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    1 \documentclass[a4paper,12pt]{article} 
    2 \usepackage{a4wide}
    3 \usepackage{times}
    4 \usepackage[T1]{fontenc}
    5 \usepackage[english]{babel}
    7 \title{The GNU General Public License}
    8 \date{}
    9 \author{}
   11 \begin{document}
   12 \maketitle
   14 \begin{center}
   15 {\parindent 0in
   17 Version 2, June 1991
   19 Copyright \copyright\ 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
   21 \bigskip
   23 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA
   25 \bigskip
   27 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
   28 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
   29 }
   30 \end{center}
   32 \renewcommand{\abstractname}{Preamble}
   33 \begin{abstract}
   34 The licenses for most software are designed to take away your freedom to
   35 share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public License is
   36 intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software---to
   37 make sure the software is free for all its users.  This General Public
   38 License applies to most of the Free Software Foundation's software and to
   39 any other program whose authors commit to using it.  (Some other Free
   40 Software Foundation software is covered by the GNU Library General Public
   41 License instead.)  You can apply it to your programs, too.
   43 When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not price.
   44 Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you have the
   45 freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for this service
   46 if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it if you want it,
   47 that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free programs;
   48 and that you know you can do these things.
   50 To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid anyone to
   51 deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.  These
   52 restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
   53 distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
   55 For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether gratis or
   56 for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that you have.  You
   57 must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the source code.  And
   58 you must show them these terms so they know their rights.
   60 We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and (2)
   61 offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
   62 distribute and/or modify the software.
   64 Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain that
   65 everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free software.  If
   66 the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we want its
   67 recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so that any
   68 problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original authors'
   69 reputations.
   71 Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software patents.
   72 We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free program will
   73 individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the program
   74 proprietary.  To prevent this, we have made it clear that any patent must
   75 be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
   77 The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
   78 modification follow.
   79 \end{abstract}
   81 \begin{center}
   82 {\Large \sc GNU General Public License
   83 \\\vspace{3mm}Terms and Conditions For Copying, Distribution and Modification}
   84 \end{center}
   87 \begin{enumerate}
   89 \addtocounter{enumi}{-1}
   91 \item 
   93 This License applies to any program or other work which contains a notice
   94 placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed under the
   95 terms of this General Public License.  The ``Program'', below, refers to
   96 any such program or work, and a ``work based on the Program'' means either
   97 the Program or any derivative work under copyright law: that is to say, a
   98 work containing the Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with
   99 modifications and/or translated into another language.  (Hereinafter,
  100 translation is included without limitation in the term ``modification''.)
  101 Each licensee is addressed as ``you''.
  103 Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
  104 covered by this License; they are outside its scope.  The act of
  105 running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
  106 is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
  107 Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
  108 Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
  110 \item You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source
  111   code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously
  112   and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice
  113   and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to
  114   this License and to the absence of any warranty; and give any other
  115   recipients of the Program a copy of this License along with the Program.
  117 You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and you
  118 may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
  120 \item
  122 You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
  123 of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
  124 distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
  125 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
  127 \begin{enumerate}
  129 \item 
  131 You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that
  132 you changed the files and the date of any change.
  134 \item
  136 You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
  137 whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
  138 part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
  139 parties under the terms of this License.
  141 \item
  142 If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
  143 when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
  144 interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
  145 announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
  146 notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
  147 a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
  148 these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
  149 License.  (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
  150 does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
  151 the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
  153 \end{enumerate}
  156 These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.  If
  157 identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
  158 and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
  159 themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
  160 sections when you distribute them as separate works.  But when you
  161 distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
  162 on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
  163 this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
  164 entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
  166 Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
  167 your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
  168 exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
  169 collective works based on the Program.
  171 In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
  172 with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
  173 a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
  174 the scope of this License.
  176 \item
  177 You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
  178 under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
  179 Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
  181 \begin{enumerate}
  183 \item
  185 Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
  186 source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
  187 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
  189 \item
  191 Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
  192 years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
  193 cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
  194 machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
  195 distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
  196 customarily used for software interchange; or,
  198 \item
  200 Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
  201 to distribute corresponding source code.  (This alternative is
  202 allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
  203 received the program in object code or executable form with such
  204 an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
  206 \end{enumerate}
  209 The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
  210 making modifications to it.  For an executable work, complete source
  211 code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
  212 associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
  213 control compilation and installation of the executable.  However, as a
  214 special exception, the source code distributed need not include
  215 anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
  216 form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
  217 operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
  218 itself accompanies the executable.
