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Manage projects, users, and roles

As an administrator, you manage projects, users, and roles. Projects are organizational units in the cloud to which you can assign users. Projects are also known as tenants or accounts. Users can be members of one or more projects. Roles define which actions users can perform. You assign roles to user-project pairs.

You can define actions for OpenStack service roles in the /etc/PROJECT/policy.json files. For example, define actions for Compute service roles in the /etc/nova/policy.json file.

You can manage projects, users, and roles independently from each other.

During cloud set up, the operator defines at least one project, user, and role.

You can add, update, and delete projects and users, assign users to one or more projects, and change or remove the assignment. To enable or temporarily disable a project or user, update that project or user. You can also change quotas at the project level.

Before you can delete a user account, you must remove the user account from its primary project.

Before you can run client commands, you need to have a cloud config file or you can download and source an OpenStack RC file. See the Configuration <configuration/index.html> documentation from the python-openstackclient project for more details.

Projects

A project is a group of zero or more users. In Compute, a project owns virtual machines. In Object Storage, a project owns containers. Users can be associated with more than one project. Each project and user pairing can have a role associated with it.

List projects

List all projects with their ID, name, and whether they are enabled or disabled:

$ openstack project list
+----------------------------------+--------------------+
| ID                               | Name               |
+----------------------------------+--------------------+
| f7ac731cc11f40efbc03a9f9e1d1d21f | admin              |
| c150ab41f0d9443f8874e32e725a4cc8 | alt_demo           |
| a9debfe41a6d4d09a677da737b907d5e | demo               |
| 9208739195a34c628c58c95d157917d7 | invisible_to_admin |
| 3943a53dc92a49b2827fae94363851e1 | service            |
| 80cab5e1f02045abad92a2864cfd76cb | test_project       |
+----------------------------------+--------------------+

Create a project

Create a project named new-project:

$ openstack project create --description 'my new project' new-project \
  --domain default
+-------------+----------------------------------+
| Field       | Value                            |
+-------------+----------------------------------+
| description | my new project                   |
| domain_id   | e601210181f54843b51b3edff41d4980 |
| enabled     | True                             |
| id          | 1a4a0618b306462c9830f876b0bd6af2 |
| is_domain   | False                            |
| name        | new-project                      |
| parent_id   | e601210181f54843b51b3edff41d4980 |
| tags        | []                               |
+-------------+----------------------------------+

Update a project

Specify the project ID to update a project. You can update the name, description, and enabled status of a project.

Delete a project

Specify the project ID to delete a project:

$ openstack project delete PROJECT_ID

Users

List users

List all users:

$ openstack user list
+----------------------------------+----------+
| ID                               | Name     |
+----------------------------------+----------+
| 352b37f5c89144d4ad0534139266d51f | admin    |
| 86c0de739bcb4802b8dc786921355813 | demo     |
| 32ec34aae8ea432e8af560a1cec0e881 | glance   |
| 7047fcb7908e420cb36e13bbd72c972c | nova     |
+----------------------------------+----------+

Create a user

To create a user, you must specify a name. Optionally, you can specify a project ID, password, and email address. It is recommended that you include the project ID and password because the user cannot log in to the dashboard without this information.

Create the new-user user:

$ openstack user create --project new-project --password PASSWORD new-user
+------------+----------------------------------+
| Field      | Value                            |
+------------+----------------------------------+
| email      | None                             |
| enabled    | True                             |
| id         | 6322872d9c7e445dbbb49c1f9ca28adc |
| name       | new-user                         |
| project_id | 0b0b995694234521bf93c792ed44247f |
| username   | new-user                         |
+------------+----------------------------------+

Update a user

You can update the name, email address, and enabled status for a user.

Delete a user

Delete a specified user account:

$ openstack user delete USER_NAME

Roles and role assignments

List available roles

List the available roles:

$ openstack role list
+----------------------------------+---------------+
| ID                               | Name          |
+----------------------------------+---------------+
| 71ccc37d41c8491c975ae72676db687f | member        |
| 149f50a1fe684bfa88dae76a48d26ef7 | ResellerAdmin |
| 9fe2ff9ee4384b1894a90878d3e92bab | reader        |
| 6ecf391421604da985db2f141e46a7c8 | admin         |
| deb4fffd123c4d02a907c2c74559dccf | anotherrole   |
+----------------------------------+---------------+

Create a role

Users can be members of multiple projects. To assign users to multiple projects, define a role and assign that role to a user-project pair.

