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    1 NEWS of GNU Chess
    3   Copyright (C) 2001-2021 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    5   Copying and distribution of this file, with or without modification,
    6   are permitted in any medium without royalty provided the copyright
    7   notice and this notice are preserved.
    9 Version 6.2.9 (July 2021)
   11 - Fixed potential buffer overflow in pgnload and pgnreplay (CVE-2021-30184)
   13 Version 6.2.8 (May 2021)
   15 - Bug fixes in the input/output processing.
   17 Version 6.2.7 (May 2020)
   19 - Minor fixes in the build system.
   21 Version 6.2.6 (April 2020)
   23 - Fix buffer overflow on load EPD file.
   24 - Fix move validation when cleaning up moves, e.g. accepting '0-0'
   25 for O-O'.
   26 - More consistent use of period in translatable texts.
   27 - Minor fixes on compilation warnings.
   28 - New and updated translations.
   30 Version 6.2.5 (July 2017)
   32 - Command history based on readline.
   33 - New commands: coords/nocoords to enable/disable coordinates
   34 when printing the board.
   35 - Command pgnsave will prompt the user to overwrite or not an existing
   36 file instead of appending the current game to the file.
   37 - New languages.
   38 - Bug fixes.
   40 Version 6.2.4 (October 2016)
   42 - Print error for invalid move.
   43 - Truncate user input if longer than 128 characters.
   45 Version 6.2.3 (September 2016)
   47 - Quit after compiling book with option -a (--addbook).
   48 - Updated translations.
   50 Version 6.2.2 (October 2015)
   52 - More robust program exit concerning threads.
   53 - Detailed error messages for bad FEN syntax.
   55 Version 6.2.1 (January 2015)
   57 - Man page in English.
   59 Version 6.2.0 (January 2015)
   61 - "Tighter connection" with XBoard by means of an engine file and a 
   62 logo, as expected by XBoard (>= 4.6.0).
   63 - Some cleanup (typos in info and removed trailing spaces in sources).
   64 - Uppercase chars only for piece names, as Fruit doesn't like lowercase.
   65 - A man page based on help2man.
   67 Version 6.1.2 (July 2014)
   69 - CFLAGS replaced by CPPFLAGS in info.
   70 - Fix for correct handling of castling moves.
   71 - Include translations to other languages.
   73 Version 6.1.1 (November 2013)
   75 - Include translations to other languages.
   76 - Minor corrections in translatable strings.
   77 - Migrate frontend to C++.
   78 - Use autoconf 2.69 and require it in configure.ac.
   79 - Use automake 1.14.
   81 Version 6.1.0 (November 2013)
   83 - Add support for package internationalization based on GNU gettext.
   84 - Include first translations provided by the Translation Team.
   85 - Graphic mode, a new board shape based on the unicode characters
   86 for chess.
   87 - pgnreplay command, similar to pgnload, with the capability of
   88 manually showing a saved game step by step and moving backwards.
   89 - Fix bug in setboard.
   90 - Avoid using 100% CPU in UCI mode.
   91 - Rename the small book.bin as smallbook.bin.
   93 Version 6.0.93 (October 2013, pretest version of v6.1.0)
   95 - Fix gettext support.
   97 Version 6.0.92 (August 2013, pretest version of v6.1.0)
   99 - Fix gettext support.
  101 Version 6.0.91 (August 2013, pretest version of v6.1.0)
  103 - Fix gettext support.
  105 Version 6.0.90 (August 2013, pretest version of v6.1.0)
  107 - Add support for package internationalization based on GNU gettext.
  108 - Graphic mode, a new board shape based on the unicode characters
  109 for chess.
  110 - pgnreplay command, similar to pgnload, with the capability of
  111 manually showing a saved game step by step and moving backwards.
  112 - Fix bug in setboard.
  113 - Avoid using 100% CPU in UCI mode.
  114 - Rename the small book.bin as smallbook.bin.
  116 Version 6.0.3 (March 2013)
  118 - Run autoreconf and configure based on autoconf 2.69 and automake 1.13
  119 to get rid of these vulnerabilies:
  120   http://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2009-4029
  121   http://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2012-3386
  122 - Update configure.ac to automake 1.13.
  123 - If in manual mode, keep it after undo.
  124 - Remove some unused code.
  125 - Avoid crashing when importing book_1.01.pgn
  127 Version 6.0.2 (March 2012)
  129 - New option --addbook to compile a book.
  130 - Maximum file name length of EPD files extended to 127 characters.
  131 - Book file allowed to be read only unless the BookLearn option is set.
  133 Version 6.0.1 (August 2011)
  135 - Allow kibitz for solve command.
  136 - If gnuchess.ini is not found, report error before prompt.
  137 - Fix 'book on' command.
  138 - Fix 'book add' command.
  139 - Insert sleep(0) in adapter thread - prevents from crash for
  140 solveepd with st 30.
  141 - Typo in info file: 'book.dat' replaced by 'book.bin'.
  142 - Correct INSTALL: 'cd src' before './gnuchess'
  143 - Remove some unused code.
  145 Version 6.0.0 (27 April 2011)
  147 - First official release of GNU Chess version 6!
  148 - iq6.epd no longer included in the distribution - stored in Subversion.
  150 Version 5.9.92 (24 April 2011)
  152 - Implement 'book *' commands as in v5.
  153     (Implemented by extending the protocol messages between frontend and 
  154     adapter. Engine book options uncontrollable, since I am more reluctant
  155     to modify the protocol between adapter and engine (UCI), but it could 
  156     be done.)
  157 - Implement v5 command 'hash on/off'.
  158     (UseTrans to be variable and driven by new option.)
  159 - Implement v5 command 'null on/off'.
  160     (UCI option NullMove Pruning)
  161 - Implement v5 command memory.
  162     (UCI option UseTrans)
  163 - Implement v5 command memory N.
  164     (UCI option Hash)
  165 - Remove v5 commands hashsize/hashsize N. Memory command replaces them.
  166 - Hard mode at startup.
  167 - Implement v5 command-line options not working in the previous version:
  168     --post
  169     --easy
  170     --manual
  171     --memory
  172 - All pieces of text doc transformed into texinfo.
  173 - Include v5 script gnuchessx for xboard mode.
  174 - Implement script gnuchessu for UCI mode, similar to gnuchessx.
  175 - Set writing to adapter.log to false by default.
  176 - Default config so that the config file gnuchess.ini is not mandatory.
  178 Version 5.9.91 (14 January 2011)
  180 - Relax dependency on config file gnuchess.ini
  182 New in gnuchess 5.9.90 (10 January 2011, first pretest version of v6.0.0)
  184 - Fruit 2.1 engine, by Fabien Letouzy
  185 - Polyglot 1.4 adapter, by Fabien Letouzy
  186 - Three decoupled components: frontend, engine and adapter
  187 - UCI mode, providing UCI interface, through -u/--uci command-line option.
  189 New in gnuchess 5.07:
  191 - New PGN parser handles annotated PGN when creating opening book
  192 - Additional command line options
  193 - gnuchessx script added
  195 New in gnuchess 5.06:
  197 - Added code for pondering and analysis mode
  198 - Added white/black commands for use with icsDrone
  199 - Command line options now follow GNU standards (./gnuchess --help)
  200 - Some optimisations added
  201 - Book may be stored in /usr/share/games/gnuchess/book.dat
  202 - Program no longer starts search from scratch every move
  204 New in gnuchess 5.05:
  206 - Fixed a potential buffer overflow in pgn.c.
  207 - General code cleanups, bug fixes, and probably introduction
  208   of new bugs, especially in pondering related code
  209 - The opening book is now looked for in 
  210   /usr/lib/games/gnuchess/book.dat if it is not found in the
  211   working directory.
  212 - Changes for easing compilation with MSVC
  213 - Removed support for the Novag Universal Board. The recommended
  214   alternative is to use the winboard driver for this board, which
  215   is linked to on http://www.tim-mann.org/extensions.html
  217 New in gnuchess 5.04:
  218 - Bug fixes (as always)
  220 New in gnuchess 5.03:
  221 - Bug fixes (The infamous "illegal move" bug should be dead by now.)
  222 - Architecture independent binary book. Yes, you may now move your
  223   binary book around between little and big endian, 32 and 64 bit
  224   machines and it should not break. 
  225 - Build system is now automake/autoconf, should ease porting gnuchess
  226   to your favorite strange architecture. (Hell, what about gnuchess on
  227   cellphones...?)
  229 Version 5.03
  231   Book handling rewritten, and other major changes collected and applied
  232   by Stuart Cracraft before use of CVS. Book need to be remade from PGN.
  234   List of Grandmasters we "trust" in generating the opening book was
  235   extended.
  237   Contributed Bug fixes - various.
  239   Code placed under CVS after some minor changes to 5.02.
  240   Opening book not placed under CVS - too large.
  242   Other changes managed under CVS
  244   Installation instructions corrected "book create" to "book add".
  245   Makefile modified to work with OpenBSD make.
  246   Use of C++ reserved words as variable names removed for ease of reuse. 
  247   The C Macro i386 replaced with Endianness test for portability.
  248   Lots of unreachable code removed to make it more readable.
  249   "#ifdef debug" and "#ifdef never" code removed.
  250   Removed problem with "space" on the end of filenames.
  251   Handle XBoard SIGINT gracefully (Caused Solaris Xboard problem).
  252   Reduced default hashtable size.
  253   Deleted Crafty style bad trade code as it was incorrect.
  255   The calculations for hung and pinned pieces were using stale
  256   information in the calculations. All relevant code was removed
  257   from the position evaluation routine. 
  259   Fixed loop bound error that allowed King to remain in check!!!
  261   Made input buffers consistent to stop crash on long commands.
  262   Correct hashtable handling of En Passant.
  263   Fixed EPD output when loading a game from file with Black to move.
  264   Fixed file handling problem extending opening book.
  266   Various modifications to SortMove to encourage examination of
  267   pushing passed pawns, centralisation, before other moves. Some
  268   modification have little effect, as the calling of sorting routines
  269   is quite complex.
  271   Added various EPD files for developer testing. These files cannot be
  272   included in the released tar file until copyright issues are resolved.
  274   Removed Outside passed pawn bonus from Evaluate as it was
  275   incorrectly in the pawn hash section.
  277   Removed the chess_faq.html file from the distribution, as this
  278   belongs on the GNU web site.
  280 Version 5.02
  282   Various bug fixes.
  284 Version 5.01
  286   Sun Mar  4 11:02:52 EST 2001 - book/book.*
  287     Stuart Cracraft <cracraftt@gnu.org>
  288     Expanded opening book
  290   Sun Dec 12 11:42:10 EST 1999 - src/version.c
  291     Patrick Gundlach <gundlach@irb.cs.uni-dortmund.de>
  292     fflush stdout in Xboard startup (i.e. "Chess" herald)
  294 Version 5.00 *** RELEASE ***		(September 30, 1999 - cracraft)
  296 o Found that after first ^C interrupt to running program a second one would
  297   exit it. Added a new signal (..) call in EndSearch. Okay now.
  299 o Structure the tree (doc, book, src, etc.)
  301 o Rename the tree from gnuchess5.0 to chess-5.00
  303 o Revise version.h.
  305 o Revised copywrite.
  307 o Revised COPYING (update FSF address).
  309 o Default to post mode (statistics) if not xboard.
  311 Version 5.00j
  312      - integrated 1.21k from Kong.
  313      - added 
  314 	traditional anti-computer locked pawn structure penalty
  315 	traditional anti-computer stonewall pawn structure penalty
  316 	crafty's eight pawns penalty
  317 	old cobalt's ahopen traditional anti-computer edge-of-board attack
  318 	center pawns
  319 	shortened time until queen penalty (4 moves instead of 8)
  320      EICS 5/31/99
  321 	Games:          83
  322 	Ave.opp:        1882
  323 	Percent:        77
  324 	Result:         63W + 4D + 16L = 77 %
  325 	Rating:         2093
  326      FICS 6/15/99
  327  	Games:          125
  328 	Ave.opp:        1766
  329 	Percent:        81
  330 	Result:         100W + 10D + 15L = 81 %
  331 	Rating:         2017
  333 Version 5.00i
  334      - use GNU 4.0 eval instead. toss out evaluation.
  335      - Win-at-Chess test: 229/300 at 5 seconds per move. 10,949,825 nodes
  336 	1507 seconds
  337      - Add Queen+Piece threat extension from Kong.
  338      - WAC: 235/300 at 5 seconds per move. 9,656,161 nodes. 1525 seconds.
  339      - Add the whole GNU 4.0 style calling sequence in Evaluate (lazy,
  340        single lone king, etc.)
  341      - WAC: 213/300 at 5 seconds per move, 17,911,670 nodes. 1437 seconds.
  342      - FICS result:
  343 	Games:          34
  344 	Ave.opp:        1836
  345 	Percent:        85
  346 	Result:         28W + 4D + 2L = 85 %
  347 	Rating:         2132
  349 Version 5.00h
  350      - book.c: when in XBOARD mode, the book needs to be quiet without status.
  351      - eval.c: some formatting
  352      - Win-at-Chess test: 219/300 at 5 seconds per move. 11,864,883 nodes.
  353 			  1441.7 seconds (out of 1500 permitted).
  354      - eval.c: penalize knight on rim even more.
  355                up undevelopment penalty.
  357 Version 5.00g
  358      - Add Crafty-style bad-trade code for bad piece exchange penalty.
  360 Version 5.00f
  361      - Kong contributed rotated bitboards move generator.
  362        It tests 21% faster than the old move generator,
  363        yet overall program speed is about 8% slower based
  364        on testing.
  365      - Added ROOKTRAPPED code for rook trapped by king.
  367 Version 5.00f
  368      - BUGFIX: Kong provided a fix to prevent segmentation faults in
  369        certain rare positions:
  370 		6Q1/8/8/4K3/8/8/p7/1k1 w - - bm 1; id 1;
  371      - based on analysis of 7 lost games last night it was
  372        noted that 6 of these were in positions where the program
  373        played other than double king-pawn or double queen-pawn
  374        instead opting for non-classical openings, so...
  375        fix to always play double-pawn as long as the evaluation resolves
  376        to that order of moves once book has been scored.
  377        this is done by having the program choose from between the 
  378        top 2 moves for white's first move (excluding Nf3, but including
  379        e4 and d4) and only the top 1 move for black's first move
  380        (excluding non-kp/qp replies to KP/QP by white). For odd
  381        openings like Reti or Nc3, fairly good moves are picked with
  382        the above algorithm, that may be preferable to just having
  383        only kp/kp or qp/qp for this algorithm).
  384      - BUGFIX: fix problem that resulted in friendly king not being
  385        penalized enough for being far from enemy passed pawns.
  386      - FEATURE: Add DistMap[m][n] array. This array has all
  387        bits turned on that are n squares away from the m square where
  388        m is A1..H8. Aids in rapid diagnosis of distances.
  389      - FEATURE: Add penalty for every enemy pawn within 3 squares
  390        of the friendly king in the opening and middlegame: KINGNEARENEMYPAWN.
  391      - FEATURE: Add penalty for no friendly minors or queen within
  392        3 squares of king in opening or middlegame: KINGNOSUPPORT.
  393 	Games: 		27
  394 	Ave.opp:	1631
  395 	Percent:	96
  396 	Result:		26W + 0D + 1L = 96 %
  397 	Rating:		2132
  399 Version 5.00e (beginning of March)
  400      - try increasing pawncover values -- no good.
  401      - try diminishing underattack values -- seems good.
  402      - add pawn majority/minority calculation
  403      - add in better connected passed pawn evaluator
  404      - double penalty for open files adjacent to or on king's file if 
  405        enemy queen present.
  406 	Games: 		91
  407 	Ave.opp:	1763
  408 	Percent:	87
  409 	Result:		79W + 2D + 10L = 87 %
  410 	Rating:		2085
  412 Version 5.00d (late February)
  413      - cleaned up version prior to all the mods to get rating back.
  414      - one night result:
  415 	Games: 		29
  416 	Ave.opp:	1616
  417 	Percent:	89
  418 	Result:		25W + 2D + 2L = 89 %
  419 	Rating:		1967
  420      - fix up PGN save-to-file routine. Was putting black in result.
  421      - ScoreDev returns only if fully developed.
  422      - Diminish connected passed pawn penalty.
  423 	Games: 		104
  424 	Ave.opp:	1797
  425 	Percent:	77
  426 	Result:		80W + 2D + 22L = 77 %
  427 	Rating:		2008
  429 Version 5.00b (late January)
  430      search.c - Razoring.  This applies at depth == 3.  If we are more
  431 	      than a Q behind and there is no extension, then reduce 
  432 	      the depth by 1. Extended futility pruning.  At depth == 2, 
  433 	      if we are more than 600 points behind and there is no 
  434 	      extension, then we only look at checking moves & captures 
  435 	      which bring the material score back to alpha. Everything 
  436 	      else is pruned away.  This is an extension of the basic
  437 	      futility pruning which applies at depth == 1.
  438      cmd.c  - modify so that all games go to game.nnn and the
  439 	      log of their searches go to log.nnn where the two
  440 	      nnn's match.
  441      version.c - split off VERSION/etc info into version.h
  442      Makefile  - make version.c depend on version.h
  443      pgn.c     - have PGNSaveGame record player's names based on "name" command
  444      common.h  - adjust knight and bishop values
  445      iterate.c - was not taking up to 2 x nominal time per move when in
  446 		 bad situations. fixed.
  447      book.c    - for random choice amongst top N moves of preferred book
  448 		 now sorts all moves by stored book score and picks
  449 		 randomly amongst N based. Previous algorithm was flawed.
  450      eval.c - add penalties for attacks against ones king in
  451             - add OPENGAME heuristic (1/4 pawn reward for positions
  452 	      in which root position either side has more than 6 pawns
  453 	      and in the leaf position both sides have <= 6
  454 	      (idea due to Larry Kaufman and Don Dailey of Socrates)
  455 	    - lots of work on development scoring.
  456      - Win-at-Chess test: 233/300 at 5 seconds per move. 14,940,780 nodes.
  457      - Rating went to FICS 2050 with all the positional changes on 1/31/99.
  458      - make king attacks per piece to reward multiple attacks to
  459        same square by multiple pieces
  460      - anti-stonewall
  461      - credit protectors in front of king and penalize attackers.
  462      - penalize repeat pawn moves before development complete.
  463      - rating maintained at FICS 2049.
  465 Version 5.00a (13 Dec 98)
  467   - integrated with WinBoard 4.0 / Xboard
  468   - post/nopost (show iterative deepening)
  469   - time controls (level, fischer, sudden-death, time, otim, etc.)
  470   - works properly with FICS (Free Internet Chess Server)
  471   - added opening book capability.
  472   - futility pruning according to Kong.
  473   - weak back rank handling for kings
  474   - canned attacks against computer's king (via opening A/H file)
  475   - penalize early minor piece repeat moves.
  476   - wingpawn advance before castling penalty.
  477   - Win-at-Chess test: 233/300 at 5 seconds per move. 14,977,757 nodes.
  478   - Convert it to properly run on a standard Unix system, not just PC's.
  479   - Make it work with "configure".
  480   - Distribute to beta-testers
  481   -  eval.c - PawnSq[], make penalty for d2/e2/d7/e7 pawns
  482 	      KingSq, KnightSq, PawnSq improved
  483      eval.h - PINNED* worsened
  484             - BISHOP_PAIR from 40 to 25. beta tester input.
  485   -  iterate.c - disable Hyatt more-time-after-book algorithm
  486 		 disable Chua's dont-start-every-new-iteration
  487   - this version made a 115 point rating jump (to FICS 2030).
  489 ****************** BEGIN GNU 5 (Stuart Cracraft) ********************
  491 Version 1.19 (18 Jul 98)
  492 	a. Found problems when PV not updated when best >= beta; changed this
  493 	   in both Quiesce() and Search().
  494 	b. A ValidateBoard() function.
  495 	c. Bug fix in SwapOff().  In Evaluate(), position with KNN with no 
  496 	   pawns wasn't being scored as 0; done.
  497 	d. More accurate & faster hung piece evaluation.
  498 	e. We skip null search when MATERIAL+ValueP <= beta instead of alpha.
  499 	   This makes more sense as we are only interested in beta.  Also if
  500 	   the hash table returns an upper bound, the score < beta, so forget
  501 	   about doing the null test.  This both gives about 6% reduction in
  502 	   nodes searched.
  503 	f. In Search(), when doing TTGet, g0 is destroyed even though we use it
  504 	   in the null test later.  This is fixed.  Passed pawns made less
  505 	   valuable; increased CONNECTEDPP from 450 to 650 to compensate.
  506 	g. One-reply extensions should be checked before probing the hash table
  507 	   otherwise, such a probe will take place at a lesser depth than it 
  508 	   should.  The algorithm to prune if no faster mate is found is 
  509 	   also brought forward to before the hash probe.
  510 	h. When all root-moves fail low, it is still a good idea to try the
  511 	   best move found at the last iteration first.
  512 	i. Sometimes pawn-to-7th rank extensions wasn't being carried out.
  513            This is fixed; also these extensions are only done at the leaf only.
  514 	   If a root move is a recapture, it is extended as well.
  515 	j. Bonus/penalties for rook behind/in front of passed pawn.  For ending
  516 	   don't give bonus for rook on open files as rook behind passed pawns
  517 	   are stronger.
  518 	k. SwapOff() wasn't handling promotion moves at all; this is now fixed.
  519 	   Some of the sort algorithm has to be changed to take into account
  520 	   the update to SwapOff.  Also minor bug fix to AddXrayPiece().
  521 	l. Penalize side where a pawn base is under attack by opponent's pawn.
  522 	m. At SearchRoot() we don't need to do any extensions.  For recapture
  523 	   extensions, we only extend if it is capture of equal or more 
  524 	   material so as to follow sacrifices (e.g QxP+ KxQ etc). 
  525 	n. Bonus for pawn on c6/f6 if opponent king is in the appropriate 
  526 	   corner.
  527 	o. Extension for useless interposing moves.  Limit recapture extensions
  528 	   to below Idepth+2.
  529 	p. For PV's we no longer back it up from the root.  Now the whole
  530 	   PV is taken from the hash table except for the first move.  This
  531 	   is a much cleaner way of managing it, saving code in search.  
  532 	   Otherwise, the PV that is return isn't always correct and its 
  533 	   really very difficult to fix.
  534 	q. There were some bugs with HashKey calculation in move.c, init.c
  535 	   and hash.c.  These have been fixed.  The idea is that for ALL  
  536 	   positions in a game, the HashKey must be equal to the HashKey
  537 	   calculated if the positions are epd-loaded.  Got rid of CptrCnt[]
  538 	   array; I no longer use it for capture extensions.
  539 	r. King position is now stored in the variable board; we no longer
  540 	   need to run leadz (board.b[side][king]) anymore, which takes place
  541 	   in quite a number of places!
  542 	s. An AttackXTo() routine which generates a bitboard of all pieces
  543 	   of side which attack a square.  This includes x-rays.  Bug in
  544 	   GenCheckEscapes() whereby a pawn capturing a checking piece is
  545 	   not checked for promotion.  When Idepth <= 3, we don't do null
  546 	   move.  This allows us to catch some mates in 2 which would 
  547 	   otherwise be pruned away by the null move.
  548 	t. Added in threat extension code.  A mate at any depth is better
  549 	   than a non-mate score, so it will replace it in the ttable.
  550 	   More "bug fixes", eg. sometimes null moves terminate the PV, 
  551 	   hopefully this is all fixed in this release.
  552 	u. A TTGetPV to pull the PV from the hash table.  This works better
  553 	   than TTGet which can sometimes miss the PV due to the way the
  554 	   hash tables are managed.
  555 	v. Bonus for fianchetto bishops.  Minor change to TTPut() whereby
  556 	   occasionally the same position can occupy both slots but the 2nd
  557 	   slot has a lower draft.  The 2nd slot is wasted.  This is changed
  558 	   so that this waste will no longer occur.
  560 Version 1.18 (18 Mar 98)
  561 	a. In MakeMove(), when a rook is captured, the castling flag has to be
  562 	   updated too.  This also means that in genmove.c, when generating
  563 	   castling moves, it is not necessary to check if the rook is on its
  564 	   original square.  However this check hasn't been removed yet.
  565 	b. Add "epdsave/save" command.
  566 	c. Debug code in quiesce.c wasn't being activated; fixed.  
  567 	d. In ttable.c, use & for calculating hashindex rather than the more
  568 	   expensive modulo operation.  Gain a couple of percent speedup.
  569 	   Also fix the hashsize command so that it is also a power of 2.
  570 	   Also get rid of modulo operation everywhere else in the code.
  571 	e. For connected pawns on 6th/7th rank only apply super bonus when
  572 	   the enemy only has rooks.
  573 	   When researching a fail high move & it fail low, immediately set
  574 	   alpha to -INF and research it.  This assumes that the original move
  575 	   did not fail high.
  576 	f. PhasePick() was sometimes trying out the Hashmv twice resulting in
  577 	   wasted time.  Fixed by making Hashmv[] an array.
  578 	g. Bug in trade down code fixed.  Also modified the way worstscore
  579 	   was calculated resulting in a significant speedup in Evaluate().
  580 	   Fine tune ScoreB().
  581 	h. Added a FindPins() function which returns a bitboard of all pinned
  582 	   pieces.  This is used in eval.c for evaluating pinned pieces.
  583 	i. Modify way in which sorting of captures was done.  This led to a
  584 	   reduction in the quiescent search speeding things up slightly.
  585 	j. For killers, only update them if best >= beta; this gives much
  586 	   improved pruning.  Remove killer updates in SearchRoot().
  587 	   Remove transposition lookup & updates in SearchRoot().  Got rid of
  588 	   pbest in SearchRoot().
  589 	k. In quiesce(), only update the PV if the score > alpha, not when 
  590 	   score > best.  When a mate in N plies have been found, at the N-1
  591 	   ply, we don't search the opponent moves; we only check to see if
  592 	   he is mated.  Simplify SearchRoot().
  593 	l. If the hash table returns an upperbound, then we don't want the
  594 	   move that is returned, so set Hashmv=0.  This improves pruning.
  595 	m. SquarePawnMask[] for pawns on 2nd rank is wrong; it is now set to
  596 	   mask for pawns on 3rd rank as they can advance 2 square.  SwapOff()
  597 	   used to assume that the side to move is the one moving the piece.
  598 	   This has been changed to that SwapOff() can be used for any side.
  599 	   Bug fixed in evaluation of trapped bishop.  Bug in GenCheckEscapes()
  600 	   whereby an e.p. capture was allowed even if the pawn is pinned;
  601 	   this is fixed.  A nicer and bigger board.
  602 	n. For endings with opposite colour bishops, half the score as they
  603 	   are mostly drawish.  Instead of penalizing weak pawns, give bonus
  604 	   to pieces which attack weak enemy pawns.  Lots of evaluation tuning.
  605 	   Commented out ShowThinking() resulting in faster search.  All this
  606 	   has improved the nodes per second by 50%! Fix bug in MakeMove() 
  607 	   whereby if a R captures another R, the castling flag for the
  608 	   captured rook is not cleared.
  609 	o. Updated FindPins() to include more pin situations. Introduce a 
  610 	   variable called computer; this hold the colour that the program
  611 	   plays.  Make a trapped bishop part of lazy evaluation as it gives a
  612 	   high penalty.  Promotion weren't taken into account in SortRoot().
