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    1 If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
    2 see. It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
    3 specially designed to be readable as is.
    5 =head1 NAME
    7 perlwin32 - Perl under Windows
    9 =head1 SYNOPSIS
   11 These are instructions for building Perl under Windows 2000 and later.
   13 =head1 DESCRIPTION
   15 Before you start, you should glance through the README file
   16 found in the top-level directory to which the Perl distribution
   17 was extracted.  Make sure you read and understand the terms under
   18 which this software is being distributed.
   20 Also make sure you read L</BUGS AND CAVEATS> below for the
   21 known limitations of this port.
   23 The INSTALL file in the perl top-level has much information that is
   24 only relevant to people building Perl on Unix-like systems.  In
   25 particular, you can safely ignore any information that talks about
   26 "Configure".
   28 You may also want to look at one other option for building a perl that
   29 will work on Windows: the README.cygwin file, which give a different
   30 set of rules to build a perl for Windows.  This method will probably
   31 enable you to build a more Unix-compatible perl, but you will also
   32 need to download and use various other build-time and run-time support
   33 software described in that file.
   35 This set of instructions is meant to describe a so-called "native"
   36 port of Perl to the Windows platform.  This includes both 32-bit and
   37 64-bit Windows operating systems.  The resulting Perl requires no
   38 additional software to run (other than what came with your operating
   39 system).  Currently, this port is capable of using one of the
   40 following compilers on the Intel x86 architecture:
   42       Microsoft Visual C++    version 6.0 or later
   43       Intel C++ Compiler      (experimental)
   44       Gcc by mingw.org        gcc version 3.4.5 or later
   45                               with runtime < 3.21
   46       Gcc by mingw-w64.org    gcc version 4.4.3 or later
   48 Note that the last two of these are actually competing projects both
   49 delivering complete gcc toolchain for MS Windows:
   51 =over 4
   53 =item L<http://mingw.org>
   55 Delivers gcc toolchain targeting 32-bit Windows platform.
   57 =item L<http://mingw-w64.org>
   59 Delivers gcc toolchain targeting both 64-bit Windows and 32-bit Windows
   60 platforms (despite the project name "mingw-w64" they are not only 64-bit
   61 oriented). They deliver the native gcc compilers and cross-compilers
   62 that are also supported by perl's makefile.
   64 =back
   66 The Microsoft Visual C++ compilers are also now being given away free. They are
   67 available as "Visual C++ Toolkit 2003" or "Visual C++ 2005-2019 Express [or
   68 Community, from 2017] Edition" (and also as part of the ".NET Framework SDK")
   69 and are the same compilers that ship with "Visual C++ .NET 2003 Professional"
   70 or "Visual C++ 2005-2019 Professional" respectively.
   72 This port can also be built on IA64/AMD64 using:
   74       Microsoft Platform SDK	Nov 2001 (64-bit compiler and tools)
   75       MinGW64 compiler (gcc version 4.4.3 or later)
   77 The Windows SDK can be downloaded from L<https://developer.microsoft.com/windows/downloads/sdk-archive>.
   78 The MinGW64 compiler is available at L<http://mingw-w64.org>.
   79 The latter is actually a cross-compiler targeting Win64. There's also a trimmed
   80 down compiler (no java, or gfortran) suitable for building perl available at:
   81 L<http://strawberryperl.com/package/kmx/64_gcctoolchain/>
   83 NOTE: If you're using a 32-bit compiler to build perl on a 64-bit Windows
   84 operating system, then you should set the WIN64 environment variable to "undef".
   85 Also, the trimmed down compiler only passes tests when USE_ITHREADS *= define
   86 (as opposed to undef) and when the CFG *= Debug line is commented out.
   88 This port fully supports MakeMaker (the set of modules that
   89 is used to build extensions to perl).  Therefore, you should be
   90 able to build and install most extensions found in the CPAN sites.
   91 See L</Usage Hints for Perl on Windows> below for general hints about this.
   93 =head2 Setting Up Perl on Windows
   95 =over 4
   97 =item Make
   99 You need a "make" program to build the sources.  If you are using
  100 Visual C++ or the Windows SDK tools, you can use nmake supplied with Visual C++
  101 or Windows SDK. You may also use, for Visual C++ or Windows SDK, dmake or gmake
  102 instead of nmake.  dmake is open source software, but is not included with
  103 Visual C++ or Windows SDK.  Builds using gcc need dmake or gmake.  nmake is not
  104 supported for gcc builds.  Parallel building is only supported with dmake and
  105 gmake, not nmake.  When using dmake it is recommended to use dmake 4.13 or newer
  106 for parallel building.  Older dmakes, in parallel mode, have very high CPU usage
  107 and pound the disk/filing system with duplicate I/O calls in an aggressive
  108 polling loop.
  110 A port of dmake for Windows is available from:
  112 L<https://metacpan.org/release/dmake>
  114 Fetch and install dmake somewhere on your path.
  116 =item Command Shell
  118 Use the default "cmd" shell that comes with Windows.  Some versions of the
  119 popular 4DOS/NT shell have incompatibilities that may cause you trouble.
  120 If the build fails under that shell, try building again with the cmd
  121 shell.
  123 Make sure the path to the build directory does not contain spaces.  The
  124 build usually works in this circumstance, but some tests will fail.
  126 =item Microsoft Visual C++
  128 The nmake that comes with Visual C++ will suffice for building. Visual C++
  129 requires that certain things be set up in the console before Visual C++ will
  130 sucessfully run. To make a console box be able to run the C compiler, you will
  131 need to beforehand, run C<vcvarsall.bat x86> to compile for x86-32 and for
  132 x86-64 C<vcvarsall.bat amd64>. On a typical install of a Microsoft C++
  133 compiler product, these batch files will already be in your C<PATH>
  134 environment variable so you may just type them without an absolute path into
  135 your console. If you need to find the absolute path to the batch file, it is
  136 usually found somewhere like
  137 C:\Program Files (x86)\Microsoft Visual Studio 14.0\VC.
  138 With some newer Micrsoft C products (released after ~2004), the installer will
  139 put a shortcut in the start menu to launch a new console window with the
  140 console already set up for your target architecture (x86-32 or x86-64 or IA64).
  141 With the newer compilers, you may also use the older batch files if you choose
  142 so.
  144 =item Microsoft Visual C++ 2008-2019 Express/Community Edition
  146 These free versions of Visual C++ 2008-2019 Professional contain the same
  147 compilers and linkers that ship with the full versions, and also contain
  148 everything necessary to build Perl, rather than requiring a separate download
  149 of the Windows SDK like previous versions did.
  151 These packages can be downloaded by searching in the Download Center at
  152 L<https://www.microsoft.com/downloads/search.aspx?displaylang=en>.  (Providing exact
  153 links to these packages has proven a pointless task because the links keep on
  154 changing so often.)
  156 Install Visual C++ 2008-2019 Express/Community, then setup your environment
  157 using, e.g.
  159  C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 12.0\Common7\Tools\vsvars32.bat
  161 (assuming the default installation location was chosen).
  163 Perl should now build using the win32/Makefile.  You will need to edit that
  164 file to set CCTYPE to one of MSVC90-MSVC142 first.
  166 =item Microsoft Visual C++ 2005 Express Edition
  168 This free version of Visual C++ 2005 Professional contains the same compiler
  169 and linker that ship with the full version, but doesn't contain everything
  170 necessary to build Perl.
  172 You will also need to download the "Windows SDK" (the "Core SDK" and "MDAC
  173 SDK" components are required) for more header files and libraries.
  175 These packages can both be downloaded by searching in the Download Center at
  176 L<http://www.microsoft.com/downloads/search.aspx?displaylang=en>.  (Providing exact
  177 links to these packages has proven a pointless task because the links keep on
  178 changing so often.)
  180 Try to obtain the latest version of the Windows SDK.  Sometimes these packages
  181 contain a particular Windows OS version in their name, but actually work on
  182 other OS versions too.  For example, the "Windows Server 2003 R2 Platform SDK"
  183 also runs on Windows XP SP2 and Windows 2000.
  185 Install Visual C++ 2005 first, then the Platform SDK.  Setup your environment
  186 as follows (assuming default installation locations were chosen):
  188  SET PlatformSDKDir=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK
  190  SET PATH=%SystemRoot%\system32;%SystemRoot%;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\Common7\IDE;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\BIN;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\Common7\Tools;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\SDK\v2.0\bin;C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\VCPackages;%PlatformSDKDir%\Bin
  192  SET INCLUDE=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\INCLUDE;%PlatformSDKDir%\include
  194  SET LIB=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\VC\LIB;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio 8\SDK\v2.0\lib;%PlatformSDKDir%\lib
  196  SET LIBPATH=C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v2.0.50727
  198 (The PlatformSDKDir might need to be set differently depending on which version
  199 you are using. Earlier versions installed into "C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK",
  200 while the latest versions install into version-specific locations such as
  201 "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK for Windows Server 2003 R2".)
  203 Perl should now build using the win32/Makefile.  You will need to edit that
  204 file to set
  206  CCTYPE = MSVC80
  208 and to set CCHOME, CCINCDIR and CCLIBDIR as per the environment setup above.
  210 =item Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003
  212 This free toolkit contains the same compiler and linker that ship with
  213 Visual C++ .NET 2003 Professional, but doesn't contain everything
  214 necessary to build Perl.
  216 You will also need to download the "Platform SDK" (the "Core SDK" and "MDAC
  217 SDK" components are required) for header files, libraries and rc.exe, and
  218 ".NET Framework SDK" for more libraries and nmake.exe.  Note that the latter
  219 (which also includes the free compiler and linker) requires the ".NET
  220 Framework Redistributable" to be installed first.  This can be downloaded and
  221 installed separately, but is included in the "Visual C++ Toolkit 2003" anyway.
  223 These packages can all be downloaded by searching in the Download Center at
  224 L<https://www.microsoft.com/downloads/search.aspx?displaylang=en>.  (Providing exact
  225 links to these packages has proven a pointless task because the links keep on
  226 changing so often.)
  228 Try to obtain the latest version of the Windows SDK.  Sometimes these packages
  229 contain a particular Windows OS version in their name, but actually work on
  230 other OS versions too.  For example, the "Windows Server 2003 R2 Platform SDK"
  231 also runs on Windows XP SP2 and Windows 2000.
  233 Install the Toolkit first, then the Platform SDK, then the .NET Framework SDK.
  234 Setup your environment as follows (assuming default installation locations
  235 were chosen):
  237  SET PlatformSDKDir=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK
  239  SET PATH=%SystemRoot%\system32;%SystemRoot%;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\bin;%PlatformSDKDir%\Bin;C:\Program Files\Microsoft.NET\SDK\v1.1\Bin
  241  SET INCLUDE=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\include;%PlatformSDKDir%\include;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003\Vc7\include
  243  SET LIB=C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\lib;%PlatformSDKDir%\lib;C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003\Vc7\lib
  245 (The PlatformSDKDir might need to be set differently depending on which version
  246 you are using. Earlier versions installed into "C:\Program Files\Microsoft SDK",
  247 while the latest versions install into version-specific locations such as
  248 "C:\Program Files\Microsoft Platform SDK for Windows Server 2003 R2".)
  250 Several required files will still be missing:
  252 =over 4
  254 =item *
  256 cvtres.exe is required by link.exe when using a .res file.  It is actually
  257 installed by the .NET Framework SDK, but into a location such as the
  258 following:
  260  C:\WINDOWS\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v1.1.4322
  262 Copy it from there to %PlatformSDKDir%\Bin
  264 =item *
  266 lib.exe is normally used to build libraries, but link.exe with the /lib
  267 option also works, so change win32/config.vc to use it instead:
  269 Change the line reading:
  271 	ar='lib'
  273 to:
  275 	ar='link /lib'
  277 It may also be useful to create a batch file called lib.bat in
  278 C:\Program Files\Microsoft Visual C++ Toolkit 2003\bin containing:
  280 	@echo off
  281 	link /lib %*
  283 for the benefit of any naughty C extension modules that you might want to build
  284 later which explicitly reference "lib" rather than taking their value from
  285 $Config{ar}.
  287 =item *
  289 setargv.obj is required to build perlglob.exe (and perl.exe if the USE_SETARGV
  290 option is enabled).  The Platform SDK supplies this object file in source form
  291 in %PlatformSDKDir%\src\crt.  Copy setargv.c, cruntime.h and
  292 internal.h from there to some temporary location and build setargv.obj using
  294 	cl.exe /c /I. /D_CRTBLD setargv.c
  296 Then copy setargv.obj to %PlatformSDKDir%\lib
  298 Alternatively, if you don't need perlglob.exe and don't need to enable the
  299 USE_SETARGV option then you can safely just remove all mention of $(GLOBEXE)
  300 from win32/Makefile and setargv.obj won't be required anyway.
  302 =back
  304 Perl should now build using the win32/Makefile.  You will need to edit that
  305 file to set
  309 and to set CCHOME, CCINCDIR and CCLIBDIR as per the environment setup above.
  311 =item Microsoft Platform SDK 64-bit Compiler
  313 The nmake that comes with the Platform SDK will suffice for building
  314 Perl.  Make sure you are building within one of the "Build Environment"
  315 shells available after you install the Platform SDK from the Start Menu.
  317 =item GCC
  319 Perl can be compiled with gcc from MinGW (version 3.4.5 or later) or from
  320 MinGW64 (version 4.4.3 or later).  It can be downloaded here:
  322 L<http://www.mingw.org/>
  323 L<http://www.mingw-w64.org/>
  325 You also need dmake or gmake.  See L</"Make"> above on how to get it.
  327 Note that the MinGW build currently requires a MinGW runtime version earlier
  328 than 3.21 (check __MINGW32_MAJOR_VERSION and __MINGW32_MINOR_VERSION).
  330 Note also that the C++ mode build currently fails with MinGW 3.4.5 and 4.7.2
  331 or later, and with MinGW64 64-bit 6.3.0 or later.
  333 =item Intel C++ Compiler
  335 Experimental support for using Intel C++ Compiler has been added. Edit
  336 win32/Makefile and pick the correct CCTYPE for the Visual C that Intel C was
  337 installed into. Also uncomment __ICC to enable Intel C on Visual C support.
  338 To set up the build environment, from the Start Menu run
  339 IA-32 Visual Studio 20__ mode or Intel 64 Visual Studio 20__ mode as
  340 appropriate. Then run nmake as usually in that prompt box.
  342 Only Intel C++ Compiler v12.1 has been tested. Other versions probably will
  343 work. Using Intel C++ Compiler instead of Visual C has the benefit of C99
  344 compatibility which is needed by some CPAN XS modules, while maintaining
  345 compatibility with Visual C object code and Visual C debugging infrastructure
  346 unlike GCC.
  348 =back
  350 =head2 Building
  352 =over 4
  354 =item *
  356 Make sure you are in the "win32" subdirectory under the perl toplevel.
  357 This directory contains a "Makefile" that will work with
  358 versions of nmake that come with Visual C++ or the Windows SDK, and
  359 a GNU make "GNUmakefile" or dmake "makefile.mk" that will work for all
  360 supported compilers.  The defaults in the gmake and dmake makefile are
  361 setup to build using MinGW/gcc.
  363 =item *
  365 Edit the GNUmakefile, makefile.mk (or Makefile, if you're using nmake)
  366 and change the values of INST_DRV and INST_TOP.   You can also enable
  367 various build flags.  These are explained in the makefiles.
  369 Note that it is generally not a good idea to try to build a perl with
  370 INST_DRV and INST_TOP set to a path that already exists from a previous
  371 build.  In particular, this may cause problems with the
  372 lib/ExtUtils/t/Embed.t test, which attempts to build a test program and
  373 may end up building against the installed perl's lib/CORE directory rather
  374 than the one being tested.
  376 You will have to make sure that CCTYPE is set correctly and that
  377 CCHOME points to wherever you installed your compiler.  For GCC this
  378 should be the directory that contains the F<bin>, F<include> and
  379 F<lib> directories.
  381 If building with the cross-compiler provided by
  382 mingw-w64.org you'll need to uncomment the line that sets
  383 GCCCROSS in the makefile.mk. Do this only if it's the cross-compiler - ie
  384 only if the bin folder doesn't contain a gcc.exe. (The cross-compiler
  385 does not provide a gcc.exe, g++.exe, ar.exe, etc. Instead, all of these
  386 executables are prefixed with 'x86_64-w64-mingw32-'.)
  388 The default value for CCHOME in the makefiles for Visual C++
  389 may not be correct for some versions.  Make sure the default exists
  390 and is valid.
  392 If you want build some core extensions statically into perl's dll, specify
  393 them in the STATIC_EXT macro.
  395 Be sure to read the instructions near the top of the makefiles carefully.
  397 =item *
  399 Type "dmake" ("gmake" for GNU make, or "nmake" if you are using that make).
  401 This should build everything.  Specifically, it will create perl.exe,
  402 perl532.dll at the perl toplevel, and various other extension dll's
  403 under the lib\auto directory.  If the build fails for any reason, make
  404 sure you have done the previous steps correctly.
  406 To try dmake's parallel mode, type "dmake -P2", where 2, is the maximum number
  407 of parallel jobs you want to run. A number of things in the build process will
  408 run in parallel, but there are serialization points where you will see just 1
  409 CPU maxed out. This is normal.
  411 Similarly you can build in parallel with GNU make, type "gmake -j2" to
  412 build with two parallel jobs, or higher for more.
  414 If you are advanced enough with building C code, here is a suggestion to speed
  415 up building perl, and the later C<make test>. Try to keep your PATH environmental
  416 variable with the least number of folders possible (remember to keep your C
  417 compiler's folders there). C<C:\WINDOWS\system32> or C<C:\WINNT\system32>
  418 depending on your OS version should be first folder in PATH, since "cmd.exe"
  419 is the most commonly launched program during the build and later testing.
  421 =back
  423 =head2 Testing Perl on Windows
  425 Type "dmake test" (or "gmake test", "nmake test").  This will run most
  426 of the tests from the testsuite (many tests will be skipped).
  428 There should be no test failures.
  430 If you build with Visual C++ 2013 then three tests currently may fail with
  431 Daylight Saving Time related problems: F<t/io/fs.t>,
  432 F<cpan/HTTP-Tiny/t/110_mirror.t> and F<lib/File/Copy.t>. The failures are
  433 caused by bugs in the CRT in VC++ 2013 which are fixed in VC++2015 and
  434 later, as explained by Microsoft here:
  435 L<https://connect.microsoft.com/VisualStudio/feedback/details/811534/utime-sometimes-fails-to-set-the-correct-file-times-in-visual-c-2013>. In the meantime,
  436 if you need fixed C<stat> and C<utime> functions then have a look at the
  437 CPAN distribution Win32::UTCFileTime.
  439 If you build with Visual C++ 2015 or later then F<ext/XS-APItest/t/locale.t>
  440 may crash (after all its tests have passed). This is due to a regression in the
  441 Universal CRT introduced in the Windows 10 April 2018 Update, and will be fixed
  442 in the May 2019 Update, as explained here: L<https://developercommunity.visualstudio.com/content/problem/519486/setlocalelc-numeric-iso-latin-16-fails-then-succee.html>.
  444 If you build with certain versions (e.g. 4.8.1) of gcc from www.mingw.org then
  445 F<ext/POSIX/t/time.t> may fail test 17 due to a known bug in those gcc builds:
  446 see L<https://sourceforge.net/p/mingw/bugs/2152/>.
  448 Some test failures may occur if you use a command shell other than the
  449 native "cmd.exe", or if you are building from a path that contains
  450 spaces.  So don't do that.
  452 If you are running the tests from a emacs shell window, you may see
  453 failures in op/stat.t.  Run "dmake test-notty" in that case.
  455 Furthermore, you should make sure that during C<make test> you do not
  456 have any GNU tool packages in your path: some toolkits like Unixutils
  457 include some tools (C<type> for instance) which override the Windows
  458 ones and makes tests fail. Remove them from your path while testing to
  459 avoid these errors.
