By making a contribution to this project, I certify that:
The contribution was created in whole or in part by me and I have the right to submit it under the open source license indicated in the file; or
The contribution is based upon previous work that, to the best of my knowledge, is covered under an appropriate open source license and I have the right under that license to
submit that work with modifications, whether created in whole or in part by me, under the same open source license (unless I am permitted to submit under a different license), as Indicated in the file; or
The contribution was provided directly to me by some other person who certified (a), (b) or (c) and I have not modified it.
I understand and agree that this project and the contribution are public and that a record of the contribution (including all personal information I submit with it, including my sign-off) is maintained indefinitely and may be redistributed consistent with this project or the open source license(s) involved.
Erlang/otp is licensed under the Apache License 2.0
As stated in: LICENSE.txt
Report bugs at https://bugs.erlang.org. See Bug reports for more information.
You can contribute to Erlang/OTP by opening a Pull Request.
Make sure you create a new branch for your pull request with
git checkout -b new-branch-name. Give the branch a short but descriptive name, like
stdlib/lists-length-fix. Never do your work directly on
In most cases, pull requests for bug fixes should be based on the
maint branch. There are exceptions, for example corrections to bugs that have been introduced in the
Include a test case to ensure that the bug is fixed and that it stays fixed.
TIP: Write the test case before fixing the bug so that you can know that it catches the bug.
For applications without a test suite in the git repository, it would be appreciated if you provide a small code sample in the commit message or email a module that will provoke the failure.
In most cases, pull requests for new features should be based on the
It is recommended to discuss new features on the erlang-questions mailing list, especially for major new features or any new features in ERTS, Kernel, or STDLIB.
It is important to write a good commit message explaining why the feature is needed. We prefer that the information is in the commit message, so that anyone that want to know two years later why a particular feature can easily find out. It does no harm to provide the same information in the pull request (if the pull request consists of a single commit, the commit message will be added to the pull request automatically).
With few exceptions, it is mandatory to write a new test case that tests the feature. The test case is needed to ensure that the features does not stop working in the future.
Update the Documentation to describe the feature.
Make sure that the new feature builds and works on all major platforms. Exceptions are features that only makes sense one some platforms, for example the
win32reg module for accessing the Windows registry.
Make sure that your feature does not break backward compatibility. In general, we only break backward compatibility in major releases and only for a very good reason. Usually we first deprecate the feature one or two releases beforehand.
In general, language changes/extensions require an EEP (Erlang Enhancement Proposal) to be written and approved before they can be included in OTP. Major changes or new features in ERTS, Kernel, or STDLIB will need an EEP or at least a discussion on the mailing list.
cd lib/stdlib/ && make xmllint
cd lib/stdlib/ && make dialyzer
Make sure that your branch contains clean commits:
Don’t make the first line in the commit message longer than 72 characters. Don’t end the first line with a period.
Follow the guidelines for Writing good commit messages.
master into your branch. Use
git rebase if you need to resolve merge conflicts or include the latest changes.
Each commit should represent a logical change, such as a feature added or bug fixed, and also include relevant changes to documentation and tests.
Each commit should compile separately and pass the most relevant test cases. This makes it possible to use the powerful
git bisect command.
Changes to multiple applications should be made in separate commits to facilitate code reviews, unless special circumstances motivates a single commit, such as not breaking the ability to build cleanly.
Check for unnecessary whitespace before committing with
git diff --check. However, do not fix preexisting whitespace errors in otherwise untouched source lines.
Check your coding style:
Make sure your changes follow the coding and indentation style of the code surrounding your changes.
Do not commit commented-out code or files that are no longer needed. Remove the code or the files.
In most code (Erlang and C), indentation is 4 steps. Indentation using only spaces is strongly recommended.
If you use Emacs, use the Erlang mode, and add the following lines to
(setq-default indent-tabs-mode nil) (setq c-basic-offset 4)
If you want to change the setting only for the Erlang mode, you can use a hook like this:
(add-hook 'erlang-mode-hook 'my-erlang-hook) (defun my-erlang-hook () (setq indent-tabs-mode nil))