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    1 Installation Instructions
    2 *************************
    4    Copyright (C) 1994-1996, 1999-2002, 2004-2017, 2020-2021 Free
    5 Software Foundation, Inc.
    7    Copying and distribution of this file, with or without modification,
    8 are permitted in any medium without royalty provided the copyright
    9 notice and this notice are preserved.  This file is offered as-is,
   10 without warranty of any kind.
   12 Basic Installation
   13 ==================
   15    Briefly, the shell command './configure && make && make install'
   16 should configure, build, and install this package.  The following
   17 more-detailed instructions are generic; see the 'README' file for
   18 instructions specific to this package.  Some packages provide this
   19 'INSTALL' file but do not implement all of the features documented
   20 below.  The lack of an optional feature in a given package is not
   21 necessarily a bug.  More recommendations for GNU packages can be found
   22 in *note Makefile Conventions: (standards)Makefile Conventions.
   24    The 'configure' shell script attempts to guess correct values for
   25 various system-dependent variables used during compilation.  It uses
   26 those values to create a 'Makefile' in each directory of the package.
   27 It may also create one or more '.h' files containing system-dependent
   28 definitions.  Finally, it creates a shell script 'config.status' that
   29 you can run in the future to recreate the current configuration, and a
   30 file 'config.log' containing compiler output (useful mainly for
   31 debugging 'configure').
   33    It can also use an optional file (typically called 'config.cache' and
   34 enabled with '--cache-file=config.cache' or simply '-C') that saves the
   35 results of its tests to speed up reconfiguring.  Caching is disabled by
   36 default to prevent problems with accidental use of stale cache files.
   38    If you need to do unusual things to compile the package, please try
   39 to figure out how 'configure' could check whether to do them, and mail
   40 diffs or instructions to the address given in the 'README' so they can
   41 be considered for the next release.  If you are using the cache, and at
   42 some point 'config.cache' contains results you don't want to keep, you
   43 may remove or edit it.
   45    The file 'configure.ac' (or 'configure.in') is used to create
   46 'configure' by a program called 'autoconf'.  You need 'configure.ac' if
   47 you want to change it or regenerate 'configure' using a newer version of
   48 'autoconf'.
   50    The simplest way to compile this package is:
   52   1. 'cd' to the directory containing the package's source code and type
   53      './configure' to configure the package for your system.
   55      Running 'configure' might take a while.  While running, it prints
   56      some messages telling which features it is checking for.
   58   2. Type 'make' to compile the package.
   60   3. Optionally, type 'make check' to run any self-tests that come with
   61      the package, generally using the just-built uninstalled binaries.
   63   4. Type 'make install' to install the programs and any data files and
   64      documentation.  When installing into a prefix owned by root, it is
   65      recommended that the package be configured and built as a regular
   66      user, and only the 'make install' phase executed with root
   67      privileges.
   69   5. Optionally, type 'make installcheck' to repeat any self-tests, but
   70      this time using the binaries in their final installed location.
   71      This target does not install anything.  Running this target as a
   72      regular user, particularly if the prior 'make install' required
   73      root privileges, verifies that the installation completed
   74      correctly.
   76   6. You can remove the program binaries and object files from the
   77      source code directory by typing 'make clean'.  To also remove the
   78      files that 'configure' created (so you can compile the package for
   79      a different kind of computer), type 'make distclean'.  There is
   80      also a 'make maintainer-clean' target, but that is intended mainly
   81      for the package's developers.  If you use it, you may have to get
   82      all sorts of other programs in order to regenerate files that came
   83      with the distribution.
   85   7. Often, you can also type 'make uninstall' to remove the installed
   86      files again.  In practice, not all packages have tested that
   87      uninstallation works correctly, even though it is required by the
   88      GNU Coding Standards.
   90   8. Some packages, particularly those that use Automake, provide 'make
   91      distcheck', which can by used by developers to test that all other
   92      targets like 'make install' and 'make uninstall' work correctly.
   93      This target is generally not run by end users.
   95 Compilers and Options
   96 =====================
   98    Some systems require unusual options for compilation or linking that
   99 the 'configure' script does not know about.  Run './configure --help'
  100 for details on some of the pertinent environment variables.
  102    You can give 'configure' initial values for configuration parameters
  103 by setting variables in the command line or in the environment.  Here is
  104 an example:
  106      ./configure CC=c99 CFLAGS=-g LIBS=-lposix
  108    *Note Defining Variables::, for more details.
  110 Compiling For Multiple Architectures
  111 ====================================
  113    You can compile the package for more than one kind of computer at the
  114 same time, by placing the object files for each architecture in their
  115 own directory.  To do this, you can use GNU 'make'.  'cd' to the
  116 directory where you want the object files and executables to go and run
  117 the 'configure' script.  'configure' automatically checks for the source
  118 code in the directory that 'configure' is in and in '..'.  This is known
  119 as a "VPATH" build.
  121    With a non-GNU 'make', it is safer to compile the package for one
  122 architecture at a time in the source code directory.  After you have
  123 installed the package for one architecture, use 'make distclean' before
  124 reconfiguring for another architecture.
  126    On MacOS X 10.5 and later systems, you can create libraries and
  127 executables that work on multiple system types--known as "fat" or
  128 "universal" binaries--by specifying multiple '-arch' options to the
  129 compiler but only a single '-arch' option to the preprocessor.  Like
  130 this:
  132      ./configure CC="gcc -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
  133                  CXX="g++ -arch i386 -arch x86_64 -arch ppc -arch ppc64" \
  134                  CPP="gcc -E" CXXCPP="g++ -E"
  136    This is not guaranteed to produce working output in all cases, you
  137 may have to build one architecture at a time and combine the results
  138 using the 'lipo' tool if you have problems.
  140 Installation Names
  141 ==================
  143    By default, 'make install' installs the package's commands under
  144 '/usr/local/bin', include files under '/usr/local/include', etc.  You
  145 can specify an installation prefix other than '/usr/local' by giving
  146 'configure' the option '--prefix=PREFIX', where PREFIX must be an
  147 absolute file name.
  149    You can specify separate installation prefixes for
  150 architecture-specific files and architecture-independent files.  If you
  151 pass the option '--exec-prefix=PREFIX' to 'configure', the package uses
  152 PREFIX as the prefix for installing programs and libraries.
  153 Documentation and other data files still use the regular prefix.
  155    In addition, if you use an unusual directory layout you can give
  156 options like '--bindir=DIR' to specify different values for particular
  157 kinds of files.  Run 'configure --help' for a list of the directories
  158 you can set and what kinds of files go in them.  In general, the default
  159 for these options is expressed in terms of '${prefix}', so that
  160 specifying just '--prefix' will affect all of the other directory
  161 specifications that were not explicitly provided.
  163    The most portable way to affect installation locations is to pass the
  164 correct locations to 'configure'; however, many packages provide one or
  165 both of the following shortcuts of passing variable assignments to the
  166 'make install' command line to change installation locations without
  167 having to reconfigure or recompile.
  169    The first method involves providing an override variable for each
  170 affected directory.  For example, 'make install
  171 prefix=/alternate/directory' will choose an alternate location for all
  172 directory configuration variables that were expressed in terms of
  173 '${prefix}'.  Any directories that were specified during 'configure',
  174 but not in terms of '${prefix}', must each be overridden at install time
  175 for the entire installation to be relocated.  The approach of makefile
  176 variable overrides for each directory variable is required by the GNU
  177 Coding Standards, and ideally causes no recompilation.  However, some
  178 platforms have known limitations with the semantics of shared libraries
  179 that end up requiring recompilation when using this method, particularly
  180 noticeable in packages that use GNU Libtool.
  182    The second method involves providing the 'DESTDIR' variable.  For
  183 example, 'make install DESTDIR=/alternate/directory' will prepend
  184 '/alternate/directory' before all installation names.  The approach of
  185 'DESTDIR' overrides is not required by the GNU Coding Standards, and
  186 does not work on platforms that have drive letters.  On the other hand,
  187 it does better at avoiding recompilation issues, and works well even
  188 when some directory options were not specified in terms of '${prefix}'
  189 at 'configure' time.
  191 Optional Features
  192 =================
  194    If the package supports it, you can cause programs to be installed
  195 with an extra prefix or suffix on their names by giving 'configure' the
  196 option '--program-prefix=PREFIX' or '--program-suffix=SUFFIX'.
  198    Some packages pay attention to '--enable-FEATURE' options to
  199 'configure', where FEATURE indicates an optional part of the package.
  200 They may also pay attention to '--with-PACKAGE' options, where PACKAGE
  201 is something like 'gnu-as' or 'x' (for the X Window System).  The
  202 'README' should mention any '--enable-' and '--with-' options that the
  203 package recognizes.
  205    For packages that use the X Window System, 'configure' can usually
  206 find the X include and library files automatically, but if it doesn't,
  207 you can use the 'configure' options '--x-includes=DIR' and
  208 '--x-libraries=DIR' to specify their locations.
  210    Some packages offer the ability to configure how verbose the
  211 execution of 'make' will be.  For these packages, running './configure
  212 --enable-silent-rules' sets the default to minimal output, which can be
  213 overridden with 'make V=1'; while running './configure
  214 --disable-silent-rules' sets the default to verbose, which can be
  215 overridden with 'make V=0'.
  217 Particular systems
  218 ==================
  220    On HP-UX, the default C compiler is not ANSI C compatible.  If GNU CC
  221 is not installed, it is recommended to use the following options in
  222 order to use an ANSI C compiler:
  224      ./configure CC="cc -Ae -D_XOPEN_SOURCE=500"
  226 and if that doesn't work, install pre-built binaries of GCC for HP-UX.
