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    1 If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
    2 It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
    3 designed to be readable as is. But if you have been into Perl you
    4 probably already know this.
    5 
    6 =head1 NAME
    7 
    8 perlsynology - Perl 5 on Synology DSM systems
    9 
   10 =head1 DESCRIPTION
   11 
   12 Synology manufactures a vast number of Network Attached Storage (NAS)
   13 devices that are very popular in large organisations as well as small
   14 businesses and homes.
   15 
   16 The NAS systems are equipped with Synology Disk Storage Manager (DSM),
   17 which is a trimmed-down Linux system enhanced with several tools for
   18 managing the NAS. There are several flavours of hardware: Marvell
   19 Armada (ARMv5tel, ARMv7l), Intel Atom (i686, x86_64), Freescale QorIQ
   20 (PPC), and more. For a full list see the
   21 L<Synology FAQ|https://forum.synology.com/wiki/index.php/What_kind_of_CPU_does_my_NAS_have>.
   22 
   23 Since it is based on Linux, the NAS can run many popular Linux
   24 software packages, including Perl. In fact, Synology provides a
   25 ready-to-install package for Perl, depending on the version of DSM
   26 the installed perl ranges from 5.8.6 on DSM-4.3 to 5.24.0 on DSM-6.1.
   27 
   28 There is an active user community that provides many software packages
   29 for the Synology DSM systems; at the time of writing this document
   30 they provide Perl version 5.24.1.
   31 
   32 This document describes various features of Synology DSM operating
   33 system that will affect how Perl 5 (hereafter just Perl) is
   34 configured, compiled and/or runs. It has been compiled and verified by
   35 Johan Vromans for the Synology DS413 (QorIQ), with feedback from
   36 H.Merijn Brand (DS213, ARMv5tel and RS815, Intel Atom x64).
   37 
   38 =head2 Setting up the build environment
   39 
   40 =head3 DSM 5
   41 
   42 As DSM is a trimmed-down Linux system, it lacks many of the tools and
   43 libraries commonly found on Linux. The basic tools like sh, cp, rm,
   44 etc. are implemented using
   45 L<BusyBox|https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BusyBox>.
   46 
   47 =over 4
   48 
   49 =item *
   50 
   51 Using your favourite browser open the DSM management page and start
   52 the Package Center.
   53 
   54 =item *
   55 
   56 If you want to smoke test Perl, install C<Perl>.
   57 
   58 =item *
   59 
   60 In Settings, add the following Package Sources:
   61 
   62   https://www.cphub.net
   63   http://packages.quadrat4.de
   64 
   65 =item *
   66 
   67 Still in Settings, in Channel Update, select Beta Channel.
   68 
   69 =item *
   70 
   71 Press Refresh. In the left panel the item "Community" will appear.
   72 Click it. Select "Bootstrap Installer Beta" and install it.
   73 
   74 =item *
   75 
   76 Likewise, install "iPKGui Beta".
   77 
   78 The application window should now show an icon for iPKGui.
   79 
   80 =item *
   81 
   82 Start iPKGui. Install the packages C<make>, C<gcc> and C<coreutils>.
   83 
   84 If you want to smoke test Perl, install C<patch>.
   85 
   86 =back
   87 
   88 The next step is to add some symlinks to system libraries. For
   89 example, the development software expect a library C<libm.so> that
   90 normally is a symlink to C<libm.so.6>. Synology only provides the
   91 latter and not the symlink.
   92 
   93 Here the actual architecture of the Synology system matters. You have
   94 to find out where the gcc libraries have been installed. Look in /opt
   95 for a directory similar to arm-none-linux-gnueab or
   96 powerpc-linux-gnuspe. In the instructions below I'll use
   97 powerpc-linux-gnuspe as an example.
   98 
   99 =over 4
  100 
  101 =item *
  102 
  103 On the DSM management page start the Control Panel.
  104 
  105 =item *
  106 
  107 Click Terminal, and enable SSH service.
  108 
  109 =item *
  110 
  111 Close Terminal and the Control Panel.
  112 
  113 =item *
  114 
  115 Open a shell on the Synology using ssh and become root.
  116 
  117 =item *
  118 
  119 Execute the following commands:
  120 
  121   cd /lib
  122   ln -s libm.so.6 libm.so
  123   ln -s libcrypt.so.1 libcrypt.so
  124   ln -s libdl.so.2 libdl.so
  125   cd /opt/powerpc-linux-gnuspe/lib  (or
  126                                     /opt/arm-none-linux-gnueabi/lib)
  127   ln -s /lib/libdl.so.2 libdl.so
  128 
  129 =back
  130 
  131 B<WARNING:> When you perform a system software upgrade, these links
  132 will disappear and need to be re-established.
  133 
  134 =head3 DSM 6
  135 
  136 Using iPkg has been deprecated on DSM 6, but an alternative is available
  137 for DSM 6: entware/opkg. For instructions on how to use that, please read
  138 L<Install Entware-ng on Synology NAS|https://github.com/Entware-ng/Entware-ng/wiki/Install-on-Synology-NAS>
  139 
  140 That sadly does not (yet) work on QorIQ. At the moment of writing, the
  141 supported architectures are armv5, armv7, mipsel, wl500g, x86_32, and x86_64.
  142 Check L<here|https://pkg.entware.net/binaries/> for supported platforms.
  143 
  144 Entware-ng comes with a precompiled 5.24.1 (June 2017) that allowes
  145 building shared XS code. Note that this installation does B<not> use
  146 a site_perl folder. The available C<cpan> works. If all required
  147 development packages are installed too, also for XS.
  148 
  149 =head2 Compiling Perl 5
  150 
  151 When the build environment has been set up, building and testing Perl
  152 is straightforward. The only thing you need to do is download the
  153 sources as usual, and add a file Policy.sh as follows:
  154 
  155   # Administrivia.
  156   perladmin="your.email@goes.here"
  157 
  158   # Install Perl in a tree in /opt/perl instead of /opt/bin.
  159   prefix=/opt/perl
  160 
  161   # Select the compiler. Note that there is no 'cc' alias or link.
  162   cc=gcc
  163 
  164   # Build flags.
  165   ccflags="-DDEBUGGING"
  166 
  167   # Library and include paths.
  168   libpth="/lib"
  169   locincpth="/opt/include"
  170   loclibpth="/lib"
  171 
  172 You may want to create the destination directory and give it the right
  173 permissions before installing, thus eliminating the need to build Perl
  174 as a super user.
  175 
  176 In the directory where you unpacked the sources, issue the familiar
  177 commands:
  178 
  179   ./Configure -des
  180   make
  181   make test
  182   make install
  183 
  184 =head2 Known problems
  185 
  186 =head3 Configure
  187 
  188 No known problems yet
  189 
  190 =head3 Build
  191 
  192 =over 4
  193 
  194 =item Error message "No error definitions found".
  195 
  196 This error is generated when it is not possible to find the local
  197 definitions for error codes, due to the uncommon structure of the
  198 Synology file system.
  199 
  200 This error was fixed in the Perl development git for version 5.19,
  201 commit 7a8f1212e5482613c8a5b0402528e3105b26ff24.
  202 
  203 =back
  204 
  205 =head3 Failing tests
  206 
  207 =over 4
  208 
  209 =item F<ext/DynaLoader/t/DynaLoader.t>
  210 
  211 One subtest fails due to the uncommon structure of the Synology file
  212 system. The file F</lib/glibc.so> is missing.
  213 
  214 B<WARNING:> Do not symlink F</lib/glibc.so.6> to F</lib/glibc.so> or
  215 some system components will start to fail.
  216 
  217 =back
  218 
  219 =head2 Smoke testing Perl 5
  220 
  221 If building completes successfully, you can set up smoke testing as
  222 described in the Test::Smoke documentation.
  223 
  224 For smoke testing you need a running Perl. You can either install the
  225 Synology supplied package for Perl 5.8.6, or build and install your
  226 own, much more recent version.
  227 
  228 Note that I could not run successful smokes when initiated by the
  229 Synology Task Scheduler. I resorted to initiating the smokes via a
  230 cron job run on another system, using ssh:
  231 
  232   ssh nas1 wrk/Test-Smoke/smoke/smokecurrent.sh
  233 
  234 =head3 Local patches
  235 
  236 When local patches are applied with smoke testing, the test driver
  237 will automatically request regeneration of certain tables after the
  238 patches are applied. The Synology supplied Perl 5.8.6 (at least on the
  239 DS413) B<is NOT capable> of generating these tables. It will generate
  240 opcodes with bogus values, causing the build to fail.
  241 
  242 You can prevent regeneration by adding the setting
  243 
  244   'flags' => 0,
  245 
  246 to the smoke config, or by adding another patch that inserts
  247 
  248   exit 0 if $] == 5.008006;
  249 
  250 in the beginning of the C<regen.pl> program.
  251 
  252 =head2 Adding libraries
  253 
  254 The above procedure describes a basic environment and hence results in
  255 a basic Perl. If you want to add additional libraries to Perl, you may
  256 need some extra settings.
  257 
  258 For example, the basic Perl does not have any of the DB libraries (db,
  259 dbm, ndbm, gdsm). You can add these using iPKGui, however, you need to
  260 set environment variable LD_LIBRARY_PATH to the appropriate value:
  261 
  262   LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/lib:/opt/lib
  263   export LD_LIBRARY_PATH
  264 
  265 This setting needs to be in effect while Perl is built, but also when
  266 the programs are run.
  267 
  268 =head1 REVISION
  269 
  270 June 2017, for Synology DSM 5.1.5022 and DSM 6.1-15101-4.
  271 
  272 =head1 AUTHOR
  273 
  274 Johan Vromans <jvromans@squirrel.nl>
  275 H. Merijn Brand <h.m.brand@xs4all.nl>
  276 
  277 =cut