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    1 If you read this file _as_is_, just ignore the funny characters you see.
    2 It is written in the POD format (see pod/perlpod.pod) which is specially
    3 designed to be readable as is.
    4 
    5 =head1 NAME
    6 
    7 perlmacosx - Perl under Mac OS X
    8 
    9 =head1 SYNOPSIS
   10 
   11 This document briefly describes Perl under Mac OS X.
   12 
   13   curl -O http://www.cpan.org/src/perl-5.30.3.tar.gz
   14   tar -xzf perl-5.30.3.tar.gz
   15   cd perl-5.30.3
   16   ./Configure -des -Dprefix=/usr/local/
   17   make
   18   make test
   19   sudo make install
   20 
   21 =head1 DESCRIPTION
   22 
   23 The latest Perl release (5.30.3 as of this writing) builds without changes
   24 under all versions of Mac OS X from 10.3 "Panther" onwards. 
   25 
   26 In order to build your own version of Perl you will need 'make',
   27 which is part of Apple's developer tools - also known as Xcode. From
   28 Mac OS X 10.7 "Lion" onwards, it can be downloaded separately as the
   29 'Command Line Tools' bundle directly from L<https://developer.apple.com/downloads/>
   30 (you will need a free account to log in), or as a part of the Xcode suite,
   31 freely available at the App Store. Xcode is a pretty big app, so
   32 unless you already have it or really want it, you are advised to get the
   33 'Command Line Tools' bundle separately from the link above. If you want
   34 to do it from within Xcode, go to Xcode -> Preferences -> Downloads and
   35 select the 'Command Line Tools' option.
   36 
   37 Between Mac OS X 10.3 "Panther" and 10.6 "Snow Leopard", the 'Command
   38 Line Tools' bundle was called 'unix tools', and was usually supplied
   39 with Mac OS install DVDs.
   40 
   41 Earlier Mac OS X releases (10.2 "Jaguar" and older) did not include a
   42 completely thread-safe libc, so threading is not fully supported. Also,
   43 earlier releases included a buggy libdb, so some of the DB_File tests
   44 are known to fail on those releases.
   45 
   46 
   47 =head2 Installation Prefix
   48 
   49 The default installation location for this release uses the traditional
   50 UNIX directory layout under /usr/local. This is the recommended location
   51 for most users, and will leave the Apple-supplied Perl and its modules
   52 undisturbed.
   53 
   54 Using an installation prefix of '/usr' will result in a directory layout
   55 that mirrors that of Apple's default Perl, with core modules stored in
   56 '/System/Library/Perl/${version}', CPAN modules stored in
   57 '/Library/Perl/${version}', and the addition of
   58 '/Network/Library/Perl/${version}' to @INC for modules that are stored
   59 on a file server and used by many Macs.
   60 
   61 
   62 =head2 SDK support
   63 
   64 First, export the path to the SDK into the build environment:
   65 
   66  export SDK=/Applications/Xcode.app/Contents/Developer/Platforms/MacOSX.platform/Developer/SDKs/MacOSX10.8.sdk
   67 
   68 Please make sure the SDK version (i.e. the numbers right before '.sdk')
   69 matches your system's (in this case, Mac OS X 10.8 "Mountain Lion"), as it is
   70 possible to have more than one SDK installed. Also make sure the path exists
   71 in your system, and if it doesn't please make sure the SDK is properly
   72 installed, as it should come with the 'Command Line Tools' bundle mentioned
   73 above. Finally, if you have an older Mac OS X (10.6 "Snow Leopard" and below)
   74 running Xcode 4.2 or lower, the SDK path might be something like
   75 C<'/Developer/SDKs/MacOSX10.3.9.sdk'>.
   76 
   77 You can use the SDK by exporting some additions to Perl's 'ccflags' and '..flags'
   78 config variables:
   79 
   80     ./Configure -Accflags="-nostdinc -B$SDK/usr/include/gcc \
   81                            -B$SDK/usr/lib/gcc -isystem$SDK/usr/include \
   82                            -F$SDK/System/Library/Frameworks" \
   83                 -Aldflags="-Wl,-syslibroot,$SDK" \
   84                 -de
   85 
   86 =head2 Universal Binary support
   87 
   88 Note: From Mac OS X 10.6 "Snow Leopard" onwards, Apple only supports
   89 Intel-based hardware. This means you can safely skip this section unless
   90 you have an older Apple computer running on ppc or wish to create a perl
   91 binary with backwards compatibility.
