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    1 If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you
    2 see.  It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is
    3 specifically designed to be readable as is.
    5 =head1 NAME
    7 perlsolaris - Perl version 5 on Solaris systems
    9 =head1 DESCRIPTION
   11 This document describes various features of Sun's Solaris operating system
   12 that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just perl) is
   13 compiled and/or runs.  Some issues relating to the older SunOS 4.x are
   14 also discussed, though they may be out of date.
   16 For the most part, everything should just work.
   18 Starting with Solaris 8, perl5.00503 (or higher) is supplied with the
   19 operating system, so you might not even need to build a newer version
   20 of perl at all.  The Sun-supplied version is installed in /usr/perl5
   21 with F</usr/bin/perl> pointing to F</usr/perl5/bin/perl>.  Do not disturb
   22 that installation unless you really know what you are doing.  If you
   23 remove the perl supplied with the OS, you will render some bits of
   24 your system inoperable.  If you wish to install a newer version of perl,
   25 install it under a different prefix from /usr/perl5.  Common prefixes
   26 to use are /usr/local and /opt/perl.
   28 You may wish to put your version of perl in the PATH of all users by
   29 changing the link F</usr/bin/perl>.  This is probably OK, as most perl
   30 scripts shipped with Solaris use an explicit path.  (There are a few
   31 exceptions, such as F</usr/bin/rpm2cpio> and F</etc/rcm/scripts/README>, but
   32 these are also sufficiently generic that the actual version of perl
   33 probably doesn't matter too much.)
   35 Solaris ships with a range of Solaris-specific modules.  If you choose
   36 to install your own version of perl you will find the source of many of
   37 these modules is available on CPAN under the Sun::Solaris:: namespace.
   39 Solaris may include two versions of perl, e.g. Solaris 9 includes
   40 both 5.005_03 and 5.6.1.  This is to provide stability across Solaris
   41 releases, in cases where a later perl version has incompatibilities
   42 with the version included in the preceding Solaris release.  The
   43 default perl version will always be the most recent, and in general
   44 the old version will only be retained for one Solaris release.  Note
   45 also that the default perl will NOT be configured to search for modules
   46 in the older version, again due to compatibility/stability concerns.
   47 As a consequence if you upgrade Solaris, you will have to
   48 rebuild/reinstall any additional CPAN modules that you installed for
   49 the previous Solaris version.  See the CPAN manpage under 'autobundle'
   50 for a quick way of doing this.
   52 As an interim measure, you may either change the #! line of your
   53 scripts to specifically refer to the old perl version, e.g. on
   54 Solaris 9 use #!/usr/perl5/5.00503/bin/perl to use the perl version
   55 that was the default for Solaris 8, or if you have a large number of
   56 scripts it may be more convenient to make the old version of perl the
   57 default on your system.  You can do this by changing the appropriate
   58 symlinks under /usr/perl5 as follows (example for Solaris 9):
   60  # cd /usr/perl5
   61  # rm bin man pod
   62  # ln -s ./5.00503/bin
   63  # ln -s ./5.00503/man
   64  # ln -s ./5.00503/lib/pod
   65  # rm /usr/bin/perl
   66  # ln -s ../perl5/5.00503/bin/perl /usr/bin/perl
   68 In both cases this should only be considered to be a temporary
   69 measure - you should upgrade to the later version of perl as soon as
   70 is practicable.
   72 Note also that the perl command-line utilities (e.g. perldoc) and any
   73 that are added by modules that you install will be under
   74 /usr/perl5/bin, so that directory should be added to your PATH.
   76 =head2 Solaris Version Numbers.
   78 For consistency with common usage, perl's Configure script performs
   79 some minor manipulations on the operating system name and version
   80 number as reported by uname.  Here's a partial translation table:
   82           Sun:                      perl's Configure:
   83  uname    uname -r   Name           osname     osvers
   84  SunOS    4.1.3     Solaris 1.1     sunos      4.1.3
   85  SunOS    5.6       Solaris 2.6     solaris    2.6
   86  SunOS    5.8       Solaris 8       solaris    2.8
   87  SunOS    5.9       Solaris 9       solaris    2.9
   88  SunOS    5.10      Solaris 10      solaris    2.10
   90 The complete table can be found in the Sun Managers' FAQ
   91 L<ftp://ftp.cs.toronto.edu/pub/jdd/sunmanagers/faq> under
   92 "9.1) Which Sun models run which versions of SunOS?".
   94 =head1 RESOURCES
   96 There are many, many sources for Solaris information.  A few of the
   97 important ones for perl:
   99 =over 4
  101 =item Solaris FAQ
  103 The Solaris FAQ is available at
  104 L<http://www.science.uva.nl/pub/solaris/solaris2.html>.
  106 The Sun Managers' FAQ is available at
  107 L<ftp://ftp.cs.toronto.edu/pub/jdd/sunmanagers/faq>
  109 =item Precompiled Binaries
  111 Precompiled binaries, links to many sites, and much, much more are
  112 available at L<http://www.sunfreeware.com/> and
  113 L<http://www.blastwave.org/>.
  115 =item Solaris Documentation
  117 All Solaris documentation is available on-line at L<http://docs.sun.com/>.
  119 =back
  121 =head1 SETTING UP
  123 =head2 File Extraction Problems on Solaris.
  125 Be sure to use a tar program compiled under Solaris (not SunOS 4.x)
  126 to extract the perl-5.x.x.tar.gz file.  Do not use GNU tar compiled
  127 for SunOS4 on Solaris.  (GNU tar compiled for Solaris should be fine.)
  128 When you run SunOS4 binaries on Solaris, the run-time system magically
  129 alters pathnames matching m#lib/locale# so that when tar tries to create
  130 lib/locale.pm, a file named lib/oldlocale.pm gets created instead.
  131 If you found this advice too late and used a SunOS4-compiled tar
  132 anyway, you must find the incorrectly renamed file and move it back
  133 to lib/locale.pm.
  135 =head2 Compiler and Related Tools on Solaris.
  137 You must use an ANSI C compiler to build perl.  Perl can be compiled
  138 with either Sun's add-on C compiler or with gcc.  The C compiler that
  139 shipped with SunOS4 will not do.
  141 =head3 Include /usr/ccs/bin/ in your PATH.
  143 Several tools needed to build perl are located in /usr/ccs/bin/:  ar,
  144 as, ld, and make.  Make sure that /usr/ccs/bin/ is in your PATH.
  147 On all the released versions of Solaris (8, 9 and 10) you need to make sure the following packages are installed (this info is extracted from the Solaris FAQ):
  149 for tools (sccs, lex, yacc, make, nm, truss, ld, as): SUNWbtool,
  150 SUNWsprot, SUNWtoo
  152 for libraries & headers: SUNWhea, SUNWarc, SUNWlibm, SUNWlibms, SUNWdfbh,
  153 SUNWcg6h, SUNWxwinc
  155 Additionally, on Solaris 8 and 9 you also need:
  157 for 64 bit development: SUNWarcx, SUNWbtoox, SUNWdplx, SUNWscpux,
  158 SUNWsprox, SUNWtoox, SUNWlmsx, SUNWlmx, SUNWlibCx
  160 And only on Solaris 8 you also need:
  162 for libraries & headers: SUNWolinc
  165 If you are in doubt which package contains a file you are missing,
  166 try to find an installation that has that file. Then do a
  168  $ grep /my/missing/file /var/sadm/install/contents
  170 This will display a line like this:
  172 /usr/include/sys/errno.h f none 0644 root bin 7471 37605 956241356 SUNWhea
  174 The last item listed (SUNWhea in this example) is the package you need.
  176 =head3 Avoid /usr/ucb/cc.
  178 You don't need to have /usr/ucb/ in your PATH to build perl.  If you
  179 want /usr/ucb/ in your PATH anyway, make sure that /usr/ucb/ is NOT
  180 in your PATH before the directory containing the right C compiler.
  182 =head3 Sun's C Compiler
  184 If you use Sun's C compiler, make sure the correct directory
  185 (usually /opt/SUNWspro/bin/) is in your PATH (before /usr/ucb/).
  187 =head3 GCC
  189 If you use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and complete.
  190 perl versions since 5.6.0 build fine with gcc > 2.8.1 on Solaris >=
  191 2.6.
  193 You must Configure perl with
  195  $ sh Configure -Dcc=gcc
  197 If you don't, you may experience strange build errors.
  199 If you have updated your Solaris version, you may also have to update
  200 your gcc.  For example, if you are running Solaris 2.6 and your gcc is
  201 installed under /usr/local, check in /usr/local/lib/gcc-lib and make
  202 sure you have the appropriate directory, sparc-sun-solaris2.6/ or
  203 i386-pc-solaris2.6/.  If gcc's directory is for a different version of
  204 Solaris than you are running, then you will need to rebuild gcc for
  205 your new version of Solaris.
  207 You can get a precompiled version of gcc from
  208 L<http://www.sunfreeware.com/> or L<http://www.blastwave.org/>. Make
  209 sure you pick up the package for your Solaris release.
  211 If you wish to use gcc to build add-on modules for use with the perl
  212 shipped with Solaris, you should use the Solaris::PerlGcc module
  213 which is available from CPAN.  The perl shipped with Solaris
  214 is configured and built with the Sun compilers, and the compiler
  215 configuration information stored in Config.pm is therefore only
  216 relevant to the Sun compilers.  The Solaris:PerlGcc module contains a
  217 replacement Config.pm that is correct for gcc - see the module for
  218 details.
  220 =head3 GNU as and GNU ld
  222 The following information applies to gcc version 2.  Volunteers to
  223 update it as appropriately for gcc version 3 would be appreciated.
  225 The versions of as and ld supplied with Solaris work fine for building
  226 perl.  There is normally no need to install the GNU versions to
  227 compile perl.
  229 If you decide to ignore this advice and use the GNU versions anyway,
  230 then be sure that they are relatively recent.  Versions newer than 2.7
  231 are apparently new enough.  Older versions may have trouble with
  232 dynamic loading.
  234 If you wish to use GNU ld, then you need to pass it the -Wl,-E flag.
  235 The hints/solaris_2.sh file tries to do this automatically by setting
  236 the following Configure variables:
  238  ccdlflags="$ccdlflags -Wl,-E"
  239  lddlflags="$lddlflags -Wl,-E -G"
  241 However, over the years, changes in gcc, GNU ld, and Solaris ld have made
  242 it difficult to automatically detect which ld ultimately gets called.
  243 You may have to manually edit config.sh and add the -Wl,-E flags
  244 yourself, or else run Configure interactively and add the flags at the
  245 appropriate prompts.
  247 If your gcc is configured to use GNU as and ld but you want to use the
  248 Solaris ones instead to build perl, then you'll need to add
  249 -B/usr/ccs/bin/ to the gcc command line.  One convenient way to do
  250 that is with
  252  $ sh Configure -Dcc='gcc -B/usr/ccs/bin/'
  254 Note that the trailing slash is required.  This will result in some
  255 harmless warnings as Configure is run:
  257  gcc: file path prefix `/usr/ccs/bin/' never used
  259 These messages may safely be ignored.
  260 (Note that for a SunOS4 system, you must use -B/bin/ instead.)
  262 Alternatively, you can use the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX environment variable to
  263 ensure that Sun's as and ld are used.  Consult your gcc documentation
  264 for further information on the -B option and the GCC_EXEC_PREFIX variable.
  266 =head3 Sun and GNU make
  268 The make under /usr/ccs/bin works fine for building perl.  If you
  269 have the Sun C compilers, you will also have a parallel version of
  270 make (dmake).  This works fine to build perl, but can sometimes cause
  271 problems when running 'make test' due to underspecified dependencies
  272 between the different test harness files.  The same problem can also
  273 affect the building of some add-on modules, so in those cases either
  274 specify '-m serial' on the dmake command line, or use
  275 /usr/ccs/bin/make instead.  If you wish to use GNU make, be sure that
  276 the set-group-id bit is not set.  If it is, then arrange your PATH so
  277 that /usr/ccs/bin/make is before GNU make or else have the system
  278 administrator disable the set-group-id bit on GNU make.
  280 =head3 Avoid libucb.
  282 Solaris provides some BSD-compatibility functions in /usr/ucblib/libucb.a.
  283 Perl will not build and run correctly if linked against -lucb since it
  284 contains routines that are incompatible with the standard Solaris libc.
  285 Normally this is not a problem since the solaris hints file prevents
  286 Configure from even looking in /usr/ucblib for libraries, and also
  287 explicitly omits -lucb.
  289 =head2 Environment for Compiling perl on Solaris
  291 =head3 PATH
  293 Make sure your PATH includes the compiler (/opt/SUNWspro/bin/ if you're
  294 using Sun's compiler) as well as /usr/ccs/bin/ to pick up the other
  295 development tools (such as make, ar, as, and ld).  Make sure your path
  296 either doesn't include /usr/ucb or that it includes it after the
  297 compiler and compiler tools and other standard Solaris directories.
  298 You definitely don't want /usr/ucb/cc.
  300 =head3 LD_LIBRARY_PATH
  302 If you have the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable set, be sure that
  303 it does NOT include /lib or /usr/lib.  If you will be building
  304 extensions that call third-party shared libraries (e.g. Berkeley DB)
  305 then make sure that your LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes
  306 the directory with that library (e.g. /usr/local/lib).
  308 If you get an error message
  310  dlopen: stub interception failed
  312 it is probably because your LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable
  313 includes a directory which is a symlink to /usr/lib (such as /lib).
  314 The reason this causes a problem is quite subtle.  The file
  315 libdl.so.1.0 actually *only* contains functions which generate 'stub
  316 interception failed' errors!  The runtime linker intercepts links to
  317 "/usr/lib/libdl.so.1.0" and links in internal implementations of those
  318 functions instead.  [Thanks to Tim Bunce for this explanation.]
  320 =head1 RUN CONFIGURE.
  322 See the INSTALL file for general information regarding Configure.
  323 Only Solaris-specific issues are discussed here.  Usually, the
  324 defaults should be fine.
  326 =head2 64-bit perl on Solaris.
  328 See the INSTALL file for general information regarding 64-bit compiles.
  329 In general, the defaults should be fine for most people.
  331 By default, perl-5.6.0 (or later) is compiled as a 32-bit application
  332 with largefile and long-long support.
  334 =head3 General 32-bit vs. 64-bit issues.
  336 Solaris 7 and above will run in either 32 bit or 64 bit mode on SPARC
  337 CPUs, via a reboot. You can build 64 bit apps whilst running 32 bit
  338 mode and vice-versa. 32 bit apps will run under Solaris running in
  339 either 32 or 64 bit mode.  64 bit apps require Solaris to be running
  340 64 bit mode.
  342 Existing 32 bit apps are properly known as LP32, i.e. Longs and
  343 Pointers are 32 bit.  64-bit apps are more properly known as LP64.
  344 The discriminating feature of a LP64 bit app is its ability to utilise a
  345 64-bit address space.  It is perfectly possible to have a LP32 bit app
  346 that supports both 64-bit integers (long long) and largefiles (> 2GB),
  347 and this is the default for perl-5.6.0.
  349 For a more complete explanation of 64-bit issues, see the
  350 "Solaris 64-bit Developer's Guide" at L<http://docs.sun.com/>
  352 You can detect the OS mode using "isainfo -v", e.g.
  354  $ isainfo -v   # Ultra 30 in 64 bit mode
  355  64-bit sparcv9 applications
  356  32-bit sparc applications
  358 By default, perl will be compiled as a 32-bit application.  Unless
  359 you want to allocate more than ~ 4GB of memory inside perl, or unless
  360 you need more than 255 open file descriptors, you probably don't need
  361 perl to be a 64-bit app.
  363 =head3 Large File Support
  365 For Solaris 2.6 and onwards, there are two different ways for 32-bit
  366 applications to manipulate large files (files whose size is > 2GByte).
  367 (A 64-bit application automatically has largefile support built in
  368 by default.)
  370 First is the "transitional compilation environment", described in
  371 lfcompile64(5).  According to the man page,
  373  The transitional compilation  environment  exports  all  the
  374  explicit 64-bit functions (xxx64()) and types in addition to
  375  all the regular functions (xxx()) and types. Both xxx()  and
  376  xxx64()  functions  are  available to the program source.  A
  377  32-bit application must use the xxx64() functions in  order
  378  to  access  large  files.  See the lf64(5) manual page for a
  379  complete listing of the 64-bit transitional interfaces.
  381 The transitional compilation environment is obtained with the
  382 following compiler and linker flags:
  384  getconf LFS64_CFLAGS        -D_LARGEFILE64_SOURCE
  385  getconf LFS64_LDFLAG        # nothing special needed
  386  getconf LFS64_LIBS          # nothing special needed
  388 Second is the "large file compilation environment", described in
  389 lfcompile(5).  According to the man page,
  391  Each interface named xxx() that needs to access 64-bit entities
  392  to  access  large  files maps to a xxx64() call in the
  393  resulting binary. All relevant data types are defined to  be
  394  of correct size (for example, off_t has a typedef definition
  395  for a 64-bit entity).
  397  An application compiled in this environment is able  to  use
  398  the  xxx()  source interfaces to access both large and small
  399  files, rather than having to explicitly utilize the  transitional
  400  xxx64()  interface  calls to access large files.
  402 Two exceptions are fseek() and ftell().  32-bit applications should
  403 use fseeko(3C) and ftello(3C).  These will get automatically mapped
  404 to fseeko64() and ftello64().
  406 The large file compilation environment is obtained with
  409  getconf LFS_LDFLAGS     # nothing special needed
  410  getconf LFS_LIBS        # nothing special needed
  412 By default, perl uses the large file compilation environment and
  413 relies on Solaris to do the underlying mapping of interfaces.
  415 =head3 Building an LP64 perl
  417 To compile a 64-bit application on an UltraSparc with a recent Sun Compiler,
  418 you need to use the flag "-xarch=v9".  getconf(1) will tell you this, e.g.
  420  $ getconf -a | grep v9
  421  XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS:         -xarch=v9
  422  XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS:        -xarch=v9
  423  XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LINTFLAGS:      -xarch=v9
  424  XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_CFLAGS:       -xarch=v9
  425  XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS:      -xarch=v9
  426  XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS:    -xarch=v9
  427  _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_CFLAGS:        -xarch=v9
  428  _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LDFLAGS:       -xarch=v9
  429  _XBS5_LP64_OFF64_LINTFLAGS:     -xarch=v9
  430  _XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_CFLAGS:      -xarch=v9
  431  _XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LDFLAGS:     -xarch=v9
  432  _XBS5_LPBIG_OFFBIG_LINTFLAGS:   -xarch=v9
  434 This flag is supported in Sun WorkShop Compilers 5.0 and onwards
  435 (now marketed under the name Forte) when used on Solaris 7 or later on
  436 UltraSparc systems.
  438 If you are using gcc, you would need to use -mcpu=v9 -m64 instead.  This
  439 option is not yet supported as of gcc 2.95.2; from install/SPECIFIC
  440 in that release:
  442  GCC version 2.95 is not able to compile code correctly for sparc64
  443  targets. Users of the Linux kernel, at least, can use the sparc32
  444  program to start up a new shell invocation with an environment that
  445  causes configure to recognize (via uname -a) the system as sparc-*-*
  446  instead.
  448 All this should be handled automatically by the hints file, if
  449 requested.
  451 =head3 Long Doubles.
  453 As of 5.8.1, long doubles are working if you use the Sun compilers
  454 (needed for additional math routines not included in libm).
  456 =head2 Threads in perl on Solaris.
  458 It is possible to build a threaded version of perl on Solaris.  The entire
  459 perl thread implementation is still experimental, however, so beware.
  461 =head2 Malloc Issues with perl on Solaris.
  463 Starting from perl 5.7.1 perl uses the Solaris malloc, since the perl
  464 malloc breaks when dealing with more than 2GB of memory, and the Solaris
  465 malloc also seems to be faster.
  467 If you for some reason (such as binary backward compatibility) really
  468 need to use perl's malloc, you can rebuild perl from the sources
  469 and Configure the build with 
  471  $ sh Configure -Dusemymalloc
  473 You should not use perl's malloc if you are building with gcc.  There
  474 are reports of core dumps, especially in the PDL module.  The problem
  475 appears to go away under -DDEBUGGING, so it has been difficult to
  476 track down.  Sun's compiler appears to be okay with or without perl's
  477 malloc. [XXX further investigation is needed here.]
  479 =head1 MAKE PROBLEMS.
  481 =over 4
  483 =item Dynamic Loading Problems With GNU as and GNU ld
  485 If you have problems with dynamic loading using gcc on SunOS or
  486 Solaris, and you are using GNU as and GNU ld, see the section
  487 L</"GNU as and GNU ld"> above.
  489 =item ld.so.1: ./perl: fatal: relocation error:
  491 If you get this message on SunOS or Solaris, and you're using gcc,
  492 it's probably the GNU as or GNU ld problem in the previous item
  493 L</"GNU as and GNU ld">.
  495 =item dlopen: stub interception failed
  497 The primary cause of the 'dlopen: stub interception failed' message is
  498 that the LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable includes a directory
  499 which is a symlink to /usr/lib (such as /lib).  See
  500 L</"LD_LIBRARY_PATH"> above.
  502 =item #error "No DATAMODEL_NATIVE specified"
  504 This is a common error when trying to build perl on Solaris 2.6 with a
  505 gcc installation from Solaris 2.5 or 2.5.1.  The Solaris header files
  506 changed, so you need to update your gcc installation.  You can either
  507 rerun the fixincludes script from gcc or take the opportunity to
  508 update your gcc installation.
  510 =item sh: ar: not found
  512 This is a message from your shell telling you that the command 'ar'
  513 was not found.  You need to check your PATH environment variable to
  514 make sure that it includes the directory with the 'ar' command.  This
  515 is a common problem on Solaris, where 'ar' is in the /usr/ccs/bin/
  516 directory.
  518 =back
  520 =head1 MAKE TEST
  522 =head2 op/stat.t test 4 in Solaris
  524 F<op/stat.t> test 4 may fail if you are on a tmpfs of some sort.
  525 Building in /tmp sometimes shows this behavior.  The
  526 test suite detects if you are building in /tmp, but it may not be able
  527 to catch all tmpfs situations.
  529 =head2 nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
  531 See L<perlhpux/"nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent">.
  535 Nothing too unusual here.  You can easily do this if you have a 
  536 cross-compiler available;  A usual Configure invocation when targetting a
  537 Solaris x86 looks something like this:
  539     sh ./Configure -des -Dusecrosscompile \
  540         -Dcc=i386-pc-solaris2.11-gcc      \
  541         -Dsysroot=$SYSROOT                \
  542         -Alddlflags=" -Wl,-z,notext"      \
  543         -Dtargethost=... # The usual cross-compilation options
  545 The lddlflags addition is the only abnormal bit.
  549 You can pick up prebuilt binaries for Solaris from
  550 L<http://www.sunfreeware.com/>, L<http://www.blastwave.org>,
  551 ActiveState L<http://www.activestate.com/>, and
  552 L<http://www.perl.com/> under the Binaries list at the top of the
  553 page.  There are probably other sources as well.  Please note that
  554 these sites are under the control of their respective owners, not the
  555 perl developers.
  559 =head2 Limits on Numbers of Open Files on Solaris.
  561 The stdio(3C) manpage notes that for LP32 applications, only 255
  562 files may be opened using fopen(), and only file descriptors 0
  563 through 255 can be used in a stream.  Since perl calls open() and
  564 then fdopen(3C) with the resulting file descriptor, perl is limited
  565 to 255 simultaneous open files, even if sysopen() is used.  If this
  566 proves to be an insurmountable problem, you can compile perl as a
  567 LP64 application, see L</Building an LP64 perl> for details.  Note
  568 also that the default resource limit for open file descriptors on
  569 Solaris is 255, so you will have to modify your ulimit or rctl
  570 (Solaris 9 onwards) appropriately.
  574 See the modules under the Solaris:: and Sun::Solaris namespaces on CPAN,
  575 see L<http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/Solaris/> and
  576 L<http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/Sun/>.
  580 =head2 Proc::ProcessTable on Solaris
  582 Proc::ProcessTable does not compile on Solaris with perl5.6.0 and higher
  583 if you have LARGEFILES defined.  Since largefile support is the
  584 default in 5.6.0 and later, you have to take special steps to use this
  585 module.
  587 The problem is that various structures visible via procfs use off_t,
  588 and if you compile with largefile support these change from 32 bits to
  589 64 bits.  Thus what you get back from procfs doesn't match up with
  590 the structures in perl, resulting in garbage.  See proc(4) for further
  591 discussion.
  593 A fix for Proc::ProcessTable is to edit Makefile to
  594 explicitly remove the largefile flags from the ones MakeMaker picks up
  595 from Config.pm.  This will result in Proc::ProcessTable being built
  596 under the correct environment.  Everything should then be OK as long as
  597 Proc::ProcessTable doesn't try to share off_t's with the rest of perl,
  598 or if it does they should be explicitly specified as off64_t.
  600 =head2 BSD::Resource on Solaris
  602 BSD::Resource versions earlier than 1.09 do not compile on Solaris
  603 with perl 5.6.0 and higher, for the same reasons as Proc::ProcessTable.
  604 BSD::Resource versions starting from 1.09 have a workaround for the problem.
  606 =head2 Net::SSLeay on Solaris
  608 Net::SSLeay requires a /dev/urandom to be present. This device is
  609 available from Solaris 9 onwards.  For earlier Solaris versions you
  610 can either get the package SUNWski (packaged with several Sun
  611 software products, for example the Sun WebServer, which is part of
  612 the Solaris Server Intranet Extension, or the Sun Directory Services,
  613 part of Solaris for ISPs) or download the ANDIrand package from
  614 L<http://www.cosy.sbg.ac.at/~andi/>. If you use SUNWski, make a
  615 symbolic link /dev/urandom pointing to /dev/random.  For more details,
  616 see Document ID27606 entitled "Differing /dev/random support requirements
  617 within Solaris[TM] Operating Environments", available at
  618 L<http://sunsolve.sun.com> .
  620 It may be possible to use the Entropy Gathering Daemon (written in
  621 Perl!), available from L<http://www.lothar.com/tech/crypto/>.
  623 =head1 SunOS 4.x
  625 In SunOS 4.x you most probably want to use the SunOS ld, /usr/bin/ld,
  626 since the more recent versions of GNU ld (like 2.13) do not seem to
  627 work for building Perl anymore.  When linking the extensions, the
  628 GNU ld gets very unhappy and spews a lot of errors like this
  630   ... relocation truncated to fit: BASE13 ...
  632 and dies.  Therefore the SunOS 4.1 hints file explicitly sets the
  633 ld to be F</usr/bin/ld>.
  635 As of Perl 5.8.1 the dynamic loading of libraries (DynaLoader, XSLoader)
  636 also seems to have become broken in in SunOS 4.x.  Therefore the default
  637 is to build Perl statically.
  639 Running the test suite in SunOS 4.1 is a bit tricky since the
  640 F<dist/Tie-File/t/09_gen_rs.t> test hangs (subtest #51, FWIW) for some
  641 unknown reason.  Just stop the test and kill that particular Perl
  642 process.
  644 There are various other failures, that as of SunOS 4.1.4 and gcc 3.2.2
  645 look a lot like gcc bugs.  Many of the failures happen in the Encode
  646 tests, where for example when the test expects "0" you get "&#48;"
  647 which should after a little squinting look very odd indeed.
  648 Another example is earlier in F<t/run/fresh_perl> where chr(0xff) is
  649 expected but the test fails because the result is chr(0xff).  Exactly.
  651 This is the "make test" result from the said combination:
  653   Failed 27 test scripts out of 745, 96.38% okay.
  655 Running the C<harness> is painful because of the many failing
  656 Unicode-related tests will output megabytes of failure messages,
  657 but if one patiently waits, one gets these results:
  659  Failed Test                     Stat Wstat Total Fail  Failed  List of Failed
  660  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
  661  ...
  662  ../ext/Encode/t/at-cn.t            4  1024    29    4  13.79%  14-17
  663  ../ext/Encode/t/at-tw.t           10  2560    17   10  58.82%  2 4 6 8 10 12
  664                                                                 14-17
  665  ../ext/Encode/t/enc_data.t        29  7424    ??   ??       %  ??
  666  ../ext/Encode/t/enc_eucjp.t       29  7424    ??   ??       %  ??
  667  ../ext/Encode/t/enc_module.t      29  7424    ??   ??       %  ??
  668  ../ext/Encode/t/encoding.t        29  7424    ??   ??       %  ??
  669  ../ext/Encode/t/grow.t            12  3072    24   12  50.00%  2 4 6 8 10 12 14
  670                                                                 16 18 20 22 24
  671   Failed Test                     Stat Wstat Total Fail  Failed  List of Failed
  672  ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  673  ../ext/Encode/t/guess.t          255 65280    29   40 137.93%  10-29
  674  ../ext/Encode/t/jperl.t           29  7424    15   30 200.00%  1-15
  675  ../ext/Encode/t/mime-header.t      2   512    10    2  20.00%  2-3
  676  ../ext/Encode/t/perlio.t          22  5632    38   22  57.89%  1-4 9-16 19-20
  677                                                                 23-24 27-32
  678  ../ext/List/Util/t/shuffle.t       0   139    ??   ??       %  ??
  679  ../ext/PerlIO/t/encoding.t                    14    1   7.14%  11
  680  ../ext/PerlIO/t/fallback.t                     9    2  22.22%  3 5
  681  ../ext/Socket/t/socketpair.t       0     2    45   70 155.56%  11-45
  682  ../lib/CPAN/t/vcmp.t                          30    1   3.33%  25
  683  ../lib/Tie/File/t/09_gen_rs.t      0    15    ??   ??       %  ??
  684  ../lib/Unicode/Collate/t/test.t              199   30  15.08%  7 26-27 71-75
  685                                                                 81-88 95 101
  686                                                                 103-104 106 108-
  687                                                                 109 122 124 161
  688                                                                 169-172
  689  ../lib/sort.t                      0   139   119   26  21.85%  107-119
  690  op/alarm.t                                     4    1  25.00%  4
  691  op/utfhash.t                                  97    1   1.03%  31
  692  run/fresh_perl.t                              91    1   1.10%  32
  693  uni/tr_7jis.t                                 ??   ??       %  ??
  694  uni/tr_eucjp.t                    29  7424     6   12 200.00%  1-6
  695  uni/tr_sjis.t                     29  7424     6   12 200.00%  1-6
  696  56 tests and 467 subtests skipped.
  697  Failed 27/811 test scripts, 96.67% okay. 1383/75399 subtests failed,
  698    98.17% okay.
  700 The alarm() test failure is caused by system() apparently blocking
  701 alarm().  That is probably a libc bug, and given that SunOS 4.x
  702 has been end-of-lifed years ago, don't hold your breath for a fix.
  703 In addition to that, don't try anything too Unicode-y, especially
  704 with Encode, and you should be fine in SunOS 4.x.
  706 =head1 AUTHOR
  708 The original was written by Andy Dougherty F<doughera@lafayette.edu>
  709 drawing heavily on advice from Alan Burlison, Nick Ing-Simmons, Tim Bunce,
  710 and many other Solaris users over the years.
  712 Please report any errors, updates, or suggestions to
  713 L<https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues>.