  461 To see the output of specific failing tests run the harness from the t
  462 directory:
  464   # assuming you're starting from the win32 directory
  465   cd ..\win32
  466   .\perl harness <list of tests>
  468 Please report any other failures as described under L</BUGS AND CAVEATS>.
  470 =head2 Installation of Perl on Windows
  472 Type "dmake install" (or "gmake install", "nmake install").  This will
  473 put the newly built perl and the libraries under whatever C<INST_TOP>
  474 points to in the Makefile.  It will also install the pod documentation
  475 under C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\lib\pod> and HTML versions of the same
  476 under C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\lib\pod\html>.
  478 To use the Perl you just installed you will need to add a new entry to
  479 your PATH environment variable: C<$INST_TOP\bin>, e.g.
  481     set PATH=c:\perl\bin;%PATH%
  483 If you opted to uncomment C<INST_VER> and C<INST_ARCH> in the makefile
  484 then the installation structure is a little more complicated and you will
  485 need to add two new PATH components instead: C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\bin> and
  486 C<$INST_TOP\$INST_VER\bin\$ARCHNAME>, e.g.
  488     set PATH=c:\perl\5.6.0\bin;c:\perl\5.6.0\bin\MSWin32-x86;%PATH%
  490 =head2 Usage Hints for Perl on Windows
  492 =over 4
  494 =item Environment Variables
  496 The installation paths that you set during the build get compiled
  497 into perl, so you don't have to do anything additional to start
  498 using that perl (except add its location to your PATH variable).
  500 If you put extensions in unusual places, you can set PERL5LIB
  501 to a list of paths separated by semicolons where you want perl
  502 to look for libraries.  Look for descriptions of other environment
  503 variables you can set in L<perlrun>.
  505 You can also control the shell that perl uses to run system() and
  506 backtick commands via PERL5SHELL.  See L<perlrun>.
  508 Perl does not depend on the registry, but it can look up certain default
  509 values if you choose to put them there unless disabled at build time with
  510 USE_NO_REGISTRY.  On Perl process start Perl checks if
  511 C<HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Perl> and C<HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Perl>
  512 exist.  If the keys exists, they will be checked for remainder of the Perl
  513 process's run life for certain entries.  Entries in
  514 C<HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Perl> override entries in
  515 C<HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Perl>.  One or more of the following entries
  516 (of type REG_SZ or REG_EXPAND_SZ) may be set in the keys:
  518  lib-$]        version-specific standard library path to add to @INC
  519  lib           standard library path to add to @INC
  520  sitelib-$]    version-specific site library path to add to @INC
  521  sitelib       site library path to add to @INC
  522  vendorlib-$]  version-specific vendor library path to add to @INC
  523  vendorlib     vendor library path to add to @INC
  524  PERL*         fallback for all %ENV lookups that begin with "PERL"
  526 Note the C<$]> in the above is not literal.  Substitute whatever version
  527 of perl you want to honor that entry, e.g. C<5.6.0>.  Paths must be
  528 separated with semicolons, as usual on Windows.
  530 =item File Globbing
  532 By default, perl handles file globbing using the File::Glob extension,
  533 which provides portable globbing.
  535 If you want perl to use globbing that emulates the quirks of DOS
  536 filename conventions, you might want to consider using File::DosGlob
  537 to override the internal glob() implementation.  See L<File::DosGlob> for
  538 details.
  540 =item Using perl from the command line
  542 If you are accustomed to using perl from various command-line
  543 shells found in UNIX environments, you will be less than pleased
  544 with what Windows offers by way of a command shell.
  546 The crucial thing to understand about the Windows environment is that
  547 the command line you type in is processed twice before Perl sees it.
  548 First, your command shell (usually CMD.EXE) preprocesses the command
  549 line, to handle redirection, environment variable expansion, and
  550 location of the executable to run. Then, the perl executable splits
  551 the remaining command line into individual arguments, using the
  552 C runtime library upon which Perl was built.
  554 It is particularly important to note that neither the shell nor the C
  555 runtime do any wildcard expansions of command-line arguments (so
  556 wildcards need not be quoted).  Also, the quoting behaviours of the
  557 shell and the C runtime are rudimentary at best (and may, if you are
  558 using a non-standard shell, be inconsistent).  The only (useful) quote
  559 character is the double quote (").  It can be used to protect spaces
  560 and other special characters in arguments.
  562 The Windows documentation describes the shell parsing rules here:
  563 L<https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server/administration/windows-commands/cmd>
  564 and the C runtime parsing rules here:
  565 L<https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/17w5ykft%28v=VS.100%29.aspx>.
  567 Here are some further observations based on experiments: The C runtime
  568 breaks arguments at spaces and passes them to programs in argc/argv.
  569 Double quotes can be used to prevent arguments with spaces in them from
  570 being split up.  You can put a double quote in an argument by escaping
  571 it with a backslash and enclosing the whole argument within double quotes.
  572 The backslash and the pair of double quotes surrounding the argument will
  573 be stripped by the C runtime.
