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1 GOST ENGINE
3 This engine provides implementation of Russian cryptography standard.
4 This is also an example of adding new cryptoalgorithms into OpenSSL
5 without changing its core. If OpenSSL is compiled with dynamic engine
6 support, new algorithms can be added even without recompilation of
7 OpenSSL and applications which use it.
9 ALGORITHMS SUPPORTED
11 GOST R 34.10-94 and GOST R 34.10-2001 - digital signature algorithms.
12 Also support key exchange based on public keys. See RFC 4357 for
13 details of VKO key exchange algorithm. These algorithms use
14 256 bit private keys. Public keys are 1024 bit for 94 and 512 bit for
15 2001 (which is elliptic-curve based). Key exchange algorithms
16 (VKO R 34.10) are supported on these keys too.
18 GOST R 34.11-94 Message digest algorithm. 256-bit hash value
20 GOST 28147-89 - Symmetric cipher with 256-bit key. Various modes are
21 defined in the standard, but only CFB and CNT modes are implemented
22 in the engine. To make statistical analysis more difficult, key
23 meshing is supported (see RFC 4357).
25 GOST 28147-89 MAC mode. Message authentication code. While most MAC
26 algorithms out there are based on hash functions using HMAC
27 algorithm, this algoritm is based on symmetric cipher.
28 It has 256-bit symmetric key and only 32 bits of MAC value
29 (while HMAC has same key size and value size).
31 It is implemented as combination of EVP_PKEY type and EVP_MD type.
33 USAGE OF THESE ALGORITHMS
35 This engine is designed to allow usage of this algorithms in the
36 high-level openssl functions, such as PKI, S/MIME and TLS.
38 See RFC 4490 for S/MIME with GOST algorithms and RFC 4491 for PKI.
39 TLS support is implemented according IETF
40 draft-chudov-cryptopro-cptls-03.txt and is compatible with
41 CryptoPro CSP 3.0 and 3.6 as well as with MagPro CSP.
42 GOST ciphersuites implemented in CryptoPro CSP 2.0 are not supported
43 because they use ciphersuite numbers used now by AES ciphersuites.
45 To use the engine you have to load it via openssl configuration
46 file. Applications should read openssl configuration file or provide
47 their own means to load engines. Also, applications which operate with
48 private keys, should use generic EVP_PKEY API instead of using RSA or
49 other algorithm-specific API.
51 CONFIGURATION FILE
53 Configuration file should include following statement in the global
54 section, i.e. before first bracketed section header (see config(5) for details)
56 openssl_conf = openssl_def
58 where openssl_def is name of the section in configuration file which
59 describes global defaults.
61 This section should contain following statement:
64 engines = engine_section
66 which points to the section which describes list of the engines to be
67 loaded. This section should contain:
70 gost = gost_section
72 And section which describes configuration of the engine should contain
75 engine_id = gost
76 dynamic_path = /usr/lib/ssl/engines/libgost.so
77 default_algorithms = ALL
78 CRYPT_PARAMS = id-Gost28147-89-CryptoPro-A-ParamSet
80 Where engine_id parameter specifies name of engine (should be "gost").
81 dynamic_path is a location of the loadable shared library implementing the
82 engine. If the engine is compiled statically or is located in the OpenSSL
83 engines directory, this line can be omitted.
84 default_algorithms parameter specifies that all algorithms, provided by
85 engine, should be used.
87 The CRYPT_PARAMS parameter is engine-specific. It allows the user to choose
88 between different parameter sets of symmetric cipher algorithm. RFC 4357
89 specifies several parameters for the GOST 28147-89 algorithm, but OpenSSL
90 doesn't provide user interface to choose one when encrypting. So use engine
91 configuration parameter instead.
93 Value of this parameter can be either short name, defined in OpenSSL
94 obj_dat.h header file or numeric representation of OID, defined in RFC
97 USAGE WITH COMMAND LINE openssl UTILITY
99 1. Generation of private key
101 openssl genpkey -algorithm gost2001 -pkeyopt paramset:A -out seckey.pem
103 Use -algorithm option to specify algorithm.
104 Use -pkeyopt option to pass paramset to algorithm. The following paramsets
105 are supported by
106 gost94: 0,A,B,C,D,XA,XB,XC
107 gost2001: 0,A,B,C,XA,XB
108 You can also use numeric representation of OID as to destinate
111 Paramsets starting with X are intended to use for key exchange keys.
112 Paramsets without X are for digital signature keys.
114 Paramset for both algorithms 0 is the test paramset which should be used
115 only for test purposes.
