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2 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
3 Version 2, June 1991
5 Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
6 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
7 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
8 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
12 The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
13 freedom to share and change it. By contrast, the GNU General Public
14 License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
15 software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. This
16 General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
17 Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
18 using it. (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
19 the GNU Library General Public License instead.) You can apply it to
20 your programs, too.
22 When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
23 price. Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
24 have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
25 this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
26 if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
27 in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
29 To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
30 anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
31 These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
32 distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
34 For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
35 gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
36 you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
37 source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their
40 We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
41 (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
42 distribute and/or modify the software.
44 Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
45 that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
46 software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
47 want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
48 that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
49 authors' reputations.
51 Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
52 patents. We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
53 program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
54 program proprietary. To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
55 patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
57 The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
58 modification follow.
60 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
61 TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
63 0. This License applies to any program or other work which contains
64 a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
65 under the terms of this General Public License. The "Program", below,
66 refers to any such program or work, and a "work based on the Program"
67 means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
68 that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
69 either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
70 language. (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
71 the term "modification".) Each licensee is addressed as "you".
73 Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
74 covered by this License; they are outside its scope. The act of
75 running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
76 is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
77 Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
78 Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
80 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
81 source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
82 conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
83 copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
84 notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
85 and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
86 along with the Program.
88 You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
89 you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
91 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
92 of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
93 distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
94 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
96 a) You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
97 stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
99 b) You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
100 whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
101 part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
102 parties under the terms of this License.
104 c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
105 when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
106 interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
107 announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
108 notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
109 a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
110 these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
111 License. (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
112 does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
113 the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
115 These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole. If
116 identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
117 and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
118 themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
119 sections when you distribute them as separate works. But when you
120 distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
121 on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
122 this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
123 entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
125 Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
126 your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
127 exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
128 collective works based on the Program.
130 In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
131 with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
132 a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
133 the scope of this License.
135 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
136 under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
137 Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
139 a) Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
140 source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
141 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
143 b) Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
144 years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
145 cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
146 machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
147 distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
148 customarily used for software interchange; or,
150 c) Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
151 to distribute corresponding source code. (This alternative is
152 allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
153 received the program in object code or executable form with such
154 an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
156 The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
157 making modifications to it. For an executable work, complete source
158 code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
159 associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
160 control compilation and installation of the executable. However, as a
161 special exception, the source code distributed need not include
162 anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
163 form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
164 operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
165 itself accompanies the executable.
167 If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
168 access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
169 access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
170 distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
171 compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
173 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
174 except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
175 otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
176 void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
177 However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
178 this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
179 parties remain in full compliance.
181 5. You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
182 signed it. However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
183 distribute the Program or its derivative works. These actions are
184 prohibited by law if you do not accept this License. Therefore, by
185 modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
186 Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
187 all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
188 the Program or works based on it.
190 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
191 Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
192 original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
193 these terms and conditions. You may not impose any further
194 restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
195 You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
196 this License.
198 7. If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
199 infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
200 conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
201 otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
202 excuse you from the conditions of this License. If you cannot
203 distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
204 License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
205 may not distribute the Program at all. For example, if a patent
206 license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
207 all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
208 the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
209 refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
211 If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
212 any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
213 apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
216 It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
217 patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
218 such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
219 integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
220 implemented by public license practices. Many people have made
221 generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
222 through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
223 system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
224 to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
225 impose that choice.
227 This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
228 be a consequence of the rest of this License.
230 8. If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
231 certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
232 original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
233 may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
234 those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
235 countries not thus excluded. In such case, this License incorporates
236 the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
238 9. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
239 of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
240 be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
241 address new problems or concerns.
243 Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
244 specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and "any
245 later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
246 either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
247 Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
248 this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
251 10. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
252 programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
253 to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
254 Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
255 make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
256 of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
257 of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
259 NO WARRANTY
261 11. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
262 FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
263 OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
264 PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
265 OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
266 MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
267 TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
268 PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
269 REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
271 12. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
272 WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
273 REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
274 INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
275 OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
276 TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
277 YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
278 PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
279 POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
281 END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
283 Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
285 If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
286 possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
287 free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
289 To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest
290 to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
291 convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
292 the "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
294 <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
295 Copyright (C) 19yy <name of author>
297 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
298 it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
299 the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
300 (at your option) any later version.
302 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
303 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
304 MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
305 GNU General Public License for more details.
307 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
308 along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
309 Foundation, Inc., 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
311 Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
313 If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
314 when it starts in an interactive mode:
316 Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19yy name of author
317 Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
318 This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
319 under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
321 The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the appropriate
322 parts of the General Public License. Of course, the commands you use may
323 be called something other than `show w' and `show c'; they could even be
324 mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your program.
326 You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
327 school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
328 necessary. Here is a sample; alter the names:
330 Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program
331 `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker.
333 <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
334 Ty Coon, President of Vice
336 This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
337 proprietary programs. If your program is a subroutine library, you may
338 consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
339 library. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
340 Public License instead of this License.