   92 
   93 You can compile perl as a universal binary (built for both ppc and intel).
   94 In Mac OS X 10.4 "Tiger", you must export the 'u' variant of the SDK:
   95 
   96     export SDK=/Developer/SDKs/MacOSX10.4u.sdk
   97 
   98 Mac OS X 10.5 "Leopard" and above do not require the 'u' variant.
   99 
  100 In addition to the compiler flags used to select the SDK, also add the flags
  101 for creating a universal binary:
  102 
  103  ./Configure -Accflags="-arch i686 -arch ppc -nostdinc               \
  104                          -B$SDK/usr/include/gcc                      \
  105                         -B$SDK/usr/lib/gcc -isystem$SDK/usr/include  \
  106                         -F$SDK/System/Library/Frameworks"            \
  107              -Aldflags="-arch i686 -arch ppc -Wl,-syslibroot,$SDK"   \
  108              -de
  109 
  110 Keep in mind that these compiler and linker settings will also be used when
  111 building CPAN modules. For XS modules to be compiled as a universal binary, any
  112 libraries it links to must also be universal binaries. The system libraries that
  113 Apple includes with the 10.4u SDK are all universal, but user-installed libraries
  114 may need to be re-installed as universal binaries.
  115 
  116 =head2 64-bit PPC support
  117 
  118 Follow the instructions in F<INSTALL> to build perl with support for 64-bit 
  119 integers (C<use64bitint>) or both 64-bit integers and 64-bit addressing
  120 (C<use64bitall>). In the latter case, the resulting binary will run only
  121 on G5-based hosts.
  122 
  123 Support for 64-bit addressing is experimental: some aspects of Perl may be
  124 omitted or buggy. Note the messages output by F<Configure> for further 
  125 information. Please use L<https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues> to submit a
  126 problem report in the event that you encounter difficulties.
  127 
  128 When building 64-bit modules, it is your responsibility to ensure that linked
  129 external libraries and frameworks provide 64-bit support: if they do not,
  130 module building may appear to succeed, but attempts to use the module will
  131 result in run-time dynamic linking errors, and subsequent test failures.
  132 You can use C<file> to discover the architectures supported by a library:
  133 
  134     $ file libgdbm.3.0.0.dylib 
  135     libgdbm.3.0.0.dylib: Mach-O fat file with 2 architectures
  136     libgdbm.3.0.0.dylib (for architecture ppc):      Mach-O dynamically linked shared library ppc
  137     libgdbm.3.0.0.dylib (for architecture ppc64):    Mach-O 64-bit dynamically linked shared library ppc64
  138 
  139 Note that this issue precludes the building of many Macintosh-specific CPAN
  140 modules (C<Mac::*>), as the required Apple frameworks do not provide PPC64
  141 support. Similarly, downloads from Fink or Darwinports are unlikely to provide
  142 64-bit support; the libraries must be rebuilt from source with the appropriate
  143 compiler and linker flags. For further information, see Apple's
  144 I<64-Bit Transition Guide> at 
  145 L<http://developer.apple.com/documentation/Darwin/Conceptual/64bitPorting/index.html>.
  146 
  147 =head2 libperl and Prebinding
  148 
  149 Mac OS X ships with a dynamically-loaded libperl, but the default for
  150 this release is to compile a static libperl. The reason for this is
  151 pre-binding. Dynamic libraries can be pre-bound to a specific address in
  152 memory in order to decrease load time. To do this, one needs to be aware
  153 of the location and size of all previously-loaded libraries. Apple
  154 collects this information as part of their overall OS build process, and
  155 thus has easy access to it when building Perl, but ordinary users would
  156 need to go to a great deal of effort to obtain the information needed
  157 for pre-binding.
  158 
  159 You can override the default and build a shared libperl if you wish
  160 (S<Configure ... -Duseshrplib>).
  161 
  162 With Mac OS X 10.4 "Tiger" and newer, there is almost no performance
  163 penalty for non-prebound libraries. Earlier releases will suffer a greater
  164 load time than either the static library, or Apple's pre-bound dynamic library.
  165 
  166 =head2 Updating Apple's Perl
  167 
  168 In a word - don't, at least not without a *very* good reason. Your scripts
  169 can just as easily begin with "#!/usr/local/bin/perl" as with
  170 "#!/usr/bin/perl". Scripts supplied by Apple and other third parties as
  171 part of installation packages and such have generally only been tested
  172 with the /usr/bin/perl that's installed by Apple.
  173 
  174 If you find that you do need to update the system Perl, one issue worth
  175 keeping in mind is the question of static vs. dynamic libraries. If you
  176 upgrade using the default static libperl, you will find that the dynamic
  177 libperl supplied by Apple will not be deleted. If both libraries are
  178 present when an application that links against libperl is built, ld will
  179 link against the dynamic library by default. So, if you need to replace
  180 Apple's dynamic libperl with a static libperl, you need to be sure to
  181 delete the older dynamic library after you've installed the update.
  182 
  183 
  184 =head2 Known problems
  185 
  186 If you have installed extra libraries such as GDBM through Fink
  187 (in other words, you have libraries under F</sw/lib>), or libdlcompat
  188 to F</usr/local/lib>, you may need to be extra careful when running
  189 Configure to not to confuse Configure and Perl about which libraries
  190 to use.  Being confused will show up for example as "dyld" errors about
  191 symbol problems, for example during "make test". The safest bet is to run
  192 Configure as
  193 
  194     Configure ... -Uloclibpth -Dlibpth=/usr/lib
  195 
  196 to make Configure look only into the system libraries.  If you have some
  197 extra library directories that you really want to use (such as newer
  198 Berkeley DB libraries in pre-Panther systems), add those to the libpth:
  199 
  200     Configure ... -Uloclibpth -Dlibpth='/usr/lib /opt/lib'
  201 
  202 The default of building Perl statically may cause problems with complex
  203 applications like Tk: in that case consider building shared Perl
  204 
  205     Configure ... -Duseshrplib
  206 
  207 but remember that there's a startup cost to pay in that case (see above
  208 "libperl and Prebinding").
  209 
  210 Starting with Tiger (Mac OS X 10.4), Apple shipped broken locale files for
  211 the eu_ES locale (Basque-Spain).  In previous releases of Perl, this resulted in
  212 failures in the F<lib/locale> test. These failures have been suppressed
  213 in the current release of Perl by making the test ignore the broken locale.
  214 If you need to use the eu_ES locale, you should contact Apple support.
  215 
  216 
  217 =head2 Cocoa
  218 
  219 There are two ways to use Cocoa from Perl. Apple's PerlObjCBridge
  220 module, included with Mac OS X, can be used by standalone scripts to
  221 access Foundation (i.e. non-GUI) classes and objects.
  222 
  223 An alternative is CamelBones, a framework that allows access to both
  224 Foundation and AppKit classes and objects, so that full GUI applications
  225 can be built in Perl. CamelBones can be found on SourceForge, at
  226 L<http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/camelbones/>.
  227 
  228 
  229 =head1 Starting From Scratch
  230 
  231 Unfortunately it is not that difficult somehow manage to break one's
  232 Mac OS X Perl rather severely.  If all else fails and you want to
  233 really, B<REALLY>, start from scratch and remove even your Apple Perl
  234 installation (which has become corrupted somehow), the following
  235 instructions should do it.  B<Please think twice before following
  236 these instructions: they are much like conducting brain surgery to
  237 yourself.  Without anesthesia.>  We will B<not> come to fix your system
  238 if you do this.
  239 
  240 First, get rid of the libperl.dylib:
  241 
  242     # cd /System/Library/Perl/darwin/CORE
  243     # rm libperl.dylib
  244 
  245 Then delete every .bundle file found anywhere in the folders:
  246 
  247     /System/Library/Perl
  248     /Library/Perl
  249 
  250 You can find them for example by
  251 
  252     # find /System/Library/Perl /Library/Perl -name '*.bundle' -print
  253 
  254 After this you can either copy Perl from your operating system media
  255 (you will need at least the /System/Library/Perl and /usr/bin/perl),
  256 or rebuild Perl from the source code with C<Configure -Dprefix=/usr
  257 -Duseshrplib> NOTE: the C<-Dprefix=/usr> to replace the system Perl
  258 works much better with Perl 5.8.1 and later, in Perl 5.8.0 the
  259 settings were not quite right.
  260 
  261 "Pacifist" from CharlesSoft (L<http://www.charlessoft.com/>) is a nice
  262 way to extract the Perl binaries from the OS media, without having to
  263 reinstall the entire OS.
  264 
  265 
  266 =head1 AUTHOR
  267 
  268 This README was written by Sherm Pendley E<lt>sherm@dot-app.orgE<gt>,
  269 and subsequently updated by Dominic Dunlop E<lt>domo@computer.orgE<gt>
  270 and Breno G. de Oliveira E<lt>garu@cpan.orgE<gt>. The "Starting From Scratch"
  271 recipe was contributed by John Montbriand E<lt>montbriand@apple.comE<gt>.
  272 
  273 =head1 DATE
  274 
  275 Last modified 2013-04-29.