  575 The file redirection characters "E<lt>", "E<gt>", and "|" can be quoted by
  576 double quotes (although there are suggestions that this may not always
  577 be true).  Single quotes are not treated as quotes by the shell or
  578 the C runtime, they don't get stripped by the shell (just to make
  579 this type of quoting completely useless).  The caret "^" has also
  580 been observed to behave as a quoting character, but this appears
  581 to be a shell feature, and the caret is not stripped from the command
  582 line, so Perl still sees it (and the C runtime phase does not treat
  583 the caret as a quote character).
  585 Here are some examples of usage of the "cmd" shell:
  587 This prints two doublequotes:
  589     perl -e "print '\"\"' "
  591 This does the same:
  593     perl -e "print \"\\\"\\\"\" "
  595 This prints "bar" and writes "foo" to the file "blurch":
  597     perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" > blurch
  599 This prints "foo" ("bar" disappears into nowhereland):
  601     perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2> nul
  603 This prints "bar" and writes "foo" into the file "blurch":
  605     perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 1> blurch
  607 This pipes "foo" to the "less" pager and prints "bar" on the console:
  609     perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" | less
  611 This pipes "foo\nbar\n" to the less pager:
  613     perl -le "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2>&1 | less
  615 This pipes "foo" to the pager and writes "bar" in the file "blurch":
  617     perl -e "print 'foo'; print STDERR 'bar'" 2> blurch | less
  620 Discovering the usefulness of the "command.com" shell on Windows 9x
  621 is left as an exercise to the reader :)
  623 One particularly pernicious problem with the 4NT command shell for
  624 Windows is that it (nearly) always treats a % character as indicating
  625 that environment variable expansion is needed.  Under this shell, it is
  626 therefore important to always double any % characters which you want
  627 Perl to see (for example, for hash variables), even when they are
  628 quoted.
  630 =item Building Extensions
  632 The Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (CPAN) offers a wealth
  633 of extensions, some of which require a C compiler to build.
  634 Look in L<https://www.cpan.org/> for more information on CPAN.
  636 Note that not all of the extensions available from CPAN may work
  637 in the Windows environment; you should check the information at
  638 L<https://www.cpantesters.org/> before investing too much effort into
  639 porting modules that don't readily build.
  641 Most extensions (whether they require a C compiler or not) can
  642 be built, tested and installed with the standard mantra:
  644     perl Makefile.PL
  645     $MAKE
  646     $MAKE test
  647     $MAKE install
  649 where $MAKE is whatever 'make' program you have configured perl to
  650 use.  Use "perl -V:make" to find out what this is.  Some extensions
  651 may not provide a testsuite (so "$MAKE test" may not do anything or
  652 fail), but most serious ones do.
  654 It is important that you use a supported 'make' program, and
  655 ensure Config.pm knows about it.  If you don't have nmake, you can
  656 either get dmake from the location mentioned earlier or get an
  657 old version of nmake reportedly available from:
  659 L<http://download.microsoft.com/download/vc15/Patch/1.52/W95/EN-US/nmake15.exe>
  661 Another option is to use the make written in Perl, available from
  662 CPAN.
  664 L<https://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/Make/>
  666 You may also use dmake or gmake.  See L</"Make"> above on how to get it.
  668 Note that MakeMaker actually emits makefiles with different syntax
  669 depending on what 'make' it thinks you are using.  Therefore, it is
  670 important that one of the following values appears in Config.pm:
  672     make='nmake'	# MakeMaker emits nmake syntax
  673     make='dmake'	# MakeMaker emits dmake syntax
  674     any other value	# MakeMaker emits generic make syntax
  675     			    (e.g GNU make, or Perl make)
  677 If the value doesn't match the 'make' program you want to use,
  678 edit Config.pm to fix it.
  680 If a module implements XSUBs, you will need one of the supported
  681 C compilers.  You must make sure you have set up the environment for
  682 the compiler for command-line compilation before running C<perl Makefile.PL>
  683 or any invocation of make.
  685 If a module does not build for some reason, look carefully for
  686 why it failed, and report problems to the module author.  If
  687 it looks like the extension building support is at fault, report
  688 that with full details of how the build failed using the GitHub
  689 issue tracker at L<https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues>.
  691 =item Command-line Wildcard Expansion
  693 The default command shells on DOS descendant operating systems (such
  694 as they are) usually do not expand wildcard arguments supplied to
  695 programs.  They consider it the application's job to handle that.
  696 This is commonly achieved by linking the application (in our case,
  697 perl) with startup code that the C runtime libraries usually provide.
  698 However, doing that results in incompatible perl versions (since the
  699 behavior of the argv expansion code differs depending on the
  700 compiler, and it is even buggy on some compilers).  Besides, it may
  701 be a source of frustration if you use such a perl binary with an
  702 alternate shell that *does* expand wildcards.
  704 Instead, the following solution works rather well. The nice things
  705 about it are 1) you can start using it right away; 2) it is more
  706 powerful, because it will do the right thing with a pattern like
  707 */*/*.c; 3) you can decide whether you do/don't want to use it; and
  708 4) you can extend the method to add any customizations (or even
  709 entirely different kinds of wildcard expansion).
