Before running tests, you should have
tox installed and available in your environment (in addition to the other external dependencies in
$ pip install tox
You may need to perform both the above operation and the next inside a python virtualenv, or prefix the above command with
sudo, depending on your preference.
To execute the full suite of tests maintained within keystone, simply run:
This iterates over multiple configuration variations, and uses external projects to do light integration testing to verify the Identity API against other projects.
The first time you run
tox, it will take additional time to build virtualenvs. You can later use the
-r option with
tox to rebuild your virtualenv in a similar manner.
To run tests for one or more specific test environments (for example, the most common configuration of Python 3.6 and PEP-8), list the environments with the
-e option, separated by spaces:
$ tox -e py36,pep8
Keystone dropped the support of python 2.7 in the Ussuri release of Openstack.
tox --listenvs to list all testing environments specified in keystone's
pdb breakpoints with
testr normally doesn't work since the tests just fail with a
BdbQuit exception rather than stopping at the breakpoint.
To capture breakpoints while running tests, use the
debug environment. The following example uses the environment while invoking a specific test run.
$ tox -e debug keystone.tests.unit.test_module.TestClass.test_case
For reference, the
debug environment implements the instructions here: https://wiki.openstack.org/wiki/Testr#Debugging_.28pdb.29_Tests
api-ref environments will automatically generate documentation and the API reference respectively. The results are written to
For example, use the following command to render all documentation and manual pages:
$ tox -e docs
Not all of the tests in the
keystone/tests/unit directory are strictly unit tests. Keystone intentionally includes tests that run the service locally and drives the entire configuration to achieve basic functional testing.
For the functional tests, an in-memory key-value store or in-memory SQLite database is used to keep the tests fast.
Within the tests directory, the general structure of the backend tests is a basic set of tests represented under a test class, and then subclasses of those tests under other classes with