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    1 @c The GNU Free Documentation License.
    2 @center Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
    4 @c This file is intended to be included within another document,
    5 @c hence no sectioning command or @node.
    7 @display
    8 Copyright @copyright{} 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    9 @uref{https://fsf.org/}
   11 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
   12 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
   13 @end display
   15 @enumerate 0
   16 @item
   19 The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
   20 functional and useful document @dfn{free} in the sense of freedom: to
   21 assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
   22 with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
   23 Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
   24 to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
   25 for modifications made by others.
   27 This License is a kind of ``copyleft'', which means that derivative
   28 works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense.  It
   29 complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
   30 license designed for free software.
   32 We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
   33 software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
   34 program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
   35 software does.  But this License is not limited to software manuals;
   36 it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
   37 whether it is published as a printed book.  We recommend this License
   38 principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
   40 @item
   43 This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
   44 contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
   45 distributed under the terms of this License.  Such a notice grants a
   46 world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
   47 work under the conditions stated herein.  The ``Document'', below,
   48 refers to any such manual or work.  Any member of the public is a
   49 licensee, and is addressed as ``you''.  You accept the license if you
   50 copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
   51 under copyright law.
   53 A ``Modified Version'' of the Document means any work containing the
   54 Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
   55 modifications and/or translated into another language.
   57 A ``Secondary Section'' is a named appendix or a front-matter section
   58 of the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
   59 publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
   60 subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall
   61 directly within that overall subject.  (Thus, if the Document is in
   62 part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain
   63 any mathematics.)  The relationship could be a matter of historical
   64 connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
   65 commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
   66 them.
   68 The ``Invariant Sections'' are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
   69 are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
   70 that says that the Document is released under this License.  If a
   71 section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
   72 allowed to be designated as Invariant.  The Document may contain zero
   73 Invariant Sections.  If the Document does not identify any Invariant
   74 Sections then there are none.
   76 The ``Cover Texts'' are certain short passages of text that are listed,
   77 as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
   78 the Document is released under this License.  A Front-Cover Text may
   79 be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
   81 A ``Transparent'' copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
   82 represented in a format whose specification is available to the
   83 general public, that is suitable for revising the document
   84 straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
   85 pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
   86 drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
   87 for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
   88 to text formatters.  A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
   89 format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
   90 or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
   91 An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
   92 of text.  A copy that is not ``Transparent'' is called ``Opaque''.
   94 Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
   95 ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, La@TeX{} input
   96 format, SGML or XML using a publicly available
   97 DTD, and standard-conforming simple HTML,
   98 PostScript or PDF designed for human modification.  Examples
   99 of transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and
  100 JPG@.  Opaque formats include proprietary formats that can be
  101 read and edited only by proprietary word processors, SGML or
  102 XML for which the DTD and/or processing tools are
  103 not generally available, and the machine-generated HTML,
  104 PostScript or PDF produced by some word processors for
  105 output purposes only.
  107 The ``Title Page'' means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
  108 plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
  109 this License requires to appear in the title page.  For works in
  110 formats which do not have any title page as such, ``Title Page'' means
  111 the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
  112 preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
  114 The ``publisher'' means any person or entity that distributes copies
  115 of the Document to the public.
  117 A section ``Entitled XYZ'' means a named subunit of the Document whose
  118 title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
  119 text that translates XYZ in another language.  (Here XYZ stands for a
  120 specific section name mentioned below, such as ``Acknowledgements'',
  121 ``Dedications'', ``Endorsements'', or ``History''.)  To ``Preserve the Title''
  122 of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
  123 section ``Entitled XYZ'' according to this definition.
  125 The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
  126 states that this License applies to the Document.  These Warranty
  127 Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
  128 License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
  129 implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
  130 no effect on the meaning of this License.
  132 @item
  135 You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
  136 commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
  137 copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
  138 to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no other
  139 conditions whatsoever to those of this License.  You may not use
  140 technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
  141 copying of the copies you make or distribute.  However, you may accept
  142 compensation in exchange for copies.  If you distribute a large enough
  143 number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
  145 You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
  146 you may publicly display copies.
  148 @item
  151 If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
  152 printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
  153 Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
  154 copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
  155 Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
  156 the back cover.  Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
  157 you as the publisher of these copies.  The front cover must present
  158 the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
  159 visible.  You may add other material on the covers in addition.
  160 Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
  161 the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
  162 as verbatim copying in other respects.
  164 If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
  165 legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
  166 reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
  167 pages.
  169 If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
  170 more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
  171 copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
  172 a computer-network location from which the general network-using
  173 public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
  174 a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
  175 If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
  176 when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
  177 that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
  178 location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
  179 Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
  180 edition to the public.
  182 It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
  183 Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to give
  184 them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the Document.
  186 @item
  189 You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
  190 the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
  191 the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
  192 Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
  193 and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
  194 of it.  In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
  196 @enumerate A
  197 @item
  198 Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
  199 from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
  200 (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
  201 of the Document).  You may use the same title as a previous version
  202 if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
  204 @item
  205 List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
  206 responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
  207 Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
  208 Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
  209 unless they release you from this requirement.
  211 @item
  212 State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
  213 Modified Version, as the publisher.
  215 @item
  216 Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
  218 @item
  219 Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
  220 adjacent to the other copyright notices.
  222 @item
  223 Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
  224 giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
  225 terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
  227 @item
  228 Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
  229 and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
  231 @item
  232 Include an unaltered copy of this License.
  234 @item
  235 Preserve the section Entitled ``History'', Preserve its Title, and add
  236 to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
  237 publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page.  If
  238 there is no section Entitled ``History'' in the Document, create one
  239 stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
  240 given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
  241 Version as stated in the previous sentence.
  243 @item
  244 Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
  245 public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
  246 the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
  247 it was based on.  These may be placed in the ``History'' section.