  711  C:\> copy con c:\perl\lib\Wild.pm
  712  # Wild.pm - emulate shell @ARGV expansion on shells that don't
  713  use File::DosGlob;
  714  @ARGV = map {
  715 	      my @g = File::DosGlob::glob($_) if /[*?]/;
  716 	      @g ? @g : $_;
  717 	    } @ARGV;
  718  1;
  719  ^Z
  720  C:\> set PERL5OPT=-MWild
  721  C:\> perl -le "for (@ARGV) { print }" */*/perl*.c
  722  p4view/perl/perl.c
  723  p4view/perl/perlio.c
  724  p4view/perl/perly.c
  725  perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
  726  perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
  727  perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
  728  perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
  729  perl5.005/win32/perlglob.c
  730  perl5.005/win32/perllib.c
  732 Note there are two distinct steps there: 1) You'll have to create
  733 Wild.pm and put it in your perl lib directory. 2) You'll need to
  734 set the PERL5OPT environment variable.  If you want argv expansion
  735 to be the default, just set PERL5OPT in your default startup
  736 environment.
  738 If you are using the Visual C compiler, you can get the C runtime's
  739 command line wildcard expansion built into perl binary.  The resulting
  740 binary will always expand unquoted command lines, which may not be
  741 what you want if you use a shell that does that for you.  The expansion
  742 done is also somewhat less powerful than the approach suggested above.
  744 =item Notes on 64-bit Windows
  746 Windows .NET Server supports the LLP64 data model on the Intel Itanium
  747 architecture.
  749 The LLP64 data model is different from the LP64 data model that is the
  750 norm on 64-bit Unix platforms.  In the former, C<int> and C<long> are
  751 both 32-bit data types, while pointers are 64 bits wide.  In addition,
  752 there is a separate 64-bit wide integral type, C<__int64>.  In contrast,
  753 the LP64 data model that is pervasive on Unix platforms provides C<int>
  754 as the 32-bit type, while both the C<long> type and pointers are of
  755 64-bit precision.  Note that both models provide for 64-bits of
  756 addressability.
  758 64-bit Windows running on Itanium is capable of running 32-bit x86
  759 binaries transparently.  This means that you could use a 32-bit build
  760 of Perl on a 64-bit system.  Given this, why would one want to build
  761 a 64-bit build of Perl?  Here are some reasons why you would bother:
  763 =over
  765 =item *
  767 A 64-bit native application will run much more efficiently on
  768 Itanium hardware.
  770 =item *
  772 There is no 2GB limit on process size.
  774 =item *
  776 Perl automatically provides large file support when built under
  777 64-bit Windows.
  779 =item *
  781 Embedding Perl inside a 64-bit application.
  783 =back
  785 =back
  787 =head2 Running Perl Scripts
  789 Perl scripts on UNIX use the "#!" (a.k.a "shebang") line to
  790 indicate to the OS that it should execute the file using perl.
  791 Windows has no comparable means to indicate arbitrary files are
  792 executables.
  794 Instead, all available methods to execute plain text files on
  795 Windows rely on the file "extension".  There are three methods
  796 to use this to execute perl scripts:
  798 =over 8
  800 =item 1
  802 There is a facility called "file extension associations".  This can be
  803 manipulated via the two commands "assoc" and "ftype" that come
  804 standard with Windows.  Type "ftype /?" for a complete example of how
  805 to set this up for perl scripts (Say what?  You thought Windows
  806 wasn't perl-ready? :).
  808 =item 2
  810 Since file associations don't work everywhere, and there are
  811 reportedly bugs with file associations where it does work, the
  812 old method of wrapping the perl script to make it look like a
  813 regular batch file to the OS, may be used.  The install process
  814 makes available the "pl2bat.bat" script which can be used to wrap
  815 perl scripts into batch files.  For example:
  817 	pl2bat foo.pl
  819 will create the file "FOO.BAT".  Note "pl2bat" strips any
  820 .pl suffix and adds a .bat suffix to the generated file.
  822 If you use the 4DOS/NT or similar command shell, note that
  823 "pl2bat" uses the "%*" variable in the generated batch file to
  824 refer to all the command line arguments, so you may need to make
  825 sure that construct works in batch files.  As of this writing,
  826 4DOS/NT users will need a "ParameterChar = *" statement in their
  827 4NT.INI file or will need to execute "setdos /p*" in the 4DOS/NT
  828 startup file to enable this to work.
  830 =item 3
  832 Using "pl2bat" has a few problems:  the file name gets changed,
  833 so scripts that rely on C<$0> to find what they must do may not
  834 run properly; running "pl2bat" replicates the contents of the
  835 original script, and so this process can be maintenance intensive
  836 if the originals get updated often.  A different approach that
  837 avoids both problems is possible.
  839 A script called "runperl.bat" is available that can be copied
  840 to any filename (along with the .bat suffix).  For example,
  841 if you call it "foo.bat", it will run the file "foo" when it is
  842 executed.  Since you can run batch files on Windows platforms simply
  843 by typing the name (without the extension), this effectively
  844 runs the file "foo", when you type either "foo" or "foo.bat".