Create the new-role role:

$ openstack role create new-role
+-------------+----------------------------------+
| Field       | Value                            |
+-------------+----------------------------------+
| description | None                             |
| domain_id   | None                             |
| id          | a34425c884c74c8881496dc2c2e84ffc |
| name        | new-role                         |
+-------------+----------------------------------+

Note

If you are using identity v3, you may need to use the --domain option with a specific domain name.

Assign a role

To assign a user to a project, you must assign the role to a user-project pair.

  1. Assign a role to a user-project pair:

    $ openstack role add --user USER_NAME --project PROJECT_NAME ROLE_NAME

    For example, assign the new-role role to the demo user and test-project project pair:

    $ openstack role add --user demo --project test-project new-role
  2. Verify the role assignment:

    $ openstack role assignment list --user USER_NAME \
      --project PROJECT_NAME --names
    +-------------+--------------+-------+--------------+--------+--------+-----------+
    | Role        | User         | Group | Project      | Domain | System | Inherited |
    +-------------+--------------+-------+--------------+--------+--------+-----------+
    | new-role    | demo@Default |       | demo@Default |        |        | False     |
    | member      | demo@Default |       | demo@Default |        |        | False     |
    | anotherrole | demo@Default |       | demo@Default |        |        | False     |
    +-------------+--------------+-------+--------------+--------+--------+-----------+

Note

Before the Newton release, users would run the openstack role list --user USER_NAME --project TENANT_ID command to verify the role assignment.

View role details

View details for a specified role:

$ openstack role show ROLE_NAME
+-------------+----------------------------------+
| Field       | Value                            |
+-------------+----------------------------------+
| description | None                             |
| domain_id   | None                             |
| id          | a34425c884c74c8881496dc2c2e84ffc |
| name        | new-role                         |
+-------------+----------------------------------+

Remove a role

Remove a role from a user-project pair:

  1. Run the openstack role remove command:

    $ openstack role remove --user USER_NAME --project PROJECT_NAME ROLE_NAME
  2. Verify the role removal:

    $ openstack role assignment list --user USER_NAME --project PROJECT_NAME --names

    If the role was removed, the command output omits the removed role.

Creating implied roles

It is possible to build role hierarchies by having roles imply other roles. These are called implied roles, or role inference rules.

To illustrate the capability, let's have the admin role imply the member role. In this example, if a user was assigned the prior role, which in this case is the admin role, they would also get the member role that it implies.

$ openstack implied role create admin --implied-role member
+------------+----------------------------------+
| Field      | Value                            |
+------------+----------------------------------+
| implies    | 71ccc37d41c8491c975ae72676db687f |
| prior_role | 29c09e68e6f741afa952a837e29c700b |
+------------+----------------------------------+

Note

Role implications only go one way, from a "prior" role to an "implied" role. Therefore assigning a user the member will not grant them the admin role.

This makes it easy to break up large roles into smaller pieces, allowing for fine grained permissions, while still having an easy way to assign all the pieces as if they were a single one. For example, you can have a member role imply compute_member, network_member, and volume_member, and then assign either the full-blown member role to users or any one of the subsets.

Listing implied roles

To list implied roles:

$ openstack implied role list
+----------------------------------+-----------------+----------------------------------+-------------------+
| Prior Role ID                    | Prior Role Name | Implied Role ID                  | Implied Role Name |
+----------------------------------+-----------------+----------------------------------+-------------------+
| 29c09e68e6f741afa952a837e29c700b | admin           | 71ccc37d41c8491c975ae72676db687f | member            |
+----------------------------------+-----------------+----------------------------------+-------------------+

Deleting implied roles

To delete a role inference rule:

$ openstack implied role delete admin --implied-role member

Note

Deleting an implied role removes the role inference rule. It does not delete the prior or implied role. Therefore if a user was assigned the prior role, they will no longer have the roles that it implied.