  248 You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
  249 least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
  250 publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
  252 @item
  253 For any section Entitled ``Acknowledgements'' or ``Dedications'', Preserve
  254 the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all the
  255 substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements and/or
  256 dedications given therein.
  258 @item
  259 Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
  260 unaltered in their text and in their titles.  Section numbers
  261 or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
  263 @item
  264 Delete any section Entitled ``Endorsements''.  Such a section
  265 may not be included in the Modified Version.
  267 @item
  268 Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled ``Endorsements'' or
  269 to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
  271 @item
  272 Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
  273 @end enumerate
  275 If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
  276 appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
  277 copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
  278 of these sections as invariant.  To do this, add their titles to the
  279 list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
  280 These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
  282 You may add a section Entitled ``Endorsements'', provided it contains
  283 nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
  284 parties---for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
  285 been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
  286 standard.
  288 You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
  289 passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
  290 of Cover Texts in the Modified Version.  Only one passage of
  291 Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
  292 through arrangements made by) any one entity.  If the Document already
  293 includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
  294 by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
  295 you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
  296 permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
  298 The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
  299 give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
  300 imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
  302 @item
  305 You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
  306 License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
  307 versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
  308 Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
  309 list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
  310 license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
  312 The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
  313 multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
  314 copy.  If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
  315 different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
  316 adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
  317 author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
  318 Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
  319 Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
  321 In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled ``History''
  322 in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
  323 ``History''; likewise combine any sections Entitled ``Acknowledgements'',
  324 and any sections Entitled ``Dedications''.  You must delete all
  325 sections Entitled ``Endorsements.''
  327 @item
  330 You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other documents
  331 released under this License, and replace the individual copies of this
  332 License in the various documents with a single copy that is included in
  333 the collection, provided that you follow the rules of this License for
  334 verbatim copying of each of the documents in all other respects.
  336 You may extract a single document from such a collection, and distribute
  337 it individually under this License, provided you insert a copy of this
  338 License into the extracted document, and follow this License in all
  339 other respects regarding verbatim copying of that document.
  341 @item
  344 A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
  345 and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
  346 distribution medium, is called an ``aggregate'' if the copyright
  347 resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
  348 of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
  349 When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
  350 apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
  351 derivative works of the Document.
  353 If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
  354 copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
  355 the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
  356 covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
  357 electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
  358 Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
  359 aggregate.
  361 @item
  364 Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
  365 distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
  366 Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
  367 permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
  368 translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
  369 original versions of these Invariant Sections.  You may include a
  370 translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
  371 Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
  372 the original English version of this License and the original versions
  373 of those notices and disclaimers.  In case of a disagreement between
  374 the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
  375 or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
  377 If a section in the Document is Entitled ``Acknowledgements'',
  378 ``Dedications'', or ``History'', the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
  379 its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
  380 title.
  382 @item
  385 You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
  386 except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
  387 otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and
  388 will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
  390 However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license
  391 from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally,
  392 unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally
  393 terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder
  394 fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to
  395 60 days after the cessation.
  397 Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
  398 reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
  399 violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
  400 received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that
  401 copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after
  402 your receipt of the notice.
  404 Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the
  405 licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under
  406 this License.  If your rights have been terminated and not permanently
  407 reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does
  408 not give you any rights to use it.
  410 @item
  413 The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions
  414 of the GNU Free Documentation License from time to time.  Such new
  415 versions will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may
  416 differ in detail to address new problems or concerns.  See
  417 @uref{https://www.gnu.org/licenses/}.
  419 Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
  420 If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
  421 License ``or any later version'' applies to it, you have the option of
  422 following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
  423 of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
  424 Free Software Foundation.  If the Document does not specify a version
  425 number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
  426 as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation.  If the Document
  427 specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this
  428 License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a
  429 version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the
  430 Document.
  432 @item
  435 ``Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site'' (or ``MMC Site'') means any
  436 World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
  437 provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works.  A
  438 public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server.  A
  439 ``Massive Multiauthor Collaboration'' (or ``MMC'') contained in the
  440 site means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC
  441 site.
  443 ``CC-BY-SA'' means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
  444 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
  445 corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
  446 California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
  447 published by that same organization.
  449 ``Incorporate'' means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or
  450 in part, as part of another Document.
  452 An MMC is ``eligible for relicensing'' if it is licensed under this
  453 License, and if all works that were first published under this License
  454 somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole
  455 or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections,
  456 and (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.
  458 The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site
  459 under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009,
  460 provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.
  462 @end enumerate
  464 @page
  465 @heading ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
  467 To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
  468 the License in the document and put the following copyright and
  469 license notices just after the title page:
  471 @smallexample
  472 @group
  473   Copyright (C)  @var{year}  @var{your name}.
  474   Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
  475   under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
  476   or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
  477   with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover
  478   Texts.  A copy of the license is included in the section entitled ``GNU
  479   Free Documentation License''.
  480 @end group
  481 @end smallexample
  483 If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
  484 replace the ``with@dots{}Texts.''@: line with this:
  486 @smallexample
  487 @group
  488     with the Invariant Sections being @var{list their titles}, with
  489     the Front-Cover Texts being @var{list}, and with the Back-Cover Texts
  490     being @var{list}.
  491 @end group
  492 @end smallexample
  494 If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
  495 combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
  496 situation.
  498 If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
  499 recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
  500 free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
  501 to permit their use in free software.
  503 @c Local Variables:
  504 @c ispell-local-pdict: "ispell-dict"
  505 @c End: