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    1 This document is written in pod format hence there are punctuation
    2 characters in odd places.  Do not worry, you have apparently got the
    3 ASCII->EBCDIC translation worked out correctly.  You can read more
    4 about pod in pod/perlpod.pod or the short summary in the INSTALL file.
    5 
    6 =head1 NAME
    7 
    8 perlos390 - building and installing Perl for OS/390 and z/OS
    9 
   10 =head1 SYNOPSIS
   11 
   12 This document will help you Configure, build, test and install Perl
   13 on OS/390 (aka z/OS) Unix System Services.
   14 
   15 B<This document needs to be updated, but we don't know what it should say.
   16 Please submit comments to L<https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues>.>
   17 
   18 =head1 DESCRIPTION
   19 
   20 This is a fully ported Perl for OS/390 Version 2 Release 3, 5, 6, 7,
   21 8, and 9.  It may work on other versions or releases, but those are
   22 the ones we have tested it on.
   23 
   24 You may need to carry out some system configuration tasks before
   25 running the Configure script for Perl.
   26 
   27 
   28 =head2 Tools
   29 
   30 The z/OS Unix Tools and Toys list may prove helpful and contains links
   31 to ports of much of the software helpful for building Perl.
   32 L<http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html>
   33 
   34 
   35 =head2 Unpacking Perl distribution on OS/390
   36 
   37 If using ftp remember to transfer the distribution in binary format.
   38 
   39 Gunzip/gzip for OS/390 is discussed at:
   40 
   41   http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1ty1.html
   42 
   43 to extract an ASCII tar archive on OS/390, try this:
   44 
   45    pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r < latest.tar
   46 
   47 or
   48 
   49    zcat latest.tar.Z | pax -o to=IBM-1047,from=ISO8859-1 -r
   50 
   51 If you get lots of errors of the form
   52 
   53  tar: FSUM7171 ...: cannot set uid/gid: EDC5139I Operation not permitted
   54 
   55 you did not read the above and tried to use tar instead of pax, you'll
   56 first have to remove the (now corrupt) perl directory
   57 
   58    rm -rf perl-...
   59 
   60 and then use pax.
   61 
   62 =head2 Setup and utilities for Perl on OS/390
   63 
   64 Be sure that your yacc installation is in place including any necessary
   65 parser template files. If you have not already done so then be sure to:
   66 
   67   cp /samples/yyparse.c /etc
   68 
   69 This may also be a good time to ensure that your /etc/protocol file
   70 and either your /etc/resolv.conf or /etc/hosts files are in place.
   71 The IBM document that described such USS system setup issues was
   72 SC28-1890-07 "OS/390 UNIX System Services Planning", in particular
   73 Chapter 6 on customizing the OE shell.
   74 
   75 GNU make for OS/390, which is recommended for the build of perl (as
   76 well as building CPAN modules and extensions), is available from the
   77 L</Tools>.
   78 
   79 Some people have reported encountering "Out of memory!" errors while
   80 trying to build Perl using GNU make binaries.  If you encounter such
   81 trouble then try to download the source code kit and build GNU make
   82 from source to eliminate any such trouble.  You might also find GNU make
   83 (as well as Perl and Apache) in the red-piece/book "Open Source Software
   84 for OS/390 UNIX", SG24-5944-00 from IBM.
   85 
   86 If instead of the recommended GNU make you would like to use the system
   87 supplied make program then be sure to install the default rules file
   88 properly via the shell command:
   89 
   90     cp /samples/startup.mk /etc
   91 
   92 and be sure to also set the environment variable _C89_CCMODE=1 (exporting
   93 _C89_CCMODE=1 is also a good idea for users of GNU make).
   94 
   95 You might also want to have GNU groff for OS/390 installed before
   96 running the "make install" step for Perl.
   97 
   98 There is a syntax error in the /usr/include/sys/socket.h header file
   99 that IBM supplies with USS V2R7, V2R8, and possibly V2R9.  The problem with
  100 the header file is that near the definition of the SO_REUSEPORT constant
  101 there is a spurious extra '/' character outside of a comment like so:
  102 
  103  #define SO_REUSEPORT    0x0200    /* allow local address & port
  104                                       reuse */                    /
  105 
  106 You could edit that header yourself to remove that last '/', or you might
  107 note that Language Environment (LE) APAR PQ39997 describes the problem
  108 and PTF's UQ46272 and UQ46271 are the (R8 at least) fixes and apply them.
  109 If left unattended that syntax error will turn up as an inability for Perl
  110 to build its "Socket" extension.
  111 
  112 For successful testing you may need to turn on the sticky bit for your
  113 world readable /tmp directory if you have not already done so (see man chmod).
  114 
  115 =head2 Configure Perl on OS/390
  116 
  117 Once you have unpacked the distribution, run "sh Configure" (see INSTALL
  118 for a full discussion of the Configure options).  There is a "hints" file
  119 for os390 that specifies the correct values for most things.  Some things
  120 to watch out for include:
  121 
  122 =head3 Shell
  123 
  124 A message of the form:
  125 
  126  (I see you are using the Korn shell.  Some ksh's blow up on Configure,
  127  mainly on older exotic systems.  If yours does, try the Bourne shell instead.)
  128 
  129 is nothing to worry about at all.
  130 
  131 =head3 Samples
  132 
  133 Some of the parser default template files in /samples are needed in /etc.
  134 In particular be sure that you at least copy /samples/yyparse.c to /etc
  135 before running Perl's Configure.  This step ensures successful extraction
  136 of EBCDIC versions of parser files such as perly.c and perly.h.
  137 This has to be done before running Configure the first time.  If you failed
  138 to do so then the easiest way to re-Configure Perl is to delete your
  139 misconfigured build root and re-extract the source from the tar ball.
  140 Then you must ensure that /etc/yyparse.c is properly in place before
  141 attempting to re-run Configure.
  142 
  143 =head3 Dynamic loading
  144 
  145 Dynamic loading is required if you want to use XS modules from CPAN (like
  146 DBI (and DBD's), JSON::XS, and Text::CSV_XS) or update CORE modules from
  147 CPAN with newer versions (like Encode) without rebuilding all of the perl
  148 binary.
  149 
  150 This port will support dynamic loading, but it is not selected by
  151 default.  If you would like to experiment with dynamic loading then
  152 be sure to specify -Dusedl in the arguments to the Configure script.
  153 See the comments in hints/os390.sh for more information on dynamic loading.
  154 If you build with dynamic loading then you will need to add the
  155 $archlibexp/CORE directory to your LIBPATH environment variable in order
  156 for perl to work.  See the config.sh file for the value of $archlibexp.
  157 If in trying to use Perl you see an error message similar to:
  158 
  159  CEE3501S The module libperl.dll was not found.
  160    From entry point __dllstaticinit at compile unit offset +00000194
  161    at
  162 
  163 then your LIBPATH does not have the location of libperl.x and either
  164 libperl.dll or libperl.so in it.  Add that directory to your LIBPATH and
  165 proceed.
  166 
  167 In hints/os390.sh, selecting -Dusedl will default to *also* select
  168 -Duseshrplib.  Having a shared plib not only requires LIBPATH to be set to
  169 the correct location of libperl.so but also makes it close to impossible
  170 to run more than one different perl that was built this way at the same
  171 time.
  172 
  173 All objects that are involved in -Dusedl builds should be compiled for
  174 this, probably by adding to all ccflags
  175 
  176  -qexportall -qxplink -qdll -Wc,XPLINK,dll,EXPORTALL -Wl,XPLINK,dll
  177 
  178 =head3 Optimizing
  179 
  180 Do not turn on the compiler optimization flag "-O".  There is
  181 a bug in either the optimizer or perl that causes perl to
  182 not work correctly when the optimizer is on.
  183 
  184 =head3 Config files
  185 
  186 Some of the configuration files in /etc used by the
  187 networking APIs are either missing or have the wrong
  188 names.  In particular, make sure that there's either
  189 an /etc/resolv.conf or an /etc/hosts, so that
  190 gethostbyname() works, and make sure that the file
  191 /etc/proto has been renamed to /etc/protocol (NOT
  192 /etc/protocols, as used by other Unix systems).
  193 You may have to look for things like HOSTNAME and DOMAINORIGIN
  194 in the "//'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'" PDS member in order to
  195 properly set up your /etc networking files.
  196 
  197 =head2 Build, Test, Install Perl on OS/390
  198 
  199 Simply put:
  200 
  201     sh Configure
  202     make
  203     make test
  204 
  205 if everything looks ok (see the next section for test/IVP diagnosis) then:
  206 
  207     make install
  208 
  209 this last step may or may not require UID=0 privileges depending
  210 on how you answered the questions that Configure asked and whether
  211 or not you have write access to the directories you specified.
  212 
  213 =head2 Build Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
  214 
  215 "Out of memory!" messages during the build of Perl are most often fixed
  216 by re building the GNU make utility for OS/390 from a source code kit.
  217 
  218 Building debugging-enabled binaries (with -g or -g3) will increase the
  219 chance of getting these errors. Prevent -g if possible.
  220 
  221 Another memory limiting item to check is your MAXASSIZE parameter in your
  222 'SYS1.PARMLIB(BPXPRMxx)' data set (note too that as of V2R8 address space
  223 limits can be set on a per user ID basis in the USS segment of a RACF
  224 profile).  People have reported successful builds of Perl with MAXASSIZE
  225 parameters as small as 503316480 (and it may be possible to build Perl
  226 with a MAXASSIZE smaller than that).
  227 
  228 Within USS your /etc/profile or $HOME/.profile may limit your ulimit
  229 settings.  Check that the following command returns reasonable values:
  230 
  231     ulimit -a
  232 
  233 To conserve memory you should have your compiler modules loaded into the
  234 Link Pack Area (LPA/ELPA) rather than in a link list or step lib.
  235 
  236 If the c89 compiler complains of syntax errors during the build of the
  237 Socket extension then be sure to fix the syntax error in the system
  238 header /usr/include/sys/socket.h.
  239 
  240 =head2 Testing Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
  241 
  242 The "make test" step runs a Perl Verification Procedure, usually before
  243 installation.  You might encounter STDERR messages even during a successful
  244 run of "make test".  Here is a guide to some of the more commonly seen
  245 anomalies:
  246 
  247 =head3 Signals
  248 
  249 A message of the form:
  250 
  251  io/openpid...........CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
  252  CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
  253  CEE5210S The signal SIGHUP was received.
  254  ok
  255 
  256 indicates that the t/io/openpid.t test of Perl has passed but done so
  257 with extraneous messages on stderr from CEE.
  258 
  259 =head3 File::Temp
  260 
  261 A message of the form:
  262 
  263  lib/ftmp-security....File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/)
  264  is not safe (sticky bit not set when world writable?) at
  265  lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
  266  File::Temp::_gettemp: Parent directory (/tmp/) is not safe (sticky
  267  bit not set when world writable?) at lib/ftmp-security.t line 100
  268  ok
  269 
  270 indicates a problem with the permissions on your /tmp directory within the HFS.
  271 To correct that problem issue the command:
  272 
  273     chmod a+t /tmp
  274 
  275 from an account with write access to the directory entry for /tmp.
  276 
  277 =head3 Out of Memory!
  278 
  279 Recent perl test suite is quite memory hungry. In addition to the comments
  280 above on memory limitations it is also worth checking for _CEE_RUNOPTS
  281 in your environment. Perl now has (in miniperlmain.c) a C #pragma
  282 to set CEE run options, but the environment variable wins.
  283 
  284 The C code asks for:
  285 
  286  #pragma runopts(HEAP(2M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K) STACK(,,ANY,) ALL31(ON))
  287 
  288 The important parts of that are the second argument (the increment) to HEAP,
  289 and allowing the stack to be "Above the (16M) line". If the heap
  290 increment is too small then when perl (for example loading unicode/Name.pl) tries
  291 to create a "big" (400K+) string it cannot fit in a single segment
  292 and you get "Out of Memory!" - even if there is still plenty of memory
  293 available.
  294 
  295 A related issue is use with perl's malloc. Perl's malloc uses C<sbrk()>
  296 to get memory, and C<sbrk()> is limited to the first allocation so in this
  297 case something like:
  298 
  299   HEAP(8M,500K,ANYWHERE,KEEP,8K,4K)
  300 
  301 is needed to get through the test suite.
  302 
  303 =head2 Installation Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
  304 
  305 The installman script will try to run on OS/390.  There will be fewer errors
  306 if you have a roff utility installed.  You can obtain GNU groff from the
  307 Redbook SG24-5944-00 ftp site.
  308 
  309 =head2 Usage Hints for Perl on OS/390
  310 
  311 When using perl on OS/390 please keep in mind that the EBCDIC and ASCII
  312 character sets are different.  See perlebcdic.pod for more on such character
  313 set issues.  Perl builtin functions that may behave differently under
  314 EBCDIC are also mentioned in the perlport.pod document.
  315 
  316 Open Edition (UNIX System Services) from V2R8 onward does support
  317 #!/path/to/perl script invocation.  There is a PTF available from
  318 IBM for V2R7 that will allow shell/kernel support for #!.  USS
  319 releases prior to V2R7 did not support the #! means of script invocation.
  320 If you are running V2R6 or earlier then see:
  321 
  322     head `whence perldoc`
  323 
  324 for an example of how to use the "eval exec" trick to ask the shell to
  325 have Perl run your scripts on those older releases of Unix System Services.
  326 
  327 If you are having trouble with square brackets then consider switching your
  328 rlogin or telnet client.  Try to avoid older 3270 emulators and ISHELL for
  329 working with Perl on USS.
  330 
  331 =head2 Floating Point Anomalies with Perl on OS/390
  332 
  333 There appears to be a bug in the floating point implementation on S/390
  334 systems such that calling int() on the product of a number and a small
  335 magnitude number is not the same as calling int() on the quotient of
  336 that number and a large magnitude number.  For example, in the following
  337 Perl code:
  338 
  339     my $x = 100000.0;
  340     my $y = int($x * 1e-5) * 1e5; # '0'
  341     my $z = int($x / 1e+5) * 1e5;  # '100000'
  342     print "\$y is $y and \$z is $z\n"; # $y is 0 and $z is 100000
  343 
  344 Although one would expect the quantities $y and $z to be the same and equal
  345 to 100000 they will differ and instead will be 0 and 100000 respectively.
  346 
  347 The problem can be further examined in a roughly equivalent C program:
  348 
  349     #include <stdio.h>
  350     #include <math.h>
  351     main()
  352     {
  353     double r1,r2;
  354     double x = 100000.0;
  355     double y = 0.0;
  356     double z = 0.0;
  357     x = 100000.0 * 1e-5;
  358     r1 = modf (x,&y);
  359     x = 100000.0 / 1e+5;
  360     r2 = modf (x,&z);
  361     printf("y is %e and z is %e\n",y*1e5,z*1e5);
  362     /* y is 0.000000e+00 and z is 1.000000e+05 (with c89) */
  363     }
  364 
  365 =head2 Modules and Extensions for Perl on OS/390
  366 
  367 Pure Perl (that is non XS) modules may be installed via the usual:
  368 
  369     perl Makefile.PL
  370     make
  371     make test
  372     make install
  373 
  374 If you built perl with dynamic loading capability then that would also
  375 be the way to build XS based extensions.  However, if you built perl with
  376 the default static linking you can still build XS based extensions for OS/390
  377 but you will need to follow the instructions in ExtUtils::MakeMaker for
  378 building statically linked perl binaries.  In the simplest configurations
  379 building a static perl + XS extension boils down to:
  380 
  381     perl Makefile.PL
  382     make
  383     make perl
  384     make test
  385     make install
  386     make -f Makefile.aperl inst_perl MAP_TARGET=perl
  387 
  388 In most cases people have reported better results with GNU make rather
  389 than the system's /bin/make program, whether for plain modules or for
  390 XS based extensions.
  391 
  392 If the make process encounters trouble with either compilation or
  393 linking then try setting the _C89_CCMODE to 1.  Assuming sh is your
  394 login shell then run:
  395 
  396     export _C89_CCMODE=1
  397 
  398 If tcsh is your login shell then use the setenv command.
  399 
  400 =head1 AUTHORS
  401 
  402 David Fiander and Peter Prymmer with thanks to Dennis Longnecker
  403 and William Raffloer for valuable reports, LPAR and PTF feedback.
  404 Thanks to Mike MacIsaac and Egon Terwedow for SG24-5944-00.
  405 Thanks to Ignasi Roca for pointing out the floating point problems.
  406 Thanks to John Goodyear for dynamic loading help.
  407 
  408 =head1 SEE ALSO
  409 
  410 L<INSTALL>, L<perlport>, L<perlebcdic>, L<ExtUtils::MakeMaker>.
  411 
  412  http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1toy.html
  413 
  414  http://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/SG245944.html
  415 
  416  http://www.ibm.com/servers/eserver/zseries/zos/unix/bpxa1ty1.html#opensrc
  417 
  418  http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/perl-mvs/
  419 
  420  http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/ceea3030/
  421 
  422  http://publibz.boulder.ibm.com:80/cgi-bin/bookmgr_OS390/BOOKS/CBCUG030/
  423 
  424 =head2 Mailing list for Perl on OS/390
  425 
  426 If you are interested in the z/OS (formerly known as OS/390)
  427 and POSIX-BC (BS2000) ports of Perl then see the perl-mvs mailing list.
  428 To subscribe, send an empty message to perl-mvs-subscribe@perl.org.
  429 
  430 See also:
  431 
  432     https://lists.perl.org/list/perl-mvs.html
  433 
  434 There are web archives of the mailing list at:
  435 
  436     https://www.nntp.perl.org/group/perl.mvs/
  437 
  438 =head1 HISTORY
  439 
  440 This document was originally written by David Fiander for the 5.005
  441 release of Perl.
  442 
  443 This document was podified for the 5.005_03 release of Perl 11 March 1999.
  444 
  445 Updated 12 November 2000 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
  446 
  447 Updated 15 January  2001 for the 5.7.1 release of Perl.
  448 
  449 Updated 24 January  2001 to mention dynamic loading.
  450 
  451 Updated 12 March    2001 to mention //'SYS1.TCPPARMS(TCPDATA)'.
  452 
  453 Updated 28 November 2001 for broken URLs.
  454 
  455 Updated 03 October  2019 for perl-5.32.0+
  456 
  457 =cut
  458