 0,
  173   VALUE_DRAW      = 0,
  174   VALUE_KNOWN_WIN = 10000,
  175   VALUE_MATE      = 32000,
  176   VALUE_INFINITE  = 32001,
  177   VALUE_NONE      = 32002,
  178 
  179   VALUE_MATE_IN_MAX_PLY  =  VALUE_MATE - 2 * MAX_PLY,
  180   VALUE_MATED_IN_MAX_PLY = -VALUE_MATE + 2 * MAX_PLY,
  181 
  182   PawnValueMg   = 128,   PawnValueEg   = 213,
  183   KnightValueMg = 781,   KnightValueEg = 854,
  184   BishopValueMg = 825,   BishopValueEg = 915,
  185   RookValueMg   = 1276,  RookValueEg   = 1380,
  186   QueenValueMg  = 2538,  QueenValueEg  = 2682,
  187 
  188   MidgameLimit  = 15258, EndgameLimit  = 3915
  189 };
  190 
  191 enum PieceType {
  192   NO_PIECE_TYPE, PAWN, KNIGHT, BISHOP, ROOK, QUEEN, KING,
  193   ALL_PIECES = 0,
  194   PIECE_TYPE_NB = 8
  195 };
  196 
  197 enum Piece {
  198   NO_PIECE,
  199   W_PAWN = 1, W_KNIGHT, W_BISHOP, W_ROOK, W_QUEEN, W_KING,
  200   B_PAWN = 9, B_KNIGHT, B_BISHOP, B_ROOK, B_QUEEN, B_KING,
  201   PIECE_NB = 16
  202 };
  203 
  204 extern Value PieceValue[PHASE_NB][PIECE_NB];
  205 
  206 typedef int Depth;
  207 
  208 enum : int {
  209 
  210   DEPTH_QS_CHECKS     =  0,
  211   DEPTH_QS_NO_CHECKS  = -1,
  212   DEPTH_QS_RECAPTURES = -5,
  213 
  214   DEPTH_NONE   = -6,
  215   DEPTH_OFFSET = DEPTH_NONE,
  216 };
  217 
  218 enum Square : int {
  219   SQ_A1, SQ_B1, SQ_C1, SQ_D1, SQ_E1, SQ_F1, SQ_G1, SQ_H1,
  220   SQ_A2, SQ_B2, SQ_C2, SQ_D2, SQ_E2, SQ_F2, SQ_G2, SQ_H2,
  221   SQ_A3, SQ_B3, SQ_C3, SQ_D3, SQ_E3, SQ_F3, SQ_G3, SQ_H3,
  222   SQ_A4, SQ_B4, SQ_C4, SQ_D4, SQ_E4, SQ_F4, SQ_G4, SQ_H4,
  223   SQ_A5, SQ_B5, SQ_C5, SQ_D5, SQ_E5, SQ_F5, SQ_G5, SQ_H5,
  224   SQ_A6, SQ_B6, SQ_C6, SQ_D6, SQ_E6, SQ_F6, SQ_G6, SQ_H6,
  225   SQ_A7, SQ_B7, SQ_C7, SQ_D7, SQ_E7, SQ_F7, SQ_G7, SQ_H7,
  226   SQ_A8, SQ_B8, SQ_C8, SQ_D8, SQ_E8, SQ_F8, SQ_G8, SQ_H8,
  227   SQ_NONE,
  228 
  229   SQUARE_NB = 64
  230 };
  231 
  232 enum Direction : int {
  233   NORTH =  8,
  234   EAST  =  1,
  235   SOUTH = -NORTH,
  236   WEST  = -EAST,
  237 
  238   NORTH_EAST = NORTH + EAST,
  239   SOUTH_EAST = SOUTH + EAST,
  240   SOUTH_WEST = SOUTH + WEST,
  241   NORTH_WEST = NORTH + WEST
  242 };
  243 
  244 enum File : int {
  245   FILE_A, FILE_B, FILE_C, FILE_D, FILE_E, FILE_F, FILE_G, FILE_H, FILE_NB
  246 };
  247 
  248 enum Rank : int {
  249   RANK_1, RANK_2, RANK_3, RANK_4, RANK_5, RANK_6, RANK_7, RANK_8, RANK_NB
  250 };
  251 
  252 
  253 /// Score enum stores a middlegame and an endgame value in a single integer (enum).
  254 /// The least significant 16 bits are used to store the middlegame value and the
  255 /// upper 16 bits are used to store the endgame value. We have to take care to
  256 /// avoid left-shifting a signed int to avoid undefined behavior.
