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Pandoc, the universal document converter, can serve as a nice intro into functional programming with Haskell. For many contributors, including the author of this guide, pandoc was their first real exposure to this language. Despite its impressive size of more than 60.000 lines of Haskell code (excluding the test suite), pandoc is still very approachable due to its modular architecture. It can serve as an interesting subject for learning.

This guide exists to navigate the large amount of sources, to lay-out a path that can be followed for learning, and to explain the underlying concepts.

A basic understanding of Haskell and of pandoc's functionality is assumed.

Getting the code

Pandoc has a publicly accessible git repository on GitHub: https://github.com/jgm/pandoc. To get a local copy of the source:

git clone https://github.com/jgm/pandoc

The source for the main pandoc program is app/pandoc.hs. The source for the pandoc library is in src/, the source for the tests is in test/, and the source for the benchmarks is in benchmark/.

Core type definitions are in the separate pandoc-types repo. Get it with

git clone https://github.com/jgm/pandoc-types

The organization of library and test sources is identical to the main repo.

Document representation

The way documents are represented in pandoc is part of its success. Every document is read into one central data structure, the so-called abstract syntax tree (AST).

The AST is defined in module Text.Pandoc.Definition in package pandoc-types.

It is not necessary to understand the AST in detail, just check-out the following points:

Basic architecture

Take a look at pandoc's source files. The code is below the src directory, in the Text.Pandoc module. The basic flow is:

  1. Document is parsed into the internal representation by a reader;

  2. the document AST is modified (optional);

  3. then the internal representation is converted into the target format by a writer.

The [readers] can be found in Text.Pandoc.Readers, while the [writers] are submodules of Text.Pandoc.Writers. The document modification step is powerful and used in different ways, e.g., in [filters].

These parts are the "muscles" of pandoc, which do the heavy lifting. Everything else can be thought of as the bones and fibers to which these parts are attached and which make them usable.


Writers are usually simpler than readers and therefore easier to grasp.

Broadly speaking, there are three kind of writers:

  1. Text writers: these are used for lightweight markup languages and generate plain text output. Examples: Markdown, Org, reStructuredText.
  2. XML writers, which convert the AST into structured XML. Examples: HTML, JATS.
  3. Binary writers, which are like XML writers, but combine the output with other data and zip it into a single file. Examples: docx, epub.

Most writers follow a common pattern and have three main functions: docToFormat, blockToFormat and inlineToFormat. Each converts the Pandoc, Block, and Inline elements, respectively. The XWiki and TEI writers are comparatively simple and suitable samples when taking a first look.

Most writers are self-contained in that most of the conversion code is within a single module. However, newer writers often use a different setup: those are built around modules from an external package. The details of how to serialize the document are not in the writer module itself, but in an external module. The writer only has to convert pandoc's AST into the document representation used by the module. Good examples: commonmark, jira.


All writers build on the doclayout package. It can be thought of as a pretty printer with extra features suitable for lightweight markup languages. E.g., multiple blank lines are collapsed into a single blank line, unless multiple blank lines are specifically requested. This simplifies the code significantly.

See the repo at https://github.com/jgm/doclayout, and the hackage documentation


The same distinction that applies to writers also applies to readers. Readers for XML formats use XML parsing libraries, while plain text formats are parsed with parsec.


The plain type constructors from the Text.Pandoc.Definition module can be difficult to use, which is why the module Text.Pandoc.Builder exists. It offers functions to conveniently build and combine AST elements.

The most interesting and important types in Builder are Blocks and Inlines. All type constructors use simple lists for sequences of AST elements. Building lists can be awkward and often comes with bad performance characteristics, esp. when appending. The Blocks and Inlines types are better suited for these operations and are therefore used extensively in builder functions.

The builder functions are named with the convention that the suffix With is added if the first argument is an Attr; there is usually another function without that suffix, creating an element with no attributes.


Looking at the readers and writers, one will notice that they all operate within the PandocMonad type class. This class gives access to options, file operations, and other shared information. The typeclass has two main implementations: one operates in IO, so on the "real world", while the other provides a pure functional interface, suitable to "mock" an environment for testing.

Document modifications

One of the big advantages of a central document structure is that it allows document modifications via a unified interface. This section describes the multiple ways in which the document can be altered.


Document traversal happens through the Walkable class in module Text.Pandoc.Walk ([pandoc-types package]).


Transformations are simple modifications controllable through command-line options.


Filters allow to use Lua or any external language to perform document transformations.

Module overview

The library is structured as follows: