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torch

Tensor Attributes

Each torch.Tensor has a torch.dtype, torch.device, and torch.layout.

torch.dtype

A torch.dtype is an object that represents the data type of a torch.Tensor. PyTorch has twelve different data types:

Data type dtype Legacy Constructors
32-bit floating point torch.float32 or torch.float torch.*.FloatTensor

64-bit floating point 64-bit complex 128-bit complex

torch.float64 or torch.double torch.complex64 or torch.cfloat torch.complex128 or torch.cdouble

torch.*.DoubleTensor

16-bit floating point1 torch.float16 or torch.half torch.*.HalfTensor
16-bit floating point2 torch.bfloat16 torch.*.BFloat16Tensor
8-bit integer (unsigned) torch.uint8 torch.*.ByteTensor
8-bit integer (signed) torch.int8 torch.*.CharTensor
16-bit integer (signed) torch.int16 or torch.short torch.*.ShortTensor
32-bit integer (signed) torch.int32 or torch.int torch.*.IntTensor
64-bit integer (signed) torch.int64 or torch.long torch.*.LongTensor
Boolean torch.bool torch.*.BoolTensor

To find out if a torch.dtype is a floating point data type, the property is_floating_point can be used, which returns True if the data type is a floating point data type.

To find out if a torch.dtype is a complex data type, the property is_complex can be used, which returns True if the data type is a complex data type.

When the dtypes of inputs to an arithmetic operation (add, sub, div, mul) differ, we promote by finding the minimum dtype that satisfies the following rules:

A floating point scalar operand has dtype torch.get_default_dtype() and an integral non-boolean scalar operand has dtype torch.int64. Unlike numpy, we do not inspect values when determining the minimum dtypes of an operand. Quantized and complex types are not yet supported.

Promotion Examples:

>>> float_tensor = torch.ones(1, dtype=torch.float)
>>> double_tensor = torch.ones(1, dtype=torch.double)
>>> complex_float_tensor = torch.ones(1, dtype=torch.complex64)
>>> complex_double_tensor = torch.ones(1, dtype=torch.complex128)
>>> int_tensor = torch.ones(1, dtype=torch.int)
>>> long_tensor = torch.ones(1, dtype=torch.long)
>>> uint_tensor = torch.ones(1, dtype=torch.uint8)
>>> double_tensor = torch.ones(1, dtype=torch.double)
>>> bool_tensor = torch.ones(1, dtype=torch.bool)
# zero-dim tensors
>>> long_zerodim = torch.tensor(1, dtype=torch.long)
>>> int_zerodim = torch.tensor(1, dtype=torch.int)

>>> torch.add(5, 5).dtype
torch.int64
# 5 is an int64, but does not have higher category than int_tensor so is not considered.
>>> (int_tensor + 5).dtype
torch.int32
>>> (int_tensor + long_zerodim).dtype
torch.int32
>>> (long_tensor + int_tensor).dtype
torch.int64
>>> (bool_tensor + long_tensor).dtype
torch.int64
>>> (bool_tensor + uint_tensor).dtype
torch.uint8
>>> (float_tensor + double_tensor).dtype
torch.float64
>>> (complex_float_tensor + complex_double_tensor).dtype
torch.complex128
>>> (bool_tensor + int_tensor).dtype
torch.int32
# Since long is a different kind than float, result dtype only needs to be large enough
# to hold the float.
>>> torch.add(long_tensor, float_tensor).dtype
torch.float32
When the output tensor of an arithmetic operation is specified, we allow casting to its dtype except that:

Casting Examples:

# allowed:
>>> float_tensor *= double_tensor
>>> float_tensor *= int_tensor
>>> float_tensor *= uint_tensor
>>> float_tensor *= bool_tensor
>>> float_tensor *= double_tensor
>>> int_tensor *= long_tensor
>>> int_tensor *= uint_tensor
>>> uint_tensor *= int_tensor

# disallowed (RuntimeError: result type can't be cast to the desired output type):
>>> int_tensor *= float_tensor
>>> bool_tensor *= int_tensor
>>> bool_tensor *= uint_tensor
>>> float_tensor *= complex_float_tensor

torch.device

A torch.device is an object representing the device on which a torch.Tensor is or will be allocated.

The torch.device contains a device type ('cpu' or 'cuda') and optional device ordinal for the device type. If the device ordinal is not present, this object will always represent the current device for the device type, even after torch.cuda.set_device() is called; e.g., a torch.Tensor constructed with device 'cuda' is equivalent to 'cuda:X' where X is the result of torch.cuda.current_device().

A torch.Tensor's device can be accessed via the Tensor.device property.

A torch.device can be constructed via a string or via a string and device ordinal

Via a string: :

>>> torch.device('cuda:0')
device(type='cuda', index=0)

>>> torch.device('cpu')
device(type='cpu')

>>> torch.device('cuda')  # current cuda device
device(type='cuda')

Via a string and device ordinal:

>>> torch.device('cuda', 0)
device(type='cuda', index=0)

>>> torch.device('cpu', 0)
device(type='cpu', index=0)

Note

The torch.device argument in functions can generally be substituted with a string. This allows for fast prototyping of code.

>>> # Example of a function that takes in a torch.device >>> cuda1 = torch.device('cuda:1') >>> torch.randn((2,3), device=cuda1)

>>> # You can substitute the torch.device with a string >>> torch.randn((2,3), device='cuda:1')

Note

For legacy reasons, a device can be constructed via a single device ordinal, which is treated as a cuda device. This matches Tensor.get_device, which returns an ordinal for cuda tensors and is not supported for cpu tensors.

>>> torch.device(1) device(type='cuda', index=1)

Note

Methods which take a device will generally accept a (properly formatted) string or (legacy) integer device ordinal, i.e. the following are all equivalent:

>>> torch.randn((2,3), device=torch.device('cuda:1')) >>> torch.randn((2,3), device='cuda:1') >>> torch.randn((2,3), device=1) # legacy

torch.layout

Warning

The torch.layout class is in beta and subject to change.

A torch.layout is an object that represents the memory layout of a torch.Tensor. Currently, we support torch.strided (dense Tensors) and have beta support for torch.sparse_coo (sparse COO Tensors).

torch.strided represents dense Tensors and is the memory layout that is most commonly used. Each strided tensor has an associated torch.Storage, which holds its data. These tensors provide multi-dimensional, strided view of a storage. Strides are a list of integers: the k-th stride represents the jump in the memory necessary to go from one element to the next one in the k-th dimension of the Tensor. This concept makes it possible to perform many tensor operations efficiently.

Example:

>>> x = torch.Tensor([[1, 2, 3, 4, 5], [6, 7, 8, 9, 10]])
>>> x.stride()
(5, 1)

>>> x.t().stride()
(1, 5)

For more information on torch.sparse_coo tensors, see sparse-docs.

torch.memory_format

A torch.memory_format is an object representing the memory format on which a torch.Tensor is or will be allocated.

Possible values are:


  1. Sometimes referred to as binary16: uses 1 sign, 5 exponent, and 10 significand bits. Useful when precision is important.↩︎

  2. Sometimes referred to as Brain Floating Point: use 1 sign, 8 exponent and 7 significand bits. Useful when range is important, since it has the same number of exponent bits as float32↩︎