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    1 ----- Calendrical issues -----
    2 
    3 As mentioned in Theory.html, although calendrical issues are out of
    4 scope for tzdb, they indicate the sort of problems that we would run
    5 into if we extended tzdb further into the past.  The following
    6 information and sources go beyond Theory.html's brief discussion.
    7 They sometimes disagree.
    8 
    9 
   10 France
   11 
   12 Gregorian calendar adopted 1582-12-20.
   13 French Revolutionary calendar used 1793-11-24 through 1805-12-31,
   14 and (in Paris only) 1871-05-06 through 1871-05-23.
   15 
   16 
   17 Russia
   18 
   19 From Chris Carrier (1996-12-02):
   20 On 1929-10-01 the Soviet Union instituted an "Eternal Calendar"
   21 with 30-day months plus 5 holidays, with a 5-day week.
   22 On 1931-12-01 it changed to a 6-day week; in 1934 it reverted to the
   23 Gregorian calendar while retaining the 6-day week; on 1940-06-27 it
   24 reverted to the 7-day week.  With the 6-day week the usual days
   25 off were the 6th, 12th, 18th, 24th and 30th of the month.
   26 (Source: Evitiar Zerubavel, _The Seven Day Circle_)
   27 
   28 
   29 Mark Brader reported a similar story in "The Book of Calendars", edited
   30 by Frank Parise (1982, Facts on File, ISBN 0-8719-6467-8), page 377.  But:
   31 
   32 From: Petteri Sulonen (via Usenet)
   33 Date: 14 Jan 1999 00:00:00 GMT
   34 ...
   35 
   36 If your source is correct, how come documents between 1929 and 1940 were
   37 still dated using the conventional, Gregorian calendar?
   38 
   39 I can post a scan of a document dated December 1, 1934, signed by
   40 Yenukidze, the secretary, on behalf of Kalinin, the President of the
   41 Executive Committee of the Supreme Soviet, if you like.
   42 
   43 
   44 
   45 Sweden (and Finland)
   46 
   47 From: Mark Brader
   48 Subject: Re: Gregorian reform - a part of locale?
   49 <news:1996Jul6.012937.29190@sq.com>
   50 Date: 1996-07-06
   51 
   52 In 1700, Denmark made the transition from Julian to Gregorian.  Sweden
   53 decided to *start* a transition in 1700 as well, but rather than have one of
   54 those unsightly calendar gaps :-), they simply decreed that the next leap
   55 year after 1696 would be in 1744 - putting the whole country on a calendar
   56 different from both Julian and Gregorian for a period of 40 years.
   57 
   58 However, in 1704 something went wrong and the plan was not carried through;
   59 they did, after all, have a leap year that year.  And one in 1708.  In 1712
   60 they gave it up and went back to Julian, putting 30 days in February that
   61 year!...
   62 
   63 Then in 1753, Sweden made the transition to Gregorian in the usual manner,
   64 getting there only 13 years behind the original schedule.
   65 
   66 (A previous posting of this story was challenged, and Swedish readers
   67 produced the following references to support it: "Tideräkning och historia"
   68 by Natanael Beckman (1924) and "Tid, en bok om tideräkning och
   69 kalenderväsen" by Lars-Olof Lodén (1968).
   70 
   71 
   72 Grotefend's data
   73 
   74 From: "Michael Palmer" [with one obvious typo fixed]
   75 Subject: Re: Gregorian Calendar (was Re: Another FHC related question
   76 Newsgroups: soc.genealogy.german
   77 Date: Tue, 9 Feb 1999 02:32:48 -800
   78 ...