  845 With this method, "foo.bat" can even be in a different location
  846 than the file "foo", as long as "foo" is available somewhere on
  847 the PATH.  If your scripts are on a filesystem that allows symbolic
  848 links, you can even avoid copying "runperl.bat".
  850 Here's a diversion:  copy "runperl.bat" to "runperl", and type
  851 "runperl".  Explain the observed behavior, or lack thereof. :)
  852 Hint: .gnidnats llits er'uoy fi ,"lrepnur" eteled :tniH
  854 =back
  856 =head2 Miscellaneous Things
  858 A full set of HTML documentation is installed, so you should be
  859 able to use it if you have a web browser installed on your
  860 system.
  862 C<perldoc> is also a useful tool for browsing information contained
  863 in the documentation, especially in conjunction with a pager
  864 like C<less> (recent versions of which have Windows support).  You may
  865 have to set the PAGER environment variable to use a specific pager.
  866 "perldoc -f foo" will print information about the perl operator
  867 "foo".
  869 One common mistake when using this port with a GUI library like C<Tk>
  870 is assuming that Perl's normal behavior of opening a command-line
  871 window will go away.  This isn't the case.  If you want to start a copy
  872 of C<perl> without opening a command-line window, use the C<wperl>
  873 executable built during the installation process.  Usage is exactly
  874 the same as normal C<perl> on Windows, except that options like C<-h>
  875 don't work (since they need a command-line window to print to).
  877 If you find bugs in perl, you can report them to
  878 L<https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues>.
  880 =head1 BUGS AND CAVEATS
  882 Norton AntiVirus interferes with the build process, particularly if
  883 set to "AutoProtect, All Files, when Opened". Unlike large applications
  884 the perl build process opens and modifies a lot of files. Having the
  885 AntiVirus scan each and every one slows build the process significantly.
  886 Worse, with PERLIO=stdio the build process fails with peculiar messages
  887 as the virus checker interacts badly with miniperl.exe writing configure
  888 files (it seems to either catch file part written and treat it as suspicious,
  889 or virus checker may have it "locked" in a way which inhibits miniperl
  890 updating it). The build does complete with
  892    set PERLIO=perlio
  894 but that may be just luck. Other AntiVirus software may have similar issues.
  896 A git GUI shell extension for Windows such as TortoiseGit will cause the build
  897 and later C<make test> to run much slower since every file is checked for its
  898 git status as soon as it is created and/or modified. TortoiseGit doesn't cause
  899 any test failures or build problems unlike the antivirus software described
  900 above, but it does cause similar slowness. It is suggested to use Task Manager
  901 to look for background processes which use high CPU amounts during the building
  902 process.
  904 Some of the built-in functions do not act exactly as documented in
  905 L<perlfunc>, and a few are not implemented at all.  To avoid
  906 surprises, particularly if you have had prior exposure to Perl
  907 in other operating environments or if you intend to write code
  908 that will be portable to other environments, see L<perlport>
  909 for a reasonably definitive list of these differences.
  911 Not all extensions available from CPAN may build or work properly
  912 in the Windows environment.  See L</"Building Extensions">.
  914 Most C<socket()> related calls are supported, but they may not
  915 behave as on Unix platforms.  See L<perlport> for the full list.
  917 Signal handling may not behave as on Unix platforms (where it
  918 doesn't exactly "behave", either :).  For instance, calling C<die()>
  919 or C<exit()> from signal handlers will cause an exception, since most
  920 implementations of C<signal()> on Windows are severely crippled.
  921 Thus, signals may work only for simple things like setting a flag
  922 variable in the handler.  Using signals under this port should
  923 currently be considered unsupported.
  925 Please report detailed descriptions of any problems and solutions that
  926 you may find at E<lt>L<https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues>E<gt>,
  927 along with the output produced by C<perl -V>.
  931 The use of a camel with the topic of Perl is a trademark
  932 of O'Reilly and Associates, Inc. Used with permission.
  934 =head1 AUTHORS
  936 =over 4
  938 =item Gary Ng E<lt>71564.1743@CompuServe.COME<gt>
  940 =item Gurusamy Sarathy E<lt>gsar@activestate.comE<gt>
  942 =item Nick Ing-Simmons E<lt>nick@ing-simmons.netE<gt>
  944 =item Jan Dubois E<lt>jand@activestate.comE<gt>
  946 =item Steve Hay E<lt>steve.m.hay@googlemail.comE<gt>
  948 =back
  950 This document is maintained by Jan Dubois.
  952 =head1 SEE ALSO
  954 L<perl>
  956 =head1 HISTORY
  958 This port was originally contributed by Gary Ng around 5.003_24,
  959 and borrowed from the Hip Communications port that was available
  960 at the time.  Various people have made numerous and sundry hacks
  961 since then.
  963 GCC/mingw32 support was added in 5.005 (Nick Ing-Simmons).
  965 Support for PERL_OBJECT was added in 5.005 (ActiveState Tool Corp).
  967 Support for fork() emulation was added in 5.6 (ActiveState Tool Corp).
  969 Win9x support was added in 5.6 (Benjamin Stuhl).
  971 Support for 64-bit Windows added in 5.8 (ActiveState Corp).
  973 Last updated: 30 April 2019
  975 =cut