  228    HP-UX 'make' updates targets which have the same timestamps as their
  229 prerequisites, which makes it generally unusable when shipped generated
  230 files such as 'configure' are involved.  Use GNU 'make' instead.
  232    On OSF/1 a.k.a. Tru64, some versions of the default C compiler cannot
  233 parse its '<wchar.h>' header file.  The option '-nodtk' can be used as a
  234 workaround.  If GNU CC is not installed, it is therefore recommended to
  235 try
  237      ./configure CC="cc"
  239 and if that doesn't work, try
  241      ./configure CC="cc -nodtk"
  243    On Solaris, don't put '/usr/ucb' early in your 'PATH'.  This
  244 directory contains several dysfunctional programs; working variants of
  245 these programs are available in '/usr/bin'.  So, if you need '/usr/ucb'
  246 in your 'PATH', put it _after_ '/usr/bin'.
  248    On Haiku, software installed for all users goes in '/boot/common',
  249 not '/usr/local'.  It is recommended to use the following options:
  251      ./configure --prefix=/boot/common
  253 Specifying the System Type
  254 ==========================
  256    There may be some features 'configure' cannot figure out
  257 automatically, but needs to determine by the type of machine the package
  258 will run on.  Usually, assuming the package is built to be run on the
  259 _same_ architectures, 'configure' can figure that out, but if it prints
  260 a message saying it cannot guess the machine type, give it the
  261 '--build=TYPE' option.  TYPE can either be a short name for the system
  262 type, such as 'sun4', or a canonical name which has the form:
  266 where SYSTEM can have one of these forms:
  268      OS
  269      KERNEL-OS
  271    See the file 'config.sub' for the possible values of each field.  If
  272 'config.sub' isn't included in this package, then this package doesn't
  273 need to know the machine type.
  275    If you are _building_ compiler tools for cross-compiling, you should
  276 use the option '--target=TYPE' to select the type of system they will
  277 produce code for.
  279    If you want to _use_ a cross compiler, that generates code for a
  280 platform different from the build platform, you should specify the
  281 "host" platform (i.e., that on which the generated programs will
  282 eventually be run) with '--host=TYPE'.
  284 Sharing Defaults
  285 ================
  287    If you want to set default values for 'configure' scripts to share,
  288 you can create a site shell script called 'config.site' that gives
  289 default values for variables like 'CC', 'cache_file', and 'prefix'.
  290 'configure' looks for 'PREFIX/share/config.site' if it exists, then
  291 'PREFIX/etc/config.site' if it exists.  Or, you can set the
  292 'CONFIG_SITE' environment variable to the location of the site script.
  293 A warning: not all 'configure' scripts look for a site script.
  295 Defining Variables
  296 ==================
  298    Variables not defined in a site shell script can be set in the
  299 environment passed to 'configure'.  However, some packages may run
  300 configure again during the build, and the customized values of these
  301 variables may be lost.  In order to avoid this problem, you should set
  302 them in the 'configure' command line, using 'VAR=value'.  For example:
  304      ./configure CC=/usr/local2/bin/gcc
  306 causes the specified 'gcc' to be used as the C compiler (unless it is
  307 overridden in the site shell script).
  309 Unfortunately, this technique does not work for 'CONFIG_SHELL' due to an
  310 Autoconf limitation.  Until the limitation is lifted, you can use this
  311 workaround:
  313      CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash ./configure CONFIG_SHELL=/bin/bash
  315 'configure' Invocation
  316 ======================
  318    'configure' recognizes the following options to control how it
  319 operates.
  321 '--help'
  322 '-h'
  323      Print a summary of all of the options to 'configure', and exit.
  325 '--help=short'
  326 '--help=recursive'
  327      Print a summary of the options unique to this package's
  328      'configure', and exit.  The 'short' variant lists options used only
  329      in the top level, while the 'recursive' variant lists options also
  330      present in any nested packages.
  332 '--version'
  333 '-V'
  334      Print the version of Autoconf used to generate the 'configure'
  335      script, and exit.
  337 '--cache-file=FILE'
  338      Enable the cache: use and save the results of the tests in FILE,
  339      traditionally 'config.cache'.  FILE defaults to '/dev/null' to
  340      disable caching.
  342 '--config-cache'
  343 '-C'
  344      Alias for '--cache-file=config.cache'.
  346 '--quiet'
  347 '--silent'
  348 '-q'
  349      Do not print messages saying which checks are being made.  To
  350      suppress all normal output, redirect it to '/dev/null' (any error
  351      messages will still be shown).
  353 '--srcdir=DIR'
  354      Look for the package's source code in directory DIR.  Usually
  355      'configure' can determine that directory automatically.
  357 '--prefix=DIR'
  358      Use DIR as the installation prefix.  *note Installation Names:: for
  359      more details, including other options available for fine-tuning the
  360      installation locations.
  362 '--no-create'
  363 '-n'
  364      Run the configure checks, but stop before creating any output
  365      files.
  367 'configure' also accepts some other, not widely useful, options.  Run
  368 'configure --help' for more details.