   79 
   80 The following is a(n incomplete) listing, arranged chronologically, of
   81 European states, with the date they converted from the Julian to the
   82 Gregorian calendar:
   83 
   84 04/15 Oct 1582 - Italy (with exceptions), Spain, Portugal, Poland (Roman
   85                  Catholics and Danzig only)
   86 09/20 Dec 1582 - France, Lorraine
   87 
   88 21 Dec 1582/
   89    01 Jan 1583 - Holland, Brabant, Flanders, Hennegau
   90 10/21 Feb 1583 - bishopric of Liege (Lüttich)
   91 13/24 Feb 1583 - bishopric of Augsburg
   92 04/15 Oct 1583 - electorate of Trier
   93 05/16 Oct 1583 - Bavaria, bishoprics of Freising, Eichstedt, Regensburg,
   94                  Salzburg, Brixen
   95 13/24 Oct 1583 - Austrian Oberelsaß and Breisgau
   96 20/31 Oct 1583 - bishopric of Basel
   97 02/13 Nov 1583 - duchy of Jülich-Berg
   98 02/13 Nov 1583 - electorate and city of Köln
   99 04/15 Nov 1583 - bishopric of Würzburg
  100 11/22 Nov 1583 - electorate of Mainz
  101 16/27 Nov 1583 - bishopric of Strassburg and the margraviate of Baden
  102 17/28 Nov 1583 - bishopric of Münster and duchy of Cleve
  103 14/25 Dec 1583 - Steiermark
  104 
  105 06/17 Jan 1584 - Austria and Bohemia
  106 11/22 Jan 1584 - Lucerne, Uri, Schwyz, Zug, Freiburg, Solothurn
  107 12/23 Jan 1584 - Silesia and the Lausitz
  108 22 Jan/
  109    02 Feb 1584 - Hungary (legally on 21 Oct 1587)
  110       Jun 1584 - Unterwalden
  111 01/12 Jul 1584 - duchy of Westfalen
  112 
  113 16/27 Jun 1585 - bishopric of Paderborn
  114 
  115 14/25 Dec 1590 - Transylvania
  116 
  117 22 Aug/
  118    02 Sep 1612 - duchy of Prussia
  119 
  120 13/24 Dec 1614 - Pfalz-Neuburg
  121 
  122           1617 - duchy of Kurland (reverted to the Julian calendar in
  123                  1796)
  124 
  125           1624 - bishopric of Osnabrück
  126 
  127           1630 - bishopric of Minden
  128 
  129 15/26 Mar 1631 - bishopric of Hildesheim
  130 
  131           1655 - Kanton Wallis
  132 
  133 05/16 Feb 1682 - city of Strassburg
  134 
  135 18 Feb/
  136    01 Mar 1700 - Protestant Germany (including Swedish possessions in
  137                  Germany), Denmark, Norway
  138 30 Jun/
  139    12 Jul 1700 - Gelderland, Zutphen
  140 10 Nov/
  141    12 Dec 1700 - Utrecht, Overijssel
  142 
  143 31 Dec 1700/
  144    12 Jan 1701 - Friesland, Groningen, Zürich, Bern, Basel, Geneva,
  145                  Turgau, and Schaffhausen
  146 
  147           1724 - Glarus, Appenzell, and the city of St. Gallen
  148 
  149 01 Jan 1750    - Pisa and Florence
  150 
  151 02/14 Sep 1752 - Great Britain
  152 
  153 17 Feb/
  154    01 Mar 1753 - Sweden
  155 
  156 1760-1812      - Graubünden
  157 
  158 The Russian empire (including Finland and the Baltic states) did not
  159 convert to the Gregorian calendar until the Soviet revolution of 1917.
  160 
  161 Source: H. Grotefend, _Taschenbuch der Zeitrechnung des deutschen
  162 Mittelalters und der Neuzeit_, herausgegeben von Dr. O. Grotefend
  163 (Hannover: Hahnsche Buchhandlung, 1941), pp. 26-28.
  164 
  165 -----
  166 
  167 This file is in the public domain, so clarified as of 2009-05-17 by
  168 Arthur David Olson.
  169 
  170 -----
  171 Local Variables:
  172 coding: utf-8
  173 End: