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2 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
3 Version 1, February 1989
5 Copyright (C) 1989 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
6 51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
8 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
9 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
13 The license agreements of most software companies try to keep users
14 at the mercy of those companies. By contrast, our General Public
15 License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
16 software--to make sure the software is free for all its users. The
17 General Public License applies to the Free Software Foundation's
18 software and to any other program whose authors commit to using it.
19 You can use it for your programs, too.
21 When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
22 price. Specifically, the General Public License is designed to make
23 sure that you have the freedom to give away or sell copies of free
24 software, that you receive source code or can get it if you want it,
25 that you can change the software or use pieces of it in new free
26 programs; and that you know you can do these things.
28 To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
29 anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
30 These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
31 distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
33 For example, if you distribute copies of a such a program, whether
34 gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
35 you have. You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
36 source code. And you must tell them their rights.
38 We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
39 (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
40 distribute and/or modify the software.
42 Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
43 that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
44 software. If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
45 want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
46 that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
47 authors' reputations.
49 The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
50 modification follow.
52 GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
53 TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
55 0. This License Agreement applies to any program or other work which
56 contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be
57 distributed under the terms of this General Public License. The
58 "Program", below, refers to any such program or work, and a "work based
59 on the Program" means either the Program or any work containing the
60 Program or a portion of it, either verbatim or with modifications. Each
61 licensee is addressed as "you".
63 1. You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's source
64 code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you conspicuously and
65 appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate copyright notice and
66 disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the notices that refer to this
67 General Public License and to the absence of any warranty; and give any
68 other recipients of the Program a copy of this General Public License
69 along with the Program. You may charge a fee for the physical act of
70 transferring a copy.
72 2. You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion of
73 it, and copy and distribute such modifications under the terms of Paragraph
74 1 above, provided that you also do the following:
76 a) cause the modified files to carry prominent notices stating that
77 you changed the files and the date of any change; and
79 b) cause the whole of any work that you distribute or publish, that
80 in whole or in part contains the Program or any part thereof, either
81 with or without modifications, to be licensed at no charge to all
82 third parties under the terms of this General Public License (except
83 that you may choose to grant warranty protection to some or all
84 third parties, at your option).
86 c) If the modified program normally reads commands interactively when
87 run, you must cause it, when started running for such interactive use
88 in the simplest and most usual way, to print or display an
89 announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a notice
90 that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide a
91 warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under these
92 conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this General
93 Public License.
95 d) You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a
96 copy, and you may at your option offer warranty protection in
97 exchange for a fee.
99 Mere aggregation of another independent work with the Program (or its
100 derivative) on a volume of a storage or distribution medium does not bring
101 the other work under the scope of these terms.
103 3. You may copy and distribute the Program (or a portion or derivative of
104 it, under Paragraph 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
105 Paragraphs 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
107 a) accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
108 source code, which must be distributed under the terms of
109 Paragraphs 1 and 2 above; or,
111 b) accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
112 years, to give any third party free (except for a nominal charge
113 for the cost of distribution) a complete machine-readable copy of the
114 corresponding source code, to be distributed under the terms of
115 Paragraphs 1 and 2 above; or,
117 c) accompany it with the information you received as to where the
118 corresponding source code may be obtained. (This alternative is
119 allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
120 received the program in object code or executable form alone.)
122 Source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for making
123 modifications to it. For an executable file, complete source code means
124 all the source code for all modules it contains; but, as a special
125 exception, it need not include source code for modules which are standard
126 libraries that accompany the operating system on which the executable
127 file runs, or for standard header files or definitions files that
128 accompany that operating system.
130 4. You may not copy, modify, sublicense, distribute or transfer the
131 Program except as expressly provided under this General Public License.
132 Any attempt otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, distribute or transfer
133 the Program is void, and will automatically terminate your rights to use
134 the Program under this License. However, parties who have received
135 copies, or rights to use copies, from you under this General Public
136 License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such parties
137 remain in full compliance.
139 5. By copying, distributing or modifying the Program (or any work based
140 on the Program) you indicate your acceptance of this license to do so,
141 and all its terms and conditions.
143 6. Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
144 Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the original
145 licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to these
146 terms and conditions. You may not impose any further restrictions on the
147 recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
149 7. The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
150 of the General Public License from time to time. Such new versions will
151 be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
152 address new problems or concerns.
154 Each version is given a distinguishing version number. If the Program
155 specifies a version number of the license which applies to it and "any
156 later version", you have the option of following the terms and conditions
157 either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
158 Software Foundation. If the Program does not specify a version number of
159 the license, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
162 8. If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
163 programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
164 to ask for permission. For software which is copyrighted by the Free
165 Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
166 make exceptions for this. Our decision will be guided by the two goals
167 of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
168 of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
170 NO WARRANTY
172 9. BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
173 FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW. EXCEPT WHEN
174 OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
175 PROVIDE THE PROGRAM "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
176 OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
177 MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS
178 TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU. SHOULD THE
179 PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
180 REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
182 10. IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
183 WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
184 REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
185 INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
186 OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
187 TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
188 YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
189 PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
190 POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
192 END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
194 Appendix: How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
196 If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
197 possible use to humanity, the best way to achieve this is to make it
198 free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these
201 To do so, attach the following notices to the program. It is safest to
202 attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively convey
203 the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least the
204 "copyright" line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
206 <one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
207 Copyright (C) 19yy <name of author>
209 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
210 it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
211 the Free Software Foundation; either version 1, or (at your option)
212 any later version.
214 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
215 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
216 MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
217 GNU General Public License for more details.
219 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
220 along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
221 Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston MA 02110-1301 USA
224 Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
226 If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
227 when it starts in an interactive mode:
229 Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19xx name of author
230 Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
231 This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
232 under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.
234 The hypothetical commands `show w' and `show c' should show the
235 appropriate parts of the General Public License. Of course, the
236 commands you use may be called something other than `show w' and `show
237 c'; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items--whatever suits your
240 You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
241 school, if any, to sign a "copyright disclaimer" for the program, if
242 necessary. Here a sample; alter the names:
244 Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright interest in the
245 program `Gnomovision' (a program to direct compilers to make passes
246 at assemblers) written by James Hacker.
248 <signature of Ty Coon>, 1 April 1989
249 Ty Coon, President of Vice
251 That's all there is to it!