  257 enum Score : int { SCORE_ZERO };
  258 
  259 constexpr Score make_score(int mg, int eg) {
  260   return Score((int)((unsigned int)eg << 16) + mg);
  261 }
  262 
  263 /// Extracting the signed lower and upper 16 bits is not so trivial because
  264 /// according to the standard a simple cast to short is implementation defined
  265 /// and so is a right shift of a signed integer.
  266 inline Value eg_value(Score s) {
  267   union { uint16_t u; int16_t s; } eg = { uint16_t(unsigned(s + 0x8000) >> 16) };
  268   return Value(eg.s);
  269 }
  270 
  271 inline Value mg_value(Score s) {
  272   union { uint16_t u; int16_t s; } mg = { uint16_t(unsigned(s)) };
  273   return Value(mg.s);
  274 }
  275 
  276 #define ENABLE_BASE_OPERATORS_ON(T)                                \
  277 constexpr T operator+(T d1, T d2) { return T(int(d1) + int(d2)); } \
  278 constexpr T operator-(T d1, T d2) { return T(int(d1) - int(d2)); } \
  279 constexpr T operator-(T d) { return T(-int(d)); }                  \
  280 inline T& operator+=(T& d1, T d2) { return d1 = d1 + d2; }         \
  281 inline T& operator-=(T& d1, T d2) { return d1 = d1 - d2; }
  282 
  283 #define ENABLE_INCR_OPERATORS_ON(T)                                \
  284 inline T& operator++(T& d) { return d = T(int(d) + 1); }           \
  285 inline T& operator--(T& d) { return d = T(int(d) - 1); }
  286 
  287 #define ENABLE_FULL_OPERATORS_ON(T)                                \
  288 ENABLE_BASE_OPERATORS_ON(T)                                        \
  289 constexpr T operator*(int i, T d) { return T(i * int(d)); }        \
  290 constexpr T operator*(T d, int i) { return T(int(d) * i); }        \
  291 constexpr T operator/(T d, int i) { return T(int(d) / i); }        \
  292 constexpr int operator/(T d1, T d2) { return int(d1) / int(d2); }  \
  293 inline T& operator*=(T& d, int i) { return d = T(int(d) * i); }    \
  294 inline T& operator/=(T& d, int i) { return d = T(int(d) / i); }
  295 
  296 ENABLE_FULL_OPERATORS_ON(Value)
  297 ENABLE_FULL_OPERATORS_ON(Direction)
  298 
  299 ENABLE_INCR_OPERATORS_ON(PieceType)
  300 ENABLE_INCR_OPERATORS_ON(Piece)
  301 ENABLE_INCR_OPERATORS_ON(Square)
  302 ENABLE_INCR_OPERATORS_ON(File)
  303 ENABLE_INCR_OPERATORS_ON(Rank)
  304 
  305 ENABLE_BASE_OPERATORS_ON(Score)
  306 
  307 #undef ENABLE_FULL_OPERATORS_ON
  308 #undef ENABLE_INCR_OPERATORS_ON
  309 #undef ENABLE_BASE_OPERATORS_ON
  310 
  311 /// Additional operators to add integers to a Value
  312 constexpr Value operator+(Value v, int i) { return Value(int(v) + i); }
  313 constexpr Value operator-(Value v, int i) { return Value(int(v) - i); }
  314 inline Value& operator+=(Value& v, int i) { return v = v + i; }
  315 inline Value& operator-=(Value& v, int i) { return v = v - i; }
  316 
  317 /// Additional operators to add a Direction to a Square
  318 constexpr Square operator+(Square s, Direction d) { return Square(int(s) + int(d)); }
  319 constexpr Square operator-(Square s, Direction d) { return Square(int(s) - int(d)); }
  320 inline Square& operator+=(Square& s, Direction d) { return s = s + d; }
  321 inline Square& operator-=(Square& s, Direction d) { return s = s - d; }
  322 
  323 /// Only declared but not defined. We don't want to multiply two scores due to
  324 /// a very high risk of overflow. So user should explicitly convert to integer.
  325 Score operator*(Score, Score) = delete;
  326 
  327 /// Division of a Score must be handled separately for each term
  328 inline Score operator/(Score s, int i) {
  329   return make_score(mg_value(s) / i, eg_value(s) / i);
  330 }
  331 
  332 /// Multiplication of a Score by an integer. We check for overflow in debug mode.
  333 inline Score operator*(Score s, int i) {
  334 
  335   Score result = Score(int(s) * i);
  336 
  337   assert(eg_value(result) == (i * eg_value(s)));
  338   assert(mg_value(result) == (i * mg_value(s)));
  339   assert((i == 0) || (result / i) == s);
  340 
  341   return result;
  342 }
  343 
  344 /// Multiplication of a Score by a boolean
  345 inline Score operator*(Score s, bool b) {
  346   return Score(int(s) * int(b));
  347 }
  348 
  349 constexpr Color operator~(Color c) {
  350   return Color(c ^ BLACK); // Toggle color
  351 }
  352 
  353 constexpr Square operator~(Square s) {
  354   return Square(s ^ SQ_A8); // Vertical flip SQ_A1 -> SQ_A8
  355 }
  356 
  357 constexpr Piece operator~(Piece pc) {
  358   return Piece(pc ^ 8); // Swap color of piece B_KNIGHT -> W_KNIGHT
  359 }
  360 
  361 inline File map_to_queenside(File f) {
  362   return std::min(f, File(FILE_H - f)); // Map files ABCDEFGH to files ABCDDCBA
  363 }
  364 
  365 constexpr CastlingRights operator&(Color c, CastlingRights cr) {
  366   return CastlingRights((c == WHITE ? WHITE_CASTLING : BLACK_CASTLING) & cr);
  367 }
  368 
  369 constexpr Value mate_in(int ply) {
  370   return VALUE_MATE - ply;
  371 }
  372 
  373 constexpr Value mated_in(int ply) {
  374   return -VALUE_MATE + ply;
  375 }
  376 
  377 constexpr Square make_square(File f, Rank r) {
  378   return Square((r << 3) + f);
  379 }
  380 
  381 constexpr Piece make_piece(Color c, PieceType pt) {
  382   return Piece((c << 3) + pt);
  383 }
  384 
  385 constexpr PieceType type_of(Piece pc) {
  386   return PieceType(pc & 7);
  387 }
  388 
  389 inline Color color_of(Piece pc) {
  390   assert(pc != NO_PIECE);
  391   return Color(pc >> 3);
  392 }
  393 
  394 constexpr bool is_ok(Square s) {
  395   return s >= SQ_A1 && s <= SQ_H8;
  396 }
  397 
  398 constexpr File file_of(Square s) {
  399   return File(s & 7);
  400 }
  401 
  402 constexpr Rank rank_of(Square s) {
  403   return Rank(s >> 3);
  404 }
  405 
  406 constexpr Square relative_square(Color c, Square s) {
  407   return Square(s ^ (c * 56));
  408 }
  409 
  410 constexpr Rank relative_rank(Color c, Rank r) {
  411   return Rank(r ^ (c * 7));
  412 }
  413 
  414 constexpr Rank relative_rank(Color c, Square s) {
  415   return relative_rank(c, rank_of(s));
  416 }
  417 
  418 constexpr Direction pawn_push(Color c) {
  419   return c == WHITE ? NORTH : SOUTH;
  420 }
  421 
  422 constexpr Square from_sq(Move m) {
  423   return Square((m >> 6) & 0x3F);
  424 }
  425 
  426 constexpr Square to_sq(Move m) {
  427   return Square(m & 0x3F);
  428 }
  429 
  430 constexpr int from_to(Move m) {
  431  return m & 0xFFF;
  432 }
  433 
  434 constexpr MoveType type_of(Move m) {
  435   return MoveType(m & (3 << 14));
  436 }
  437 
  438 constexpr PieceType promotion_type(Move m) {
  439   return PieceType(((m >> 12) & 3) + KNIGHT);
  440 }
  441 
  442 constexpr Move make_move(Square from, Square to) {
  443   return Move((from << 6) + to);
  444 }
  445 
  446 constexpr Move reverse_move(Move m) {
  447   return make_move(to_sq(m), from_sq(m));
  448 }
  449 
  450 template<MoveType T>
  451 constexpr Move make(Square from, Square to, PieceType pt = KNIGHT) {
  452   return Move(T + ((pt - KNIGHT) << 12) + (from << 6) + to);
  453 }
  454 
  455 constexpr bool is_ok(Move m) {
  456   return from_sq(m) != to_sq(m); // Catch MOVE_NULL and MOVE_NONE
  457 }
  458 
  459 #endif // #ifndef TYPES_H_INCLUDED