  613 	p. A basic KPK evaluation for certain positions.  Another bug in 
  614 	   GenCheckEscape(); a promotion move to escape check isn't taken into
  615 	   account.  Introduced a board.pmaterial[] variable which holds the
  616            pieces total value for a side.  PHASE is now calculated using only
  617 	   pieces values.  In Quiesce(), when side is in check we don't prune 
  618 	   even if best >= beta; this is now fixed; when in check, we see if
  619 	   we are checkmated, if not and there is a beta cut, do it saving
  620 	   some branches.  History was updated everytime best > alpha; now it		   is updated only when best >= beta, or when a score > alpha has been
  621 	   found.  All this gives rise to improved pruning about 2-3 %.
  622 	q. Some fine tuning of passed pawn eval.  Add quiesce move to ttable
  623 	   so that it can appear in the PV.
  625 Version 1.17 (9 Feb 98)
  626 	a. Added very elementary hanging piece evaluation.
  627 	b. For square of the pawn, instead of adding ValueQ - ValueP, we
  628 	   a fraction of ValueQ based on how far advance the pawn is.  This
  629 	   is to encourage the pawn to advance and queen.  Fix a bug in 
  630 	   IsLegalMove() whereby an en-passant was considered illegal.
  631 	c. More accurate hanging piece evaluation.
  632 	d. IsLegalMove() was missing out enpassant captures.  Fixed.
  633 	e. Added a ptype[] variable to distinguish between pawn & bpawn;
  634 	f. In Search(), initialize PVlen before checking for draws.  This fix
  635 	   problems with illegal moves in the PV (e.g. GMG1.epd 42).
  636 	g. Renamed Pinned() to PinnedOnKing().  A new Pinned() function will
  637 	   be written to be more generic.  Minor change to SearchRoot(), the
  638 	   first move is also moved within the main loop, making things tidy.
  639 	h. Xboard support.
  640 	i. In Search(), the first move is also moved into the main loop.  This
  641 	   is to make the code better suited for adding threat extensions.
  642 	   Game50 variable wasn't being properly updated; fixed.
  643 	j. Trapped bishop at A7/H7/A2/H2.  Rook moved before castling is now
  644 	   penalized.  Minor optimization in eval.c.  More eval tuning.
  645 	k. Also promotion moves were not being sorted properly; this is fixed.
  646 	l. board.ep was initialized to 0; now its -1 fixing a bug when 
  647 	   promotion happens at A1 square (square 0).
  648 	m. Instead of storing the whole board HashKey into the ttable, we now
  649 	   store the top 32 bits, saving memory.  Same for Pawn table.
  650 	n. Fix bug in backward pawn detection.  Fix bug in search whereby
  651 	   sometimes the best move wasn't being properly set.  Fortunately,
  652 	   this happens quite deep in the tree, so not much improvement might
  653 	   be seen.  Change the way that scores are returned from the hash
  654 	   table probe to improve pruning. 
  655 	o. Trade down bonus implemented.  Recaptures extensions modified so 
  656 	   that only recaptures of same value & square are extended.
  657 	p. In Quiesce(), check for mates as well.
  658 	q. Killers at ply-2 is also used for sorting.  Reduced tree size
  659 	   slightly (2-3%).
  660 	r. Moves in the Quiesce() search were not being recorded in the PV.
  661 	   This is now fixed.
  662 	s. Bug fix in evaluation of square of the pawn whereby if the opponent
  663 	   is on the move, the pawn isn't scored properly.
  664 	t. Phase pick is implemented.  Code seems to be working.  Also bug
  665 	   fixes in IsLegalMove() and Evaluate().
  667 Version 1.16 (26 Jan 98)
  668 	a. Added a Mvboard[] array which returns the number of times a piece
  669 	   on [sq] have moved.  Use it for penalizing early Q moves.
  670 	b. ScoreDev() returns only development of side-to-move instead of
  671 	   white-black.
  672 	c. Separate Search() into a SearchRoot() which is called at ply==1
  673 	   and Search().  Some modifications in search.
  674 	d. Added back GenAtaks() into evaluate when doing slow evaluation.
  675 	   Modifications in the ScoreX() routines to make use of attack tables.
  676 	e. Fixed a bug in UnmakeNullMove whereby the board.ep variable wasn't
  677 	   correctly restored.  
  678 	f. Added the passed BitBoard into the pawn hash table allowing us 
  679 	   to save the passed pawn board into the table.
  680 	g. In evaluate, when one side has no mating material, make sure the
  681 	   score is never > 0.
  682 	h. Added in Square of the pawn evaluation.  Fix a bug in ScoreP whereby
  683 	   passed pawns information was being changed.  In EvaluateDraw(),
  684 	   fix a bug whereby 2N vs 2N wasn't a draw.
  685 	i. Fix a bug which sometimes put an illegal move in the PV.  This
  686 	   was happening when an EXACTSCORE was returned, but the PVlen was
  687 	   incorrectly set.
  688 	j. Lots of changes/tuning to eval.c.
  689 	k. Added in an IsLegalMove() function to test if a move is legal.
  690 	l. Added a Pinned() function to test if a piece is pinned against
  691 	   the King. 
  692 	m. Added a GenCheckEscape() routine to generate move when a king is
  693 	   in check.  In SearchRoot(), there is no need to check if a move
  694 	   is legal as all root moves are legal.  
  695 	n. If King is in check, generate check escapes only and if there is
  696 	   only 1 move, extend by another move.
  698 Version 1.15 (16 Jan 1998)
  699 	a. Convert AlgbrMove() to return char * rather than void.
  700 	b. In the quiescent search, use SwapOff() to see if a capture is
  701 	   futile and prune it.  Removed as it wasn't working well.
  702 	c. Big bonus for connected passed pawns on the 6/7th rank.  Solves
  703 	   WAC/2 easily.
  704 	d. Bug fix and clean up of code in sort.c.  Results in improve capture
  705 	   sorting and better pruning.  Got rid of DeepExtCnt; not used.
  706 	e. For search extensions, limit capture to maximum of 2 and checks to
  707 	   maximum of Idepth, the iteration depth.
  708 	f. SwapOff() wasn't working for non-captures as pointed out by Stuart.
  709 	   Fixed SwapOff(); appears to be okay now. Used SwapOff() in capture 
  710 	   move ordering; seems to help a bit.
  711 	g. In Search(), move the Quiesce() call before the ttable probe.  
  712 	   Slight improvement in pruning and ttable stats are now much higher.
  713 	h. Still another bug in AddXrayPiece() was fixed.  
  714 	i. Slight change in GenMoves() to speed it up slightly.
  715 	j. Implemented pawn hash table.  Achieves good increase in nps (25%).
  716 	k. Added in a SquarePawnMask[] array.  This is to determine if a king
  717 	   is able to stop a passed in a king and pawns only endgame.
  718 	l. Material values of 100,350,350,550,1100.  Also some optimizations
  719 	   in move.c.  PHASE modified for new material values.
  720 	m. Implemented a two-tier transposition table.  Minimal gain in tree
  721 	   size reduction.
  722 	n. Only store non-captures as killers; try killers after captures
  723 	   in sort.  This gives more than 30% reductions in nodes searched.
  724 	   Also fix a bug in SortMoves().
  725 	o. Only give bonus for rook on 7th rank if enemy king is on 8th rank
  726 	   or there are enemy pawns on 7th rank.  Other bug fixes and tuning
  727 	   in eval.
  728 	p. Recognize and penalize backward pawns.
  730 Version 1.14 (3 Jan 98)
  731 	a. Fixed bug in solve.c whereby the test for a correct solution is not
  732 	   correctly done (pointed out by Stuart).
  733 	b. When searching for mates, eval just return MATERIAL saving time.
  734 	c. Uses EPD format rather than FEN; also clean up ParseEPD; fen.c
  735 	   now called epd.c
  736 	d. io.c renamed to output.c.  Game phase is now 1-8 (opening-ending).
  737 	e. In quiesce(), if a capture cannot bring the score near alpha,
  738 	   don't search it, speeding things up.
  739 	f. If we have a rootscore much worst that our previous iteration
  740 	   rootscore, we continuing searching.  (Fix from Stuart).
  741 	g. Got rid of nxtline, bstline way of updating the PV.  Instead use
  742 	   the method in cheops, resulting in much cleaner code. 
  743 	h. Got rid of savePVar[] array and all the code related to it.  
  744 	   What its for, I can't remember.
  745 	i. SortMoves() takes into account moves towards the centre.  Pruning
  746 	   is slightly improved.
  747 	j. AttackFrom() function is added.  This returns the bitboard of 
  748 	   squares attacked by a piece.  Remove GenAtaks() and other code
  749 	   in eval.c which required the use of attack tables.
  750 	k. Bug in ScoreDev() whereby an early Queen move which should be 
  751 	   penalized isn't.  Various bug fixes & tuning in eval code.
  752 	l. PGNReadFromFile() is able to read the 1st game in a pgn file.
  753 	m. In the null move, instead of searching with window [alpha,beta],
  754 	   we search with [beta-1,beta].
  755 	n. Added in a directions[][] array.  This array is used in swap.c 
  756 	   when checking for x-ray pieces.  Added AddXrayPiece() routine
  757 	   which is used in the static evaluator. 
  758 	o. Got rid of foundPV variable.  It isn't really necessary.
  759 	p. Don't flag mate score in ttable as exact score; they aren't.
  760 	q. Change some (best >= alpha) code to (best > alpha) in Search().
  761 	   What was I thinking of then!?
  763 Note:  From this point on, changes within a release are labelled as a-z.  This
  764 is also reflected in version.c
  766 Version 1.13 (1 Jan 98)
  767 	Got rid of history.c.  Killer is stored only if it is a beta cut.
  768 	Fix bug in pawn eval for isolated pawns and passed pawns.  Functions
  769 	like ScoreDev & MATERIAL now return the score for side to move instead
  770 	of score for white.  This also fixed a bug in the null move condition
  771 	whereby MATERIAL was only seen from white point of view when it should
  772 	be from the side-to-move view.  Got rid of SlowEval variable speeding
  773 	up things quite a bit.  GenAtaks() was NOT called in Evaluate(); this
  774 	is now fixed.
  776 Version 1.12 (27 Dec 97)
  777         When a mate in n-ply is found, the search will never go deeper than
  778         n-2 ply.  Fix some bugs in search.c.  Mate scores in hashtables are 
  779 	now always flag as EXACTSCORE, fixing some bugs in mates.  At ply 1,
  780 	we now don't return the hash score if it is an exact score as we
  781 	need to search the rest of the moves.  In ttable.c, SANMove() should
  782 	not be called as GenMoves(ply) was never called.  This affected the
  783 	debug code.  Now algebraic moves are printed rather than SANMove for
  784 	ttable debug code.  Fix repetition code, now gmg1.ci/42 can be solved.
  785 	In iterate.c, foundPV should be set to false when a research is 
  786 	being done.  A Hashmv variable is used to store the move return from
  787 	probing the hash table.  This is use for move sorting.  
  789 Version 1.11 (21 Nov 97)
  790         Nulls can be toggled on/off.  Worstscore[] is now initialized to
  791         -100 instead of infinity.  EvaluateDraw() is called after iterative
  792         deepening is over to see if the game is a draw.  New routine
  793         ScoreDev() to calculate development separately; "show eval" command
  794         will print development score.  Got rid of Developed[2] global variable.
