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    1 If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
    2 It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
    3 designed to be readable as is.
    4 
    5 =head1 NAME
    6 
    7 perlhpux - Perl version 5 on Hewlett-Packard Unix (HP-UX) systems
    8 
    9 =head1 DESCRIPTION
   10 
   11 This document describes various features of HP's Unix operating system
   12 (HP-UX) that will affect how Perl version 5 (hereafter just Perl) is
   13 compiled and/or runs.
   14 
   15 =head2 Using perl as shipped with HP-UX
   16 
   17 Application release September 2001, HP-UX 11.00 is the first to ship
   18 with Perl. By the time it was perl-5.6.1 in /opt/perl. The first
   19 occurrence is on CD 5012-7954 and can be installed using
   20 
   21   swinstall -s /cdrom perl
   22 
   23 assuming you have mounted that CD on /cdrom.
   24 
   25 That build was a portable hppa-1.1 multithread build that supports large
   26 files compiled with gcc-2.9-hppa-991112.
   27 
   28 If you perform a new installation, then (a newer) Perl will be installed
   29 automatically.  Pre-installed HP-UX systems now have more recent versions
   30 of Perl and the updated modules.
   31 
   32 The official (threaded) builds from HP, as they are shipped on the
   33 Application DVD/CD's are available on
   34 L<http://www.software.hp.com/portal/swdepot/displayProductInfo.do?productNumber=PERL>
   35 for both PA-RISC and IPF (Itanium Processor Family). They are built
   36 with the HP ANSI-C compiler. Up till 5.8.8 that was done by ActiveState.
   37 
   38 To see what version is included on the DVD (assumed here to be mounted
   39 on /cdrom), issue this command:
   40 
   41   # swlist -s /cdrom perl
   42   # perl           D.5.8.8.B  5.8.8 Perl Programming Language
   43     perl.Perl5-32  D.5.8.8.B  32-bit 5.8.8 Perl Programming Language
   44                                            with Extensions
   45     perl.Perl5-64  D.5.8.8.B  64-bit 5.8.8 Perl Programming Language
   46                                            with Extensions
   47 
   48 To see what is installed on your system:
   49 
   50   # swlist -R perl
   51   # perl                    E.5.8.8.J  Perl Programming Language
   52   # perl.Perl5-32           E.5.8.8.J  32-bit Perl Programming Language
   53                                        with Extensions
   54     perl.Perl5-32.PERL-MAN  E.5.8.8.J  32-bit Perl Man Pages for IA
   55     perl.Perl5-32.PERL-RUN  E.5.8.8.J  32-bit Perl Binaries for IA
   56   # perl.Perl5-64           E.5.8.8.J  64-bit Perl Programming Language
   57                                        with Extensions
   58     perl.Perl5-64.PERL-MAN  E.5.8.8.J  64-bit Perl Man Pages for IA
   59     perl.Perl5-64.PERL-RUN  E.5.8.8.J  64-bit Perl Binaries for IA
   60 
   61 =head2 Using perl from HP's porting centre
   62 
   63 HP porting centre tries to keep up with customer demand and release
   64 updates from the Open Source community. Having precompiled Perl binaries
   65 available is obvious, though "up-to-date" is something relative. At the
   66 moment of writing perl-5.10.1 and 5.28.0 were available.
   67 
   68 The HP porting centres are limited in what systems they are allowed
   69 to port to and they usually choose the two most recent OS versions
   70 available.
   71 
   72 HP has asked the porting centre to move Open Source binaries
   73 from /opt to /usr/local, so binaries produced since the start
   74 of July 2002 are located in /usr/local.
   75 
   76 One of HP porting centres URL's is L<http://hpux.connect.org.uk/>
   77 The port currently available is built with GNU gcc. As porting modern
   78 GNU gcc is extremely hard on HP-UX, they are stuck at version gcc-4.2.3.
   79 
   80 =head2 Other prebuilt perl binaries
   81 
   82 To get more perl depots for the whole range of HP-UX, visit
   83 H.Merijn Brand's site at L<http://mirrors.develooper.com/hpux/#Perl>.
   84 Carefully read the notes to see if the available versions suit your needs.
   85 
   86 =head2 Compiling Perl 5 on HP-UX
   87 
   88 When compiling Perl, you must use an ANSI C compiler.  The C compiler
   89 that ships with all HP-UX systems is a K&R compiler that should only be
   90 used to build new kernels.
   91 
   92 Perl can be compiled with either HP's ANSI C compiler or with gcc.  The
   93 former is recommended, as not only can it compile Perl with no
   94 difficulty, but also can take advantage of features listed later that
   95 require the use of HP compiler-specific command-line flags.
   96 
   97 If you decide to use gcc, make sure your installation is recent and
   98 complete, and be sure to read the Perl INSTALL file for more gcc-specific
   99 details.
  100 
  101 =head2 PA-RISC
  102 
  103 The last and final version of PA-RISC is 2.0, HP no longer sells any
  104 system with these CPU's.
  105 
  106 HP's HP9000 Unix systems run on HP's own Precision Architecture
  107 (PA-RISC) chip.  HP-UX used to run on the Motorola MC68000 family of
  108 chips, but any machine with this chip in it is quite obsolete and this
  109 document will not attempt to address issues for compiling Perl on the
  110 Motorola chipset. Even though PA-RISC hardware is not sold anymore, a
  111 lot of machines still running on these CPU's can be found in the wild.
  112 
  113 The last order date for HP 9000 systems was December 31, 2008.
  114 
  115 HP PA-RISC systems are usually referred to with model description "HP 9000".
  116 The last CPU in this series is the PA-8900.  Support for PA-RISC
  117 architectured machines officially ended as shown in the following table:
  118 
  119    PA-RISC End-of-Life Roadmap
  120  +--------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+
  121  | HP9000 | Superdome      | PA-8700        | Spring 2011     |
  122  | 4-128  |                | PA-8800/sx1000 | Summer 2012     |
  123  | cores  |                | PA-8900/sx1000 | 2014            |
  124  |        |                | PA-8900/sx2000 | 2015            |
  125  +--------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+
  126  | HP9000 | rp7410, rp8400 | PA-8700        | Spring 2011     |
  127  | 2-32   | rp7420, rp8420 | PA-8800/sx1000 | 2012            |
  128  | cores  | rp7440, rp8440 | PA-8900/sx1000 | Autumn 2013     |
  129  |        |                | PA-8900/sx2000 | 2015            |
  130  +--------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+
  131  | HP9000 | rp44x0         | PA-8700        | Spring 2011     |
  132  | 1-8    |                | PA-8800/rp44x0 | 2012            |
  133  | cores  |                | PA-8900/rp44x0 | 2014            |
  134  +--------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+
  135  | HP9000 | rp34x0         | PA-8700        | Spring 2011     |
  136  | 1-4    |                | PA-8800/rp34x0 | 2012            |
  137  | cores  |                | PA-8900/rp34x0 | 2014            |
  138  +--------+----------------+----------------+-----------------+
  139 
  140 A complete list of models at the time the OS was built is in the file
  141 /usr/sam/lib/mo/sched.models. The first column corresponds to the last
  142 part of the output of the "model" command.  The second column is the
  143 PA-RISC version and the third column is the exact chip type used.
  144 (Start browsing at the bottom to prevent confusion ;-)
  145 
  146   # model
  147   9000/800/L1000-44
  148   # grep L1000-44 /usr/sam/lib/mo/sched.models
  149   L1000-44        2.0     PA8500
  150 
  151 =head2 PA-RISC 1.0
  152 
  153 The original version of PA-RISC, HP no longer sells any system with this chip.
  154 
  155 The following systems contained PA-RISC 1.0 chips:
  156 
  157   600, 635, 645, 808, 815, 822, 825, 832, 834, 835, 840, 842, 845, 850,
  158   852, 855, 860, 865, 870, 890
  159 
  160 =head2 PA-RISC 1.1
  161 
  162 An upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it shipped for many years in many different
  163 system.
  164 
  165 The following systems contain with PA-RISC 1.1 chips:
  166 
  167   705, 710, 712, 715, 720, 722, 725, 728, 730, 735, 742, 743, 744, 745,
  168   747, 750, 755, 770, 777, 778, 779, 800, 801, 803, 806, 807, 809, 811,
  169   813, 816, 817, 819, 821, 826, 827, 829, 831, 837, 839, 841, 847, 849,
  170   851, 856, 857, 859, 867, 869, 877, 887, 891, 892, 897, A180, A180C,
  171   B115, B120, B132L, B132L+, B160L, B180L, C100, C110, C115, C120,
  172   C160L, D200, D210, D220, D230, D250, D260, D310, D320, D330, D350,
  173   D360, D410, DX0, DX5, DXO, E25, E35, E45, E55, F10, F20, F30, G30,
  174   G40, G50, G60, G70, H20, H30, H40, H50, H60, H70, I30, I40, I50, I60,
  175   I70, J200, J210, J210XC, K100, K200, K210, K220, K230, K400, K410,
  176   K420, S700i, S715, S744, S760, T500, T520
  177 
  178 =head2 PA-RISC 2.0
  179 
  180 The most recent upgrade to the PA-RISC design, it added support for
  181 64-bit integer data.
  182 
  183 As of the date of this document's last update, the following systems
  184 contain PA-RISC 2.0 chips:
  185 
  186   700, 780, 781, 782, 783, 785, 802, 804, 810, 820, 861, 871, 879, 889,
  187   893, 895, 896, 898, 899, A400, A500, B1000, B2000, C130, C140, C160,
  188   C180, C180+, C180-XP, C200+, C400+, C3000, C360, C3600, CB260, D270,
  189   D280, D370, D380, D390, D650, J220, J2240, J280, J282, J400, J410,
  190   J5000, J5500XM, J5600, J7000, J7600, K250, K260, K260-EG, K270, K360,
  191   K370, K380, K450, K460, K460-EG, K460-XP, K470, K570, K580, L1000,
  192   L2000, L3000, N4000, R380, R390, SD16000, SD32000, SD64000, T540,
  193   T600, V2000, V2200, V2250, V2500, V2600
  194 
  195 Just before HP took over Compaq, some systems were renamed. the link
  196 that contained the explanation is dead, so here's a short summary:
  197 
  198   HP 9000 A-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp2400 series.
  199   HP 9000 L-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp5400 series.
  200   HP 9000 N-Class servers, now renamed HP Server rp7400.
  201 
  202   rp2400, rp2405, rp2430, rp2450, rp2470, rp3410, rp3440, rp4410,
  203   rp4440, rp5400, rp5405, rp5430, rp5450, rp5470, rp7400, rp7405,
  204   rp7410, rp7420, rp7440, rp8400, rp8420, rp8440, Superdome
  205 
  206 The current naming convention is:
  207 
  208   aadddd
  209   ||||`+- 00 - 99 relative capacity & newness (upgrades, etc.)
  210   |||`--- unique number for each architecture to ensure different
  211   |||     systems do not have the same numbering across
  212   |||     architectures
  213   ||`---- 1 - 9 identifies family and/or relative positioning
  214   ||
  215   |`----- c = ia32 (cisc)
  216   |       p = pa-risc
  217   |       x = ia-64 (Itanium & Itanium 2)
  218   |       h = housing
  219   `------ t = tower
  220           r = rack optimized
  221           s = super scalable
  222           b = blade
  223           sa = appliance
  224 
  225 =head2 Portability Between PA-RISC Versions
  226 
  227 An executable compiled on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform will not execute on a
  228 PA-RISC 1.1 platform, even if they are running the same version of
  229 HP-UX.  If you are building Perl on a PA-RISC 2.0 platform and want that
  230 Perl to also run on a PA-RISC 1.1, the compiler flags +DAportable and
  231 +DS32 should be used.
  232 
  233 It is no longer possible to compile PA-RISC 1.0 executables on either
  234 the PA-RISC 1.1 or 2.0 platforms.  The command-line flags are accepted,
  235 but the resulting executable will not run when transferred to a PA-RISC
  236 1.0 system.
  237 
  238 =head2 Itanium Processor Family (IPF) and HP-UX
  239 
  240 HP-UX also runs on the newer Itanium processor.  This requires the use
  241 of HP-UX version 11.23 (11i v2) or 11.31 (11i v3), and with the exception
  242 of a few differences detailed below and in later sections, Perl should
  243 compile with no problems.
  244 
  245 Although PA-RISC binaries can run on Itanium systems, you should not
  246 attempt to use a PA-RISC version of Perl on an Itanium system.  This is
  247 because shared libraries created on an Itanium system cannot be loaded
  248 while running a PA-RISC executable.
  249 
  250 HP Itanium 2 systems are usually referred to with model description
  251 "HP Integrity".
  252 
  253 =head2 Itanium, Itanium 2 & Madison 6
  254 
  255 HP also ships servers with the 128-bit Itanium processor(s). The cx26x0
  256 is told to have Madison 6. As of the date of this document's last update,
  257 the following systems contain Itanium or Itanium 2 chips (this is likely
  258 to be out of date):
  259 
  260   BL60p, BL860c, BL870c, BL890c, cx2600, cx2620, rx1600, rx1620, rx2600,
  261   rx2600hptc, rx2620, rx2660, rx2800, rx3600, rx4610, rx4640, rx5670,
  262   rx6600, rx7420, rx7620, rx7640, rx8420, rx8620, rx8640, rx9610,
  263   sx1000, sx2000
  264 
  265 To see all about your machine, type
  266 
  267   # model
  268   ia64 hp server rx2600
  269   # /usr/contrib/bin/machinfo
  270 
  271 =head2 HP-UX versions
  272 
  273 Not all architectures (PA = PA-RISC, IPF = Itanium Processor Family)
  274 support all versions of HP-UX, here is a short list
  275 
  276   HP-UX version  Kernel  Architecture End-of-factory support
  277   -------------  ------  ------------ ----------------------------------
  278   10.20          32 bit  PA           30-Jun-2003
  279   11.00          32/64   PA           31-Dec-2006
  280   11.11  11i v1  32/64   PA           31-Dec-2015
  281   11.22  11i v2     64        IPF     30-Apr-2004
  282   11.23  11i v2     64   PA & IPF     31-Dec-2015
  283   11.31  11i v3     64   PA & IPF     31-Dec-2020 (PA) 31-Dec-2025 (IPF)
  284 
  285 See for the full list of hardware/OS support and expected end-of-life
  286 L<https://h20195.www2.hpe.com/V2/getpdf.aspx/4AA4-7673ENW.pdf>
  287 
  288 =head2 Building Dynamic Extensions on HP-UX
  289 
  290 HP-UX supports dynamically loadable libraries (shared libraries).
  291 Shared libraries end with the suffix .sl.  On Itanium systems,
  292 they end with the suffix .so.
  293 
  294 Shared libraries created on a platform using a particular PA-RISC
  295 version are not usable on platforms using an earlier PA-RISC version by
  296 default.  However, this backwards compatibility may be enabled using the
  297 same +DAportable compiler flag (with the same PA-RISC 1.0 caveat
  298 mentioned above).
  299 
  300 Shared libraries created on an Itanium platform cannot be loaded on
  301 a PA-RISC platform.  Shared libraries created on a PA-RISC platform
  302 can only be loaded on an Itanium platform if it is a PA-RISC executable
  303 that is attempting to load the PA-RISC library.  A PA-RISC shared
  304 library cannot be loaded into an Itanium executable nor vice-versa.
  305 
  306 To create a shared library, the following steps must be performed:
  307 
  308   1. Compile source modules with +z or +Z flag to create a .o module
  309      which contains Position-Independent Code (PIC).  The linker will
  310      tell you in the next step if +Z was needed.
  311      (For gcc, the appropriate flag is -fpic or -fPIC.)
  312 
  313   2. Link the shared library using the -b flag.  If the code calls
  314      any functions in other system libraries (e.g., libm), it must
  315      be included on this line.
  316 
  317 (Note that these steps are usually handled automatically by the extension's
  318 Makefile).
  319 
  320 If these dependent libraries are not listed at shared library creation
  321 time, you will get fatal "Unresolved symbol" errors at run time when the
  322 library is loaded.
  323 
  324 You may create a shared library that refers to another library, which
  325 may be either an archive library or a shared library.  If this second
  326 library is a shared library, this is called a "dependent library".  The
  327 dependent library's name is recorded in the main shared library, but it
  328 is not linked into the shared library.  Instead, it is loaded when the
  329 main shared library is loaded.  This can cause problems if you build an
  330 extension on one system and move it to another system where the
  331 libraries may not be located in the same place as on the first system.
  332 
  333 If the referred library is an archive library, then it is treated as a
  334 simple collection of .o modules (all of which must contain PIC).  These
  335 modules are then linked into the shared library.
  336 
  337 Note that it is okay to create a library which contains a dependent
  338 library that is already linked into perl.
  339 
  340 Some extensions, like DB_File and Compress::Zlib use/require prebuilt
  341 libraries for the perl extensions/modules to work. If these libraries
  342 are built using the default configuration, it might happen that you
  343 run into an error like "invalid loader fixup" during load phase.
  344 HP is aware of this problem.  Search the HP-UX cxx-dev forums for
  345 discussions about the subject.  The short answer is that B<everything>
  346 (all libraries, everything) must be compiled with C<+z> or C<+Z> to be
  347 PIC (position independent code).  (For gcc, that would be
  348 C<-fpic> or C<-fPIC>).  In HP-UX 11.00 or newer the linker
  349 error message should tell the name of the offending object file.
  350 
  351 A more general approach is to intervene manually, as with an example for
  352 the DB_File module, which requires SleepyCat's libdb.sl:
  353 
  354   # cd .../db-3.2.9/build_unix
  355   # vi Makefile
  356   ... add +Z to all cflags to create shared objects
  357   CFLAGS=         -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
  358                   -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
  359   CXXFLAGS=       -c $(CPPFLAGS) +Z -Ae +O2 +Onolimit \
  360                   -I/usr/local/include -I/usr/include/X11R6
  361 
  362   # make clean
  363   # make
  364   # mkdir tmp
  365   # cd tmp
  366   # ar x ../libdb.a
  367   # ld -b -o libdb-3.2.sl *.o
  368   # mv libdb-3.2.sl /usr/local/lib
  369   # rm *.o
  370   # cd /usr/local/lib
  371   # rm -f libdb.sl
  372   # ln -s libdb-3.2.sl libdb.sl
  373 
  374   # cd .../DB_File-1.76
  375   # make distclean
  376   # perl Makefile.PL
  377   # make
  378   # make test
  379   # make install
  380 
  381 As of db-4.2.x it is no longer needed to do this by hand. Sleepycat
  382 has changed the configuration process to add +z on HP-UX automatically.
  383 
  384   # cd .../db-4.2.25/build_unix
  385   # env CFLAGS=+DD64 LDFLAGS=+DD64 ../dist/configure
  386 
  387 should work to generate 64bit shared libraries for HP-UX 11.00 and 11i.
  388 
  389 It is no longer possible to link PA-RISC 1.0 shared libraries (even
  390 though the command-line flags are still present).
  391 
  392 PA-RISC and Itanium object files are not interchangeable.  Although
  393 you may be able to use ar to create an archive library of PA-RISC
  394 object files on an Itanium system, you cannot link against it using
  395 an Itanium link editor.
  396 
  397 =head2 The HP ANSI C Compiler
  398 
  399 When using this compiler to build Perl, you should make sure that the
  400 flag -Aa is added to the cpprun and cppstdin variables in the config.sh
  401 file (though see the section on 64-bit perl below). If you are using a
  402 recent version of the Perl distribution, these flags are set automatically.
  403 
  404 Even though HP-UX 10.20 and 11.00 are not actively maintained by HP
  405 anymore, updates for the HP ANSI C compiler are still available from
  406 time to time, and it might be advisable to see if updates are applicable.
  407 At the moment of writing, the latests available patches for 11.00 that
  408 should be applied are PHSS_35098, PHSS_35175, PHSS_35100, PHSS_33036,
  409 and PHSS_33902). If you have a SUM account, you can use it to search
  410 for updates/patches. Enter "ANSI" as keyword.
  411 
  412 =head2 The GNU C Compiler
  413 
  414 When you are going to use the GNU C compiler (gcc), and you don't have
  415 gcc yet, you can either build it yourself (if you feel masochistic enough)
  416 from the sources (available from e.g. L<http://gcc.gnu.org/mirrors.html>)
  417 or fetch a prebuilt binary from the HP porting center at
  418 L<http://hpux.connect.org.uk/hppd/cgi-bin/search?term=gcc&Search=Search>
  419 or from the DSPP (you need to be a member) at
  420 L<http://h21007.www2.hp.com/portal/site/dspp/menuitem.863c3e4cbcdc3f3515b49c108973a801?ciid=2a08725cc2f02110725cc2f02110275d6e10RCRD&jumpid=reg_r1002_usen_c-001_title_r0001>
  421 (Browse through the list, because there are often multiple versions of
  422 the same package available).
  423 
  424 Most mentioned distributions are depots. H.Merijn Brand has made prebuilt
  425 gcc binaries available on L<http://mirrors.develooper.com/hpux/> and/or
  426 L<http://www.cmve.net/~merijn/> for HP-UX 10.20 (only 32bit), HP-UX 11.00,
  427 HP-UX 11.11 (HP-UX 11i v1), and HP-UX 11.23 (HP-UX 11i v2 PA-RISC) in both
  428 32- and 64-bit versions. For HP-UX 11.23 IPF and HP-UX 11.31 IPF depots are
  429 available too. The IPF versions do not need two versions of GNU gcc.
  430 
  431 On PA-RISC you need a different compiler for 32-bit applications and for
  432 64-bit applications. On PA-RISC, 32-bit objects and 64-bit objects do
  433 not mix. Period. There is no different behaviour for HP C-ANSI-C or GNU
  434 gcc. So if you require your perl binary to use 64-bit libraries, like
  435 Oracle-64bit, you MUST build a 64-bit perl.
  436 
  437 Building a 64-bit capable gcc on PA-RISC from source is possible only when
  438 you have the HP C-ANSI C compiler or an already working 64-bit binary of
  439 gcc available. Best performance for perl is achieved with HP's native
  440 compiler.
  441 
  442 =head2 Using Large Files with Perl on HP-UX
  443 
  444 Beginning with HP-UX version 10.20, files larger than 2GB (2^31 bytes)
  445 may be created and manipulated.  Three separate methods of doing this
  446 are available.  Of these methods, the best method for Perl is to compile
  447 using the -Duselargefiles flag to Configure.  This causes Perl to be
  448 compiled using structures and functions in which these are 64 bits wide,
  449 rather than 32 bits wide.  (Note that this will only work with HP's ANSI
  450 C compiler.  If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get
  451 a version of the compiler that supports 64-bit operations. See above for
  452 where to find it.)
  453 
  454 There are some drawbacks to this approach.  One is that any extension
  455 which calls any file-manipulating C function will need to be recompiled
  456 (just follow the usual "perl Makefile.PL; make; make test; make install"
  457 procedure).
  458 
  459 The list of functions that will need to recompiled is:
  460   creat,          fgetpos,        fopen,
  461   freopen,        fsetpos,        fstat,
  462   fstatvfs,       fstatvfsdev,    ftruncate,
  463   ftw,            lockf,          lseek,
  464   lstat,          mmap,           nftw,
  465   open,           prealloc,       stat,
  466   statvfs,        statvfsdev,     tmpfile,
  467   truncate,       getrlimit,      setrlimit
  468 
  469 Another drawback is only valid for Perl versions before 5.6.0.  This
  470 drawback is that the seek and tell functions (both the builtin version
  471 and POSIX module version) will not perform correctly.
  472 
  473 It is strongly recommended that you use this flag when you run
  474 Configure.  If you do not do this, but later answer the question about
  475 large files when Configure asks you, you may get a configuration that
  476 cannot be compiled, or that does not function as expected.
  477 
  478 =head2 Threaded Perl on HP-UX
  479 
  480 It is possible to compile a version of threaded Perl on any version of
  481 HP-UX before 10.30, but it is strongly suggested that you be running on
  482 HP-UX 11.00 at least.
  483 
  484 To compile Perl with threads, add -Dusethreads to the arguments of
  485 Configure.  Verify that the -D_POSIX_C_SOURCE=199506L compiler flag is
  486 automatically added to the list of flags.  Also make sure that -lpthread
  487 is listed before -lc in the list of libraries to link Perl with. The
  488 hints provided for HP-UX during Configure will try very hard to get
  489 this right for you.
  490 
  491 HP-UX versions before 10.30 require a separate installation of a POSIX
  492 threads library package. Two examples are the HP DCE package, available
  493 on "HP-UX Hardware Extensions 3.0, Install and Core OS, Release 10.20,
  494 April 1999 (B3920-13941)" or the Freely available PTH package, available
  495 on H.Merijn's site (L<http://mirrors.develooper.com/hpux/>). The use of PTH
  496 will be unsupported in perl-5.12 and up and is rather buggy in 5.11.x.
  497 
  498 If you are going to use the HP DCE package, the library used for threading
  499 is /usr/lib/libcma.sl, but there have been multiple updates of that
  500 library over time. Perl will build with the first version, but it
  501 will not pass the test suite. Older Oracle versions might be a compelling
  502 reason not to update that library, otherwise please find a newer version
  503 in one of the following patches: PHSS_19739, PHSS_20608, or PHSS_23672
  504 
  505 reformatted output:
  506 
  507   d3:/usr/lib 106 > what libcma-*.1
  508   libcma-00000.1:
  509      HP DCE/9000 1.5               Module: libcma.sl (Export)
  510                                    Date: Apr 29 1996 22:11:24
  511   libcma-19739.1:
  512      HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_19739-40 Module: libcma.sl (Export)
  513                                    Date: Sep  4 1999 01:59:07
  514   libcma-20608.1:
  515      HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_20608    Module: libcma.1 (Export)
  516                                    Date: Dec  8 1999 18:41:23
  517   libcma-23672.1:
  518      HP DCE/9000 1.5 PHSS_23672    Module: libcma.1 (Export)
  519                                    Date: Apr  9 2001 10:01:06
  520   d3:/usr/lib 107 >
  521 
  522 If you choose for the PTH package, use swinstall to install pth in
  523 the default location (/opt/pth), and then make symbolic links to the
  524 libraries from /usr/lib
  525 
  526   # cd /usr/lib
  527   # ln -s /opt/pth/lib/libpth* .
  528 
  529 For building perl to support Oracle, it needs to be linked with libcl
  530 and libpthread. So even if your perl is an unthreaded build, these
  531 libraries might be required. See "Oracle on HP-UX" below.
  532 
  533 =head2 64-bit Perl on HP-UX
  534 
  535 Beginning with HP-UX 11.00, programs compiled under HP-UX can take
  536 advantage of the LP64 programming environment (LP64 means Longs and
  537 Pointers are 64 bits wide), in which scalar variables will be able
  538 to hold numbers larger than 2^32 with complete precision.  Perl has
  539 proven to be consistent and reliable in 64bit mode since 5.8.1 on
  540 all HP-UX 11.xx.
  541 
  542 As of the date of this document, Perl is fully 64-bit compliant on
  543 HP-UX 11.00 and up for both cc- and gcc builds. If you are about to
  544 build a 64-bit perl with GNU gcc, please read the gcc section carefully.
  545 
  546 Should a user have the need for compiling Perl in the LP64 environment,
  547 use the -Duse64bitall flag to Configure.  This will force Perl to be
  548 compiled in a pure LP64 environment (with the +DD64 flag for HP C-ANSI-C,
  549 with no additional options for GNU gcc 64-bit on PA-RISC, and with
  550 -mlp64 for GNU gcc on Itanium).
  551 If you want to compile Perl using gcc, you will have to get a version of
  552 the compiler that supports 64-bit operations.)
  553 
  554 You can also use the -Duse64bitint flag to Configure.  Although there
  555 are some minor differences between compiling Perl with this flag versus
  556 the -Duse64bitall flag, they should not be noticeable from a Perl user's
  557 perspective. When configuring -Duse64bitint using a 64bit gcc on a
  558 pa-risc architecture, -Duse64bitint is silently promoted to -Duse64bitall.
  559 
  560 In both cases, it is strongly recommended that you use these flags when
  561 you run Configure.  If you do not use do this, but later answer the
  562 questions about 64-bit numbers when Configure asks you, you may get a
  563 configuration that cannot be compiled, or that does not function as
  564 expected.
  565 
  566 =head2 Oracle on HP-UX
  567 
  568 Using perl to connect to Oracle databases through DBI and DBD::Oracle
  569 has caused a lot of people many headaches. Read README.hpux in the
  570 DBD::Oracle for much more information. The reason to mention it here
  571 is that Oracle requires a perl built with libcl and libpthread, the
  572 latter even when perl is build without threads. Building perl using
  573 all defaults, but still enabling to build DBD::Oracle later on can be
  574 achieved using
  575 
  576   Configure -A prepend:libswanted='cl pthread ' ...
  577 
  578 Do not forget the space before the trailing quote.
  579 
  580 Also note that this does not (yet) work with all configurations,
  581 it is known to fail with 64-bit versions of GCC.
  582 
  583 =head2 GDBM and Threads on HP-UX
  584 
  585 If you attempt to compile Perl with (POSIX) threads on an 11.X system
  586 and also link in the GDBM library, then Perl will immediately core dump
  587 when it starts up.  The only workaround at this point is to relink the
  588 GDBM library under 11.X, then relink it into Perl.
  589 
  590 the error might show something like:
  591 
  592 Pthread internal error: message: __libc_reinit() failed, file: ../pthreads/pthread.c, line: 1096
  593 Return Pointer is 0xc082bf33
  594 sh: 5345 Quit(coredump)
  595 
  596 and Configure will give up.
  597 
  598 =head2 NFS filesystems and utime(2) on HP-UX
  599 
  600 If you are compiling Perl on a remotely-mounted NFS filesystem, the test
  601 io/fs.t may fail on test #18.  This appears to be a bug in HP-UX and no
  602 fix is currently available.
  603 
  604 =head2 HP-UX Kernel Parameters (maxdsiz) for Compiling Perl
  605 
  606 By default, HP-UX comes configured with a maximum data segment size of
  607 64MB.  This is too small to correctly compile Perl with the maximum
  608 optimization levels.  You can increase the size of the maxdsiz kernel
  609 parameter through the use of SAM.
  610 
  611 When using the GUI version of SAM, click on the Kernel Configuration
  612 icon, then the Configurable Parameters icon.  Scroll down and select
  613 the maxdsiz line.  From the Actions menu, select the Modify Configurable
  614 Parameter item.  Insert the new formula into the Formula/Value box.
  615 Then follow the instructions to rebuild your kernel and reboot your
  616 system.
  617 
  618 In general, a value of 256MB (or "256*1024*1024") is sufficient for
  619 Perl to compile at maximum optimization.
  620 
  621 =head1 nss_delete core dump from op/pwent or op/grent
  622 
  623 You may get a bus error core dump from the op/pwent or op/grent
  624 tests. If compiled with -g you will see a stack trace much like
  625 the following:
  626 
  627   #0  0xc004216c in  () from /usr/lib/libc.2
  628   #1  0xc00d7550 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
  629   #2  0xc00d7768 in __nss_src_state_destr () from /usr/lib/libc.2
  630   #3  0xc00d78a8 in nss_delete () from /usr/lib/libc.2
  631   #4  0xc01126d8 in endpwent () from /usr/lib/libc.2
  632   #5  0xd1950 in Perl_pp_epwent () from ./perl
  633   #6  0x94d3c in Perl_runops_standard () from ./perl
  634   #7  0x23728 in S_run_body () from ./perl
  635   #8  0x23428 in perl_run () from ./perl
  636   #9  0x2005c in main () from ./perl
  637 
  638 The key here is the C<nss_delete> call.  One workaround for this
  639 bug seems to be to create add to the file F</etc/nsswitch.conf>
  640 (at least) the following lines
  641 
  642   group: files
  643   passwd: files
  644 
  645 Whether you are using NIS does not matter.  Amazingly enough,
  646 the same bug also affects Solaris.
  647 
  648 =head1 error: pasting ")" and "l" does not give a valid preprocessing token
  649 
  650 There seems to be a broken system header file in HP-UX 11.00 that
  651 breaks perl building in 32bit mode with GNU gcc-4.x causing this
  652 error. The same file for HP-UX 11.11 (even though the file is older)
  653 does not show this failure, and has the correct definition, so the
  654 best fix is to patch the header to match:
  655 
  656  --- /usr/include/inttypes.h  2001-04-20 18:42:14 +0200
  657  +++ /usr/include/inttypes.h  2000-11-14 09:00:00 +0200
  658  @@ -72,7 +72,7 @@
  659   #define UINT32_C(__c)                   __CONCAT_U__(__c)
  660   #else /* __LP64 */
  661   #define INT32_C(__c)                    __CONCAT__(__c,l)
  662  -#define UINT32_C(__c)                   __CONCAT__(__CONCAT_U__(__c),l)
  663  +#define UINT32_C(__c)                   __CONCAT__(__c,ul)
  664   #endif /* __LP64 */
  665 
  666   #define INT64_C(__c)                    __CONCAT_L__(__c,l)
  667 
  668 =head1 Redeclaration of "sendpath" with a different storage class specifier
  669 
  670 The following compilation warnings may happen in HP-UX releases
  671 earlier than 11.31 but are harmless:
  672 
  673  cc: "/usr/include/sys/socket.h", line 535: warning 562:
  674     Redeclaration of "sendfile" with a different storage class
  675     specifier: "sendfile" will have internal linkage.
  676  cc: "/usr/include/sys/socket.h", line 536: warning 562:
  677     Redeclaration of "sendpath" with a different storage class
  678     specifier: "sendpath" will have internal linkage.
  679 
  680 They seem to be caused by broken system header files, and also other
  681 open source projects are seeing them.  The following HP-UX patches
  682 should make the warnings go away:
  683 
  684   CR JAGae12001: PHNE_27063
  685   Warning 562 on sys/socket.h due to redeclaration of prototypes
  686 
  687   CR JAGae16787:
  688   Warning 562 from socket.h sendpath/sendfile -D_FILEFFSET_BITS=64
  689 
  690   CR JAGae73470 (11.23)
  691   ER: Compiling socket.h with cc -D_FILEFFSET_BITS=64 warning 267/562
  692 
  693 =head1 Miscellaneous
  694 
  695 HP-UX 11 Y2K patch "Y2K-1100 B.11.00.B0125 HP-UX Core OS Year 2000
  696 Patch Bundle" has been reported to break the io/fs test #18 which
  697 tests whether utime() can change timestamps.  The Y2K patch seems to
  698 break utime() so that over NFS the timestamps do not get changed
  699 (on local filesystems utime() still works). This has probably been
  700 fixed on your system by now.
  701 
  702 =head1 AUTHOR
  703 
  704 H.Merijn Brand <h.m.brand@xs4all.nl>
  705 Jeff Okamoto <okamoto@corp.hp.com>
  706 
  707 With much assistance regarding shared libraries from Marc Sabatella.
  708 
  709 =cut