117 There are no algorithm-specific things with generation of certificate
118 request once you have a private key.
120 2. Generation of certificate request along with private/public keypar
122 openssl req -newkey gost2001 -pkeyopt paramset:A
124 Syntax of -pkeyopt parameter is identical with genpkey command.
126 You can also use oldstyle syntax -newkey gost2001:paramfile, but in
127 this case you should create parameter file first.
129 It can be created with
131 openssl genpkey -genparam -algorithm gost2001 -pkeyopt paramset:A\
132 -out paramfile.
134 3. S/MIME operations
136 If you want to send encrypted mail using GOST algorithms, don't forget
137 to specify -gost89 as encryption algorithm for OpenSSL smime command.
138 While OpenSSL is clever enough to find out that GOST R 34.11-94 digest
139 must be used for digital signing with GOST private key, it have no way
140 to derive symmetric encryption algorithm from key exchange keys.
142 4. TLS operations
144 OpenSSL supports all four ciphersuites defined in the IETF draft.
145 Once you've loaded GOST key and certificate into your TLS server,
146 ciphersuites which use GOST 28147-89 encryption are enabled.
148 Ciphersuites with NULL encryption should be enabled explicitely if
151 GOST2001-GOST89-GOST89 Uses GOST R 34.10-2001 for auth and key exchange
152 GOST 28147-89 for encryption and GOST 28147-89 MAC
153 GOST94-GOST89-GOST89 Uses GOST R 34.10-94 for auth and key exchange
154 GOST 28147-89 for encryption and GOST 28147-89 MAC
155 GOST2001-NULL-GOST94 Uses GOST R 34.10-2001 for auth and key exchange,
156 no encryption and HMAC, based on GOST R 34.11-94
157 GOST94-NULL-GOST94 Uses GOST R 34.10-94 for auth and key exchange,
158 no encryption and HMAC, based on GOST R 34.11-94
160 Gost 94 and gost 2001 keys can be used simultaneously in the TLS server.
161 RSA, DSA and EC keys can be used simultaneously with GOST keys, if
162 server implementation supports loading more than two private
163 key/certificate pairs. In this case ciphersuites which use any of loaded
164 keys would be supported and clients can negotiate ones they wish.
166 This allows creation of TLS servers which use GOST ciphersuites for
167 Russian clients and RSA/DSA ciphersuites for foreign clients.
169 5. Calculation of digests and symmetric encryption
170 OpenSSL provides specific commands (like sha1, aes etc) for calculation
171 of digests and symmetric encryption. Since such commands cannot be
172 added dynamically, no such commands are provided for GOST algorithms.
173 Use generic commands 'dgst' and 'enc'.
175 Calculation of GOST R 34.11-94 message digest
177 openssl dgst -md_gost94 datafile
179 Note that GOST R 34.11-94 specifies that digest value should be
180 interpreted as little-endian number, but OpenSSL outputs just hex dump
181 of digest value.
183 So, to obtain correct digest value, such as produced by gostsum utility
184 included in the engine distribution, bytes of output should be
187 Calculation of HMAC based on GOST R 34.11-94
189 openssl dgst -md_gost94 -mac hmac -macopt key:<32 bytes of key> datafile
191 (or use hexkey if key contain NUL bytes)
192 Calculation of GOST 28147 MAC
194 openssl dgst -mac gost-mac -macopt key:<32 bytes of key> datafile
196 Note absence of an option that specifies digest algorithm. gost-mac
197 algorithm supports only one digest (which is actually part of
198 implementation of this mac) and OpenSSL is clever enough to find out
201 Encryption with GOST 28147 CFB mode
202 openssl enc -gost89 -out encrypted-file -in plain-text-file -k <passphrase>
203 Encryption with GOST 28147 CNT mode
204 openssl enc -gost89-cnt -out encrypted-file -in plain-text-file -k <passphrase>
207 6. Encrypting private keys and PKCS12
209 To produce PKCS12 files compatible with MagPro CSP, you need to use
210 GOST algorithm for encryption of PKCS12 file and also GOST R 34.11-94
211 hash to derive key from password.
