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    1 If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the equal signs on the left.
    2 This file is written in the POD format (see [.POD]PERLPOD.POD;1) which is
    3 specially designed to be readable as is.
    5 =head1 NAME
    7 perlvms - Configuring, building, testing, and installing perl on VMS
    9 =head1 SYNOPSIS
   11 To configure, build, test, and install perl on VMS:
   13     @configure
   14     mmk
   15     mmk test
   16     mmk install
   18 =head1 DESCRIPTION
   20 =head2 Important safety tip
   22 For best results, make sure you read the "Configuring the Perl Build",
   23 "Building  Perl", and "Installing Perl" sections of this document before
   24 you build or install.  Also please note other changes in the current
   25 release by having a look at L<perldelta/VMS>.
   27 =head2 Introduction to Perl on VMS
   29 The VMS port of Perl is as functionally complete as any other Perl port
   30 (and as complete as the ports on some Unix systems). The Perl binaries
   31 provide all the Perl system calls that are either available under VMS or
   32 reasonably emulated. There are some incompatibilities in process handling
   33 (e.g. the fork/exec model for creating subprocesses doesn't do what you
   34 might expect under Unix), mainly because VMS and Unix handle processes and
   35 sub-processes very differently.
   37 There are still some unimplemented system functions, and of course we
   38 could use modules implementing useful VMS system services, so if you'd like
   39 to lend a hand we'd love to have you.  Join the Perl Porting Team Now!
   41 =head2 Other required software for Compiling Perl on VMS
   43 In addition to VMS and DCL you will need three things:
   45 =over 4
   47 =item 1  A C compiler. 
   49 HP (formerly Compaq, more formerly DEC) C for VMS (VAX, Alpha, or Itanium).
   50 Various ancient versions of DEC C had some caveats, so if you're using a 
   51 version older than 7.x on Alpha or Itanium or 6.x on VAX, you may need to 
   52 upgrade to get a successful build.
   54 There have been no recent reports of builds using Gnu C, but latent
   55 (and most likely outdated) support for it is still present in various
   56 parts of the sources.
   58 There is rudimentary but not quite complete support for HP C++; to try it out,
   59 configure with C<-"Dusecxx" -"Duser_c_flags=/WARN=INFORMATIONAL=NOCTOBUTCONREFM">.
   61 =item 2  A make tool. 
   63 You will need the free MMS analog MMK (available from
   64 L<http://ftp.endlesssoftware.com.au/mmk/kits/> or 
   65 L<https://github.com/endlesssoftware/mmk>). HP's MMS has not been known to work for
   66 some time as Perl's automatically-generated description files are too complex for it,
   67 but MMS support may return in the future.  Gnu Make might work, but it's been so long
   68 since anyone's tested it that we're not sure.
   70 =item 3  ODS-5 and Extended Parse
   72 All development and testing of Perl on VMS takes place on ODS-5 volumes with
   73 extended parse enabled in the environment via the command C<SET PROCESS/PARSE=EXTENDED>.
   74 Latent support for ODS-2 volumes (including on VAX) is still present, but the number
   75 of components that require ODS-5 features is steadily growing and ODS-2 support may be
   76 completely removed in a future release.
   79 =back
   81 =head2 Additional software that is optional for Perl on VMS
   83 You may also want to have on hand:
   85 =over 4
   87 =item 1  gunzip/gzip for VMS 
   89 A de-compressor for *.gz and *.tgz files available from a number 
   90 of web/ftp sites such as:
   92     L<http://www.antinode.info/dec/sw/gzip.html>
   93     L<http://vms.process.com/scripts/fileserv/fileserv.com?GZIP>
   95 =item 2  VMS tar 
   97 For reading and writing Unix tape archives (*.tar files).  Vmstar is also 
   98 available from a number of sites such as:
  100     L<http://www.antinode.info/dec/sw/vmstar.html>
  101     L<http://vms.process.com/scripts/fileserv/fileserv.com?VMSTAR>
  103 A port of GNU tar is also available as part of the GNV package:
  105     L<http://h71000.www7.hp.com/opensource/gnv.html>
  107 =item 3  unzip for VMS
  109 A combination decompressor and archive reader/writer for *.zip files.  
  110 Unzip is available from a number of web/ftp sites.
  112     L<http://www.info-zip.org/UnZip.html>
  113     L<http://www.hp.com/go/openvms/freeware/>
  114     L<http://vms.process.com/fileserv-software.html>
  116 =item 5 GNU patch and diffutils for VMS
  118 Patches to Perl are usually distributed as GNU unified or contextual diffs. 
  119 Such patches are created by the GNU diff program (part of the diffutils
  120 distribution) and applied with GNU patch.  VMS ports of these utilities are
  121 available here:
  123     L<http://www.antinode.info/dec/sw/diffutils.html>
  124     L<http://vms.pdv-systeme.de/users/martinv/gnupatch.zip>
  126 =back
  128 Please note that unzip and gunzip are not the same thing (they work with
  129 different formats).  Many of the useful files from CPAN (the Comprehensive
  130 Perl Archive Network) are in *.tar.gz or *.tgz format (this includes copies 
  131 of the source code for perl as well as modules and scripts that you may 
  132 wish to add later) hence you probably want to have GUNZIP.EXE and 
  133 VMSTAR.EXE on your VMS machine.
  135 If you want to include socket support, you'll need a TCP/IP stack and either
  136 DEC C, or socket libraries.  See the "Socket Support (optional)" topic 
  137 for more details.
  139 =head1 Unpacking the Perl source code
  141 You may need to set up a foreign symbol for the unpacking utility of
  142 choice.  Once you have done so, use a command like the following to
  143 unpack the archive:
  145     vmstar -xvf perl-5^.30^.3.tar
  147 Then set default to the top-level source directory like so:
  149     set default [.perl-5^.30^.3]
  151 and proceed with configuration as described in the next section.
  154 =head1 Configuring the Perl build
  156 To configure perl (a necessary first step), issue the command
  158    @configure.com
  160 from the top of an unpacked perl source directory.  You will be asked a 
  161 series of questions, and the answers to them (along with the capabilities 
  162 of your C compiler and network stack) will determine how perl is custom-
  163 built for your machine.
  165 If you have any symbols or logical names in your environment that may 
  166 interfere with the build or regression testing of perl then F<configure.com> 
  167 will try to warn you about them.  If a logical name is causing
  168 you trouble but is in an LNM table that you do not have write access to
  169 then try defining your own to a harmless equivalence string in a table 
  170 such that it is resolved before the other (e.g. if TMP is defined in the
  171 SYSTEM table then try DEFINE TMP "NL:" or somesuch in your process table) 
  172 otherwise simply deassign the dangerous logical names.  The potentially 
  173 troublesome logicals and symbols include:
  175     COMP    "LOGICAL"
  176     EXT     "LOGICAL"
  177     FOO     "LOGICAL"
  178     LIB     "LOGICAL"
  179     LIST    "LOGICAL"
  180     MIME    "LOGICAL"
  181     POSIX   "LOGICAL"
  182     SYS     "LOGICAL"
  183     T       "LOGICAL"
  184     THREAD  "LOGICAL"
  186     TIME    "LOGICAL"
  187     TMP     "LOGICAL"
  189     UTIL    "LOGICAL"
  190     TEST    "SYMBOL"
  192 As a handy shortcut, the command:
  194     @configure "-des"
  196 (note the quotation marks and case) will choose reasonable defaults 
  197 automatically.  Some options can be given explicitly on the command line;
  198 the following example specifies a non-default location for where Perl
  199 will be installed:
  201     @configure "-d" "-Dprefix=dka100:[utils.perl5.]"
  203 Note that the installation location would be by default where you unpacked 
  204 the source with a "_ROOT." appended.  For example if you unpacked the perl 
  205 source into:
  207    F<DKA200:[PERL-5^.18^.0...]>
  209 Then the F<PERL_SETUP.COM> that gets written out by F<configure.com> will
  210 try to DEFINE your installation PERL_ROOT to be:
  212    F<DKA200:[PERL-5^.18^.0_ROOT.]>
  214 More help with configure.com is available from:
  216     @configure "-h"
  218 If you find yourself reconfiguring and rebuilding  then be sure to also follow
  219 the advice in the "Cleaning up and starting  fresh (optional)" and the checklist
  220 of items in the "CAVEATS" sections below.
  222 =head2 Changing compile-time options (optional) for Perl on VMS
  224 Most of the user-definable features of Perl are enabled or disabled in
  225 configure.com, which processes the hints file config_h.SH.  There is
  226 code in there to Do The Right Thing, but that  may end up being the
  227 wrong thing for you.  Make sure you understand what you are doing since
  228 inappropriate changes to configure.com or config_h.SH can render perl 
  229 unbuildable; odds are that there's nothing in there you'll need to
  230 change. Note also that non-default options are tested less than default
  231 options, so you may end up being more of a pioneer than you intend to be.
  233 =head2 Socket Support (optional) for Perl on VMS
  235 Perl includes a number of functions for IP sockets, which are available if
  236 you choose to compile Perl with socket support.  It does this via the socket
  237 routines built into the CRTL regarless of which TCP/IP stack your system
  238 has.
  240 =head1 Building Perl
  242 The configuration script will print out, at the very end, the MMS or MMK
  243 command you need to compile perl.  Issue it (exactly as printed) to start
  244 the build.  
  246 Once you issue your MMS or MMK command, sit back and wait.  Perl should 
  247 compile and link without a problem.  If a problem does occur check the 
  248 "CAVEATS" section of this document.  If that does not help send some 
  249 mail to the VMSPERL mailing list.  Instructions are in the L</"Mailing Lists"> 
  250 section of this document.
  252 =head1 Testing Perl
  254 Once Perl has built cleanly you need to test it to make sure things work.
  255 This step is very important since there are always things that can go wrong
  256 somehow and yield a dysfunctional Perl for you.
  258 Testing is very easy, though, as there's a full test suite in the perl
  259 distribution.  To run the tests, enter the I<exact> MMS line you used to
  260 compile Perl and add the word "test" to the end, like this:
  262 If the compile command was:
  264     MMK
  266 then the test command ought to be:
  268     MMK test
  270 MMK (or MMS) will run all the tests.  This may take some time, as there are 
  271 a lot of tests.  If any tests fail, there will be a note made on-screen. 
  272 At the end of all the tests, a summary of the tests, the number passed and 
  273 failed, and the time taken will be displayed.
  275 The test driver invoked via MMK TEST has a DCL wrapper ([.VMS]TEST.COM) that
  276 downgrades privileges to NETMBX, TMPMBX for the duration of the test run,
  277 and then restores them to their prior state upon completion of testing. 
  278 This is done to ensure that the tests run in a private sandbox and can do no
  279 harm to your system even in the unlikely event something goes badly wrong in
  280 one of the test scripts while running the tests from a privileged account. 
  281 A side effect of this safety precaution is that the account used to run the
  282 test suite must be the owner of the directory tree in which Perl has been
  283 built; otherwise the manipulations of temporary files and directories
  284 attempted by some of the tests will fail.
  286 If any tests fail, it means something is wrong with Perl, or at least
  287 with the particular module or feature that reported failure. If the test suite
  288 hangs (some tests can take upwards of two or three minutes, or more if
  289 you're on an especially slow machine, depending on your machine speed, so
  290 don't be hasty), then the test I<after> the last one displayed failed. Don't
  291 install Perl unless you're confident that you're OK. Regardless of how
  292 confident you are, make a bug report to the VMSPerl mailing list.
  294 If one or more tests fail, you can get more information on the failure by 
  295 issuing this command sequence:
  297     @[.vms]test .typ "" "-v" [.subdir]test.t
  299 where ".typ" is the file type of the Perl images you just built (if you
  300 didn't do anything special, use .EXE), and "[.subdir]test.t" is the test
  301 that failed. For example, with a normal Perl build, if the test indicated
  302 that t/op/time failed, then you'd do this:
  304     @ .vms]test .EXE "" "-v" [.OP]TIME.t
  306 Note that test names are reported in UNIX syntax and relative to the
  307 top-level build directory.  When supplying them individually to the test
  308 driver, you can use either UNIX or VMS syntax, but you must give the path
  309 relative to the [.t] directory and you must also add the .t extension to the
  310 filename.  So, for example if the test lib/Math/Trig fails, you would run:
  312     @[.vms]test .EXE "" -"v" [-.lib.math]trig.t
  314 When you send in a bug report for failed tests, please include the output
  315 from this command, which is run from the main source directory:
  317     MCR []MINIPERL "-Ilib" "-V"
  319 Note that -"V" really is a capital V in double quotes. This will dump out a
  320 couple of screens worth of configuration information, and can help us 
  321 diagnose the problem.  If (and only if) that did not work then try enclosing 
  322 the output of:
  324     MMK printconfig
  326 If (and only if) that did not work then try enclosing the output of:
  328     @[.vms]myconfig
  330 You may also be asked to provide your C compiler version ("CC/VERSION NL:" 
  331 with DEC C, "gcc --version" with GNU CC).  To obtain the version of MMS or 
  332 MMK you are running try "MMS/ident" or "MMK /ident".  The GNU make version 
  333 can be identified with "make --version".
  335 =head2 Cleaning up and starting fresh (optional) installing Perl on VMS
  337 If you need to recompile from scratch, you have to make sure you clean up
  338 first.  There is a procedure to do it--enter the I<exact> MMK line you used 
  339 to compile and add "realclean" at the end, like this:
  341 if the compile command was:
  343     MMK
  345 then the cleanup command ought to be:
  347     MMK realclean
  349 If you do not do this things may behave erratically during the subsequent 
  350 rebuild attempt.  They might not, too, so it is best to be sure and do it.
  352 =head1 Installing Perl
  354 There are several steps you need to take to get Perl installed and
  355 running.
  357 =over 4
  359 =item 1
  361 Check your default file protections with
  365 and adjust if necessary with C<SET PROTECTION=(code)/DEFAULT>.
  367 =item 2
  369 Decide where you want Perl to be installed (unless you have already done so
  370 by using the "prefix" configuration parameter -- see the example in the
  371 "Configuring the Perl build" section).
  373 The DCL script PERL_SETUP.COM that is written by configure.com will help you
  374 with the definition of the PERL_ROOT and PERLSHR logical names and the PERL
  375 foreign command  symbol.  Take a look at PERL_SETUP.COM and modify it if you
  376 want to.  The installation process will execute PERL_SETUP.COM and copy
  377 files to the directory tree pointed to by the PERL_ROOT logical name defined
  378 there, so make sure that you have write access to the parent directory of
  379 what will become the root of your Perl installation.
  381 =item 3
  383 Run the install script via:
  385     MMK install
  387 If for some reason it complains about target INSTALL being up to date,
  388 throw a /FORCE switch on the MMS or MMK command.
  390 =back
  392 Installation will copy F<PERL_SETUP.COM> to the root of your installation
  393 tree.  If you want to give everyone on the system  access to Perl (and you
  394 have, for example, installed to F<dsa0:[utils.perl_root]>) then add a line
  395 that reads:
  397     $ @dsa0:[utils.perl_root]perl_setup
  399 to F<SYS$MANAGER:SYLOGIN.COM>.  Or for your own use only, simply place
  400 that line in F<SYS$LOGIN:LOGIN.COM>.
  402 Two alternatives to the foreign symbol would be to install PERL into 
  403 DCLTABLES.EXE (Check out the section "Installing Perl into DCLTABLES 
  404 (optional)" for more information), or put the image in a 
  405 directory that's in your DCL$PATH.
  407 See also the "INSTALLing images (optional)" section.
  409 =head2 Installing Perl into DCLTABLES (optional) on VMS
  411 Execute the following command file to define PERL as a DCL command.
  412 You'll need CMKRNL privilege to install the new dcltables.exe.
  414     $ create perl.cld
  415     !
  416     ! modify to reflect location of your perl.exe
  417     !
  418     define verb perl
  419       image perl_root:[000000]perl.exe
  420       cliflags (foreign)
  421     $!
  422     $ set command perl /table=sys$common:[syslib]dcltables.exe -
  423      /output=sys$common:[syslib]dcltables.exe
  424     $ install replace sys$common:[syslib]dcltables.exe
  425     $ exit
  427 =head2 INSTALLing Perl images (optional) on VMS
  429 On systems that are using perl quite a bit, and particularly those with 
  430 minimal RAM, you can boost the performance of perl by INSTALLing it as
  431 a known image.  PERLSHR.EXE is typically larger than 3000 blocks
  432 and that is a reasonably large amount of IO to load each time perl is 
  433 invoked. 
  438 should be enough for F<PERLSHR.EXE> (/share implies /header and /open), 
  439 while /HEADER should do for FPERL.EXE> (perl.exe is not a shared image).
  441 If your code 'use's modules, check to see if there is a shareable image for
  442 them, too.  In the base perl build, POSIX, IO, Fcntl, Opcode, SDBM_File,
  443 DCLsym, and Stdio, and other extensions all have shared images that can be
  444 installed /SHARE.
  446 How much of a win depends on your memory situation, but if you are firing
  447 off perl with any regularity (like more than once every 20 seconds or so)
  448 it is probably beneficial to INSTALL at least portions of perl.
  450 While there is code in perl to remove privileges as it runs you are advised
  451 to NOT INSTALL F<PERL.EXE> with PRIVs!
  453 =head2 Running h2ph to create perl header files (optional) on VMS
  455 If using HP C, ensure that you have extracted loose versions of your 
  456 compiler's header or *.H files.  Be sure to check the contents of:
  462 etcetera.
  464 If using GNU cc then also check your GNU_CC:[000000...] tree for the locations
  465 of the GNU cc headers.
  467 =head1 Reporting Bugs
  469 If you come across what you think might be a bug in Perl, please report
  470 it. The issue tracker at L<https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues> walks you
  471 through the process of creating a bug report and including details of your
  472 installation.
  474 =head1 CAVEATS
  476 Probably the single biggest gotcha in compiling Perl is giving the wrong
  477 switches to MMS/MMK when you build. Use I<exactly> what the configure.com 
  478 script prints!
  480 Be sure that the process that you use to build perl has a PGFLQ greater
  481 than 100000.  Be sure to have a correct local time zone to UTC offset
  482 defined (in seconds) in the logical name SYS$TIMEZONE_DIFFERENTIAL before
  483 running the regression test suite.  The SYS$MANAGER:UTC$CONFIGURE_TDF.COM 
  484 procedure will help you set that logical for your system but may require 
  485 system privileges.  For example, a location 5 hours west of UTC (such as 
  486 the US East coast while not on daylight savings time) would have:
  490 A final thing that causes trouble is leftover pieces from a failed
  491 build.  If things go wrong make sure you do a "(MMK|MMS|make) realclean"
  492 before you rebuild.
  494 =head2 GNU issues with Perl on VMS
  496 It has been a while since the GNU utilities such as GCC or GNU make
  497 were used to build perl on VMS.  Hence they may require a great deal
  498 of source code modification to work again.
  500 =head2 Floating Point Considerations
  502 Prior to 5.8.0, Perl simply accepted the default floating point options of the
  503 C compiler, namely representing doubles with D_FLOAT on VAX and G_FLOAT on
  504 Alpha.  Single precision floating point values are represented in F_FLOAT
  505 format when either D_FLOAT or G_FLOAT is in use for doubles.  Beginning with
  506 5.8.0, Alpha builds now use IEEE floating point formats by default, which in
  507 VMS parlance are S_FLOAT for singles and T_FLOAT for doubles.  IEEE is not
  508 available on VAX, so F_FLOAT and D_FLOAT remain the defaults for singles and
  509 doubles respectively.  Itanium builds have always used IEEE by default. The 
  510 available non-default options are G_FLOAT on VAX and D_FLOAT or G_FLOAT on 
  511 Alpha or Itanium.
  513 The use of IEEE on Alpha or Itanium introduces NaN, infinity, and denormalization
  514 capabilities not available with D_FLOAT and G_FLOAT.  When using one of those
  515 non-IEEE formats, silent underflow and overflow are emulated in the conversion
  516 of strings to numbers, but it is preferable to get the real thing by using
  517 IEEE where possible.
  519 Regardless of what floating point format you consider preferable, be aware
  520 that the choice may have an impact on compatibility with external libraries,
  521 such as database interfaces, and with existing data, such as data created with
  522 the C<pack> function and written to disk, or data stored via the Storable
  523 extension.  For example, a C<pack("d", $foo)")> will create a D_FLOAT,
  524 G_FLOAT, or T_FLOAT depending on what your Perl was configured with.  When
  525 written to disk, the value can only be retrieved later by a Perl configured
  526 with the same floating point option that was in effect when it was created.
  528 To obtain a non-IEEE build on Alpha or Itanium, simply answer no to the
  529 "Use IEEE math?" question during the configuration.  To obtain an option
  530 different from the C compiler default on any platform, put in the option that
  531 you want in answer to the "Any additional cc flags?" question.  For example, to
  532 obtain a G_FLOAT build on VAX, put in C</FLOAT=G_FLOAT>.
  534 =head1 Mailing Lists
  536 There are several mailing lists available to the Perl porter.  For VMS
  537 specific issues (including both Perl questions and installation problems)
  538 there is the VMSPERL mailing list.  It is usually a low-volume (10-12
  539 messages a week) mailing list.
  541 To subscribe, send a mail message to VMSPERL-SUBSCRIBE@PERL.ORG. The VMSPERL
  542 mailing list address is VMSPERL@PERL.ORG.  Any mail sent there gets echoed
  543 to all subscribers of the list.  There is a searchable archive of the list
  544 on the web at:
  546     L<http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/vmsperl/>
  548 To unsubscribe from VMSPERL send a message to VMSPERL-UNSUBSCRIBE@PERL.ORG.
  549 Be sure to do so from the subscribed account that you are canceling.
  551 =head2 Web sites for Perl on VMS
  553 Vmsperl pages on the web include:
  555     L<http://www.sidhe.org/vmsperl/index.html>
  556     L<http://www.cpan.org/modules/by-module/VMS/>
  557     L<http://www.xray.mpe.mpg.de/mailing-lists/vmsperl/>
  558     L<http://archive.develooper.com/vmsperl@perl.org/>
  559     L<http://h71000.www7.hp.com/openvms/products/ips/apache/csws_modperl.html>
  561 =head1 SEE ALSO
  563 Perl information for users and programmers about the port of perl to VMS is
  564 available from the [.POD]PERLVMS.POD file that gets installed as L<perlvms>.
  565 For administrators the perlvms document also includes a detailed discussion 
  566 of extending vmsperl with CPAN modules after Perl has been installed.
  568 =head1 AUTHORS
  570 Originally by Charles Bailey bailey@newman.upenn.edu.  See the git repository
  571 for history.
  575 A real big thanks needs to go to Charles Bailey
  576 bailey@newman.upenn.edu, who is ultimately responsible for Perl 5.004
  577 running on VMS. Without him, nothing the rest of us have done would be at
  578 all important.
  580 There are, of course, far too many people involved in the porting and testing
  581 of Perl to mention everyone who deserves it, so please forgive us if we've
  582 missed someone.  That said, special thanks are due to the following:
  584   Tim Adye T.J.Adye@rl.ac.uk
  585      for the VMS emulations of getpw*()
  586   David Denholm denholm@conmat.phys.soton.ac.uk
  587      for extensive testing and provision of pipe and SocketShr code,
  588   Mark Pizzolato mark@infocomm.com
  589      for the getredirection() code
  590   Rich Salz rsalz@bbn.com
  591      for readdir() and related routines
  592   Peter Prymmer pvhp@best.com 
  593      for extensive testing, as well as development work on
  594      configuration and documentation for VMS Perl,
  595   Dan Sugalski dan@sidhe.org
  596      for extensive contributions to recent version support,
  597      development of VMS-specific extensions, and dissemination
  598      of information about VMS Perl,
  599   the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory and the
  600      Laboratory of Nuclear Studies at Cornell University for
  601      the opportunity to test and develop for the AXP,
  602   John Hasstedt John.Hasstedt@sunysb.edu
  603      for VAX VMS V7.2 support
  604   John Malmberg wb8tyw@qsl.net
  605      for ODS-5 filename handling and other modernizations
  607 and to the entire VMSperl group for useful advice and suggestions.  In
  608 addition the perl5-porters deserve credit for their creativity and
  609 willingness to work with the VMS newcomers.  Finally, the greatest debt of
  610 gratitude is due to Larry Wall larry@wall.org, for having the ideas which
  611 have made our sleepless nights possible.
  613 Thanks,
  614 The VMSperl group
  616 =cut