  220 If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
  221 access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
  222 access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
  223 distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
  224 compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
  226 \item
  227 You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
  228 except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
  229 otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
  230 void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
  231 However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
  232 this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
  233 parties remain in full compliance.
  235 \item
  236 You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
  237 signed it.  However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
  238 distribute the Program or its derivative works.  These actions are
  239 prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.  Therefore, by
  240 modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
  241 Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
  242 all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
  243 the Program or works based on it.
  245 \item
  246 Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
  247 Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
  248 original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
  249 these terms and conditions.  You may not impose any further
  250 restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
  251 You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
  252 this License.
  254 \item
  255 If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
  256 infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
  257 conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
  258 otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
  259 excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot
  260 distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
  261 License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
  262 may not distribute the Program at all.  For example, if a patent
  263 license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
  264 all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
  265 the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
  266 refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
  268 If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
  269 any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
  270 apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
  271 circumstances.
  273 It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
  274 patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
  275 such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
  276 integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
  277 implemented by public license practices.  Many people have made
  278 generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
  279 through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
  280 system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
  281 to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
  282 impose that choice.
  284 This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
  285 be a consequence of the rest of this License.
  287 \item
  288 If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
  289 certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
  290 original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
  291 may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
  292 those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
  293 countries not thus excluded.  In such case, this License incorporates
  294 the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
  296 \item
  297 The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
  298 of the General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
  299 be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
  300 address new problems or concerns.
  302 Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the Program
  303 specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and ``any
  304 later version'', you have the option of following the terms and conditions
  305 either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
  306 Software Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of
  307 this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
  308 Foundation.
  310 \item
  311 If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
  312 programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
  313 to ask for permission.  For software which is copyrighted by the Free
  314 Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
  315 make exceptions for this.  Our decision will be guided by the two goals
  316 of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
  317 of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
  319 \begin{center}
  320 {\Large\sc
  321 No Warranty
  322 }
  323 \end{center}
  325 \item
  326 {\sc Because the program is licensed free of charge, there is no warranty
  327 for the program, to the extent permitted by applicable law.  Except when
  328 otherwise stated in writing the copyright holders and/or other parties
  329 provide the program ``as is'' without warranty of any kind, either expressed
  330 or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of
  331 merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose.  The entire risk as
  332 to the quality and performance of the program is with you.  Should the
  333 program prove defective, you assume the cost of all necessary servicing,
  334 repair or correction.}
  336 \item
  337 {\sc In no event unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing
  338 will any copyright holder, or any other party who may modify and/or
  339 redistribute the program as permitted above, be liable to you for damages,
  340 including any general, special, incidental or consequential damages arising
  341 out of the use or inability to use the program (including but not limited
  342 to loss of data or data being rendered inaccurate or losses sustained by
  343 you or third parties or a failure of the program to operate with any other
  344 programs), even if such holder or other party has been advised of the
  345 possibility of such damages.}
  347 \end{enumerate}
  350 \begin{center}
  351 {\Large\sc End of Terms and Conditions}
  352 \end{center}
  355 \pagebreak[2]
  357 \section*{Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs}
  359 If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
  360 possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
  361 free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these
  362 terms.
  364   To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest to
  365   attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey
  366   the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the
  367   ``copyright'' line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
  369 \begin{quote}
  370 <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.> \\
  371 Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author> \\
  373 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
  374 it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
  375 the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
  376 (at your option) any later version.
  378 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
  379 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  381 GNU General Public License for more details.
  383 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
  384 along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
  385 Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301, USA.
  386 \end{quote}
  388 Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
  390 If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
  391 when it starts in an interactive mode:
  393 \begin{quote}
  394 Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author> \\
  395 Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'. \\
  396 This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
  397 under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
  398 \end{quote}
  401 The hypothetical commands {\tt show w} and {\tt show c} should show the
  402 appropriate parts of the General Public License.  Of course, the commands
  403 you use may be called something other than {\tt show w} and {\tt show c};
  404 they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items---whatever suits your
  405 program.
  407 You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
  408 school, if any, to sign a ``copyright disclaimer'' for the program, if
  409 necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:
  411 \begin{quote}
  412 Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the program \\
  413 `Gnomovision' (which makes passes at compilers) written by James Hacker. \\
  415 <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989 \\
  416 Ty Coon, President of Vice
  417 \end{quote}
  420 This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program
  421 into proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you
  422 may consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications
  423 with the library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library
  424 General Public License instead of this License.
  426 \end{document}
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