213 openssl pksc12 -export -inkey gost.pem -in gost_cert.pem -keypbe gost89\
214 -certpbe gost89 -macalg md_gost94
216 7. Testing speed of symmetric ciphers.
218 To test performance of GOST symmetric ciphers you should use -evp switch
219 of the openssl speed command. Engine-provided ciphers can be accessed only via
220 generic evp interface and not by cipher-specific functions.
222 openssl speed -evp gost89
223 openssl speed -evp gost89-cnt
226 PROGRAMMING INTERFACES DETAILS
228 Applications should never access engine directly. They should only use provided
229 EVP_PKEY API. But there are some details, which should be taken into
232 EVP provides two kinds of API for key exchange:
234 1. EVP_PKEY_encrypt/EVP_PKEY_decrypt functions, intended to use with
235 RSA-like public key encryption algorithms
237 2. EVP_PKEY_derive, intended to use with Diffie-Hellman-like shared key
238 computing algorithms.
240 Although VKO R 34.10 algorithms, described in the RFC 4357 are
241 definitely second case, engine provides BOTH API for GOST R 34.10 keys.
243 EVP_PKEY_derive just invokes appropriate VKO algorithm and computes
244 256 bit shared key. VKO R 34.10-2001 requires 64 bits of random user key
245 material (UKM). This UKM should be transmitted to other party, so it is
246 not generated inside derive function.
248 It should be set by EVP_PKEY_CTX_ctrl function using
249 EVP_PKEY_CTRL_SET_IV command after call of EVP_PKEY_derive_init, but
250 before EVP_PKEY_derive.
251 unsigned char ukm;
253 EVP_PKEY_CTX_ctrl(ctx, -1, EVP_PKEY_OP_DERIVE, 8, ukm)
255 EVP_PKEY_encrypt encrypts provided session key with VKO shared key and
256 packs it into GOST key transport structure, described in the RFC 4490.
258 It typically uses ephemeral key pair to compute shared key and packs its
259 public part along with encrypted key. So, for most cases use of
260 EVP_PKEY_encrypt/EVP_PKEY_decrypt with GOST keys is almost same as with
263 However, if peerkey field in the EVP_PKEY_CTX structure is set (using
264 EVP_PKEY_derive_set_peerkey function) to EVP_PKEY structure which has private
265 key and uses same parameters as the public key from which this EVP_PKEY_CTX is
266 created, EVP_PKEY_encrypt will use this private key to compute shared key and
267 set ephemeral key in the GOST_key_transport structure to NULL. In this case
268 pkey and peerkey fields in the EVP_PKEY_CTX are used upside-down.
270 If EVP_PKEY_decrypt encounters GOST_key_transport structure with NULL
271 public key field, it tries to use peerkey field from the context to
272 compute shared key. In this case peerkey field should really contain
273 peer public key.
275 Encrypt operation supports EVP_PKEY_CTRL_SET_IV operation as well.
276 It can be used when some specific restriction on UKM are imposed by
277 higher level protocol. For instance, description of GOST ciphersuites
278 requires UKM to be derived from shared secret.
280 If UKM is not set by this control command, encrypt operation would
281 generate random UKM.
284 These sources include implementation of GOST 28147-89 and GOST R 34.11-94
285 which are completely independent from OpenSSL and can be used separately
286 (files gost89.c, gost89.h, gosthash.c, gosthash.h). Utility gostsum (file
287 gostsum.c) is provided as an example of such separate usage. This program is
288 similar to md5sum and sha1sum utilities, but calculates GOST R 34.11-94 hash.
290 Makefile doesn't include rule for compiling gostsum.
291 Use command
293 $(CC) -o gostsum gostsum.c gost89.c gosthash.c
294 where $(CC) is name of your C compiler.
296 Implementations of GOST R 34.10-xx, including VKO algorithms heavily
297 depends on OpenSSL BIGNUM and Elliptic Curve libraries.