  795         Some tweaking in search.c.  The decision to print '&' or '+' for a
  796         PV is now in ShowLine().
  798 Version 1.10 (29 Aug 96)
  799 	KBBK with bishops of the same colour are now recognized as draws.
  800 	Matescore now starts from 32767 instead of 9999.  INFINITY 
  801 	extended to 32767.  Added Ctrl-C trap so that the search will end
  802         instead of aborting the program.  Originally the move returned by
  803         a hash probe is added to the history score.  This is removed and
  804 	the program show much improved pruning.
  806 Version 1.9 (17 Aug 96)
  807 	Change the way check/recapture extensions are tested; previously
  808 	check extensions only take place at <= Idepth*2.  Now a total of
  809 	Idepth+1 check extensions are allowed.  For recapture, a total 
  810 	of 2 extensions are allowed.  This makes the program search deeper.
  811 	Fix bug whereby a promotion move (e.g. d8=Q or d8Q) was considered
  812 	illegal if the opponent tried to enter it on the command line.  
  813 	Fixed a bug in the PVS search.
  815 Version 1.8 (12 Aug 96)
  816 	A lot of leaf struct variables are converted to int, making the
  817 	program slightly faster.  Search extension for pushing pawns to
  818 	7th rank.  The SANMove() code is now responsible for determining
  819 	if a checking move is mate and adds the '#' sign accordingly.
  820 	This is much cleaner.  Added passed-pawn evaluations.  Fix bug
  821 	in eval.c where EnemyKing was wrongly initialized.  Added KingSq[]
  822 	array to help King stay in the corner.  Added primitive development
  823 	code; if bishops and knights are on original squares, penalize.
  824 	Got rid of Material() and substitute a macro MATERIAL for speed.
  826 Version 1.7 (5 Aug 96)
  827 	A nullhashcode was added so that a null move will change the 
  828 	HashKey (a bad bug!).  Repetition code is now working correctly.
  829 	The enpassant and castling hash codes are now 64 bit hash values
  830 	instead of being bits in the HashKey.  A lone king evaluator is
  831 	added in.  This allows the program to perform elementary mates.
  832 	Got rid of FilterIllegalMoves() in search.  Now all pseudo-legal
  833  	moves are tried; they are immediately rejected if it is determined
  834 	that they are illegal.  An EvaluateDraw() routine is called early
  835 	in the Search() and Quiesce(); if the position is a known draw 
  836 	(e.g. not enough mating material), no searching is done.  A KBNK() 
  837 	mating routine is added; this seems to be working fine.
  839 Version 1.6 (2 Aug 96)
  840 	When displaying the PV and the end is reached, see if the rest of
  841 	the line can be found from the transposition table.  The random 
  842 	number generator is taken from Knuth.  FilterIllegalMoves is called 
  843 	to cull out illegal moves.  This prunes enough branches such that 
  844 	it turns out to be a gain.  Speeded up FilterIllegalMoves().  
  845 	Converted board.ep to short rather than using a BitBoard.  Also
  846 	fast evaluation is done in Evaluate() rather than quiesce.  Got rid
  847 	of epsq variable in leaf structure; it wasn't needed as a board.ep
  848 	already exists.  A bug was introduced when the new random number
  849 	generator was added; the top ten bits of the hashkey was being  
  850 	corrupted; this is now fixed.  Speeded up null.c code and MakeMove()
  851 	UnmakeMove() routines.  Got rid of piececap in leaf{} structure;
  852 	It has been integrated in the the leaf.flag variable.  The leaf.f
  853 	and leaf.t variable has been merged into the leaf.mv variable.
  855 Version 1.5 (29 Jul 96)
  856 	Mate stored in the transposition table need to be offset by (+-ply).
  857 	Pruning via killer moves has been improved.  A new HistoryStore()
  858 	is created for code dealing with history & killer.  InChk and 
  859 	GenMoves() are no longer needed in quiesce().  All that work is the 
  860 	responsibility of the full-width search.  Much improved pruning.  
  861 	The flag structure was replaced by an unsigned long.  Got rid of the 
  862 	ExScore variable.  Now all calls to Evaluate() will yield the exact 
  863 	score.
  865 Version 1.4 (19 Jul 96)
  866 	Check for repetition in search (code currently not working).
  867 	Added in transposition table code.  Currently there is no rehashing
  868 	done.  The whole PV was returned to the top of the tree. 
  870 Version 1.3 (16 Jul 96)
  871 	For null moves, if the current material+pawn value is less than
  872 	alpha, then we don't try the null move test.  The reason is that
  873 	since our position is already so poor, when playing a null move,
  874 	our score is going to be less (unless the position is zugzwang).
  875 	So its not going to be a beta-cut neither is it likely to improve
  876 	alpha.  This appears to reduce the nodecount.  Added a flag.ended 
  877 	variable to the flag structure.  When this is true, the game has 
  878 	ended and typing go will produce nothing.  
  880 Version 1.2 (13 Jul 96)
  881 	For sort captures, a recapture is always tried before another
  882 	capture of the same value.  This gives slightly better pruning.
  883 	Material for white & black is updated incrementally in make/unmake
  884 	move.  This speeded up the program significantly.  Stalemates are 
  885 	recognized during the search and a score of 0 is returned.
  887 Version 1.1 (19 Feb 96)
  888 	Added in the NULL move heuristics.  Currently the null move
  889 	depth reduction is 2.
  891 Version 1.0 (17 Feb 96)		(Chua Kong Sian)
  892 	This version plays a legal game of chess.  It supports all the
  893 	special moves (en passant, castling and promotion/underpromotion).
  894 	It uses the standard PVS search algorithm and incorporates the
  895 	fail-soft alpha-beta enhancement which gives tighter alpha-beta
  896 	bounds.  All evaluations are only done at the end-points.
  897 	Move ordering is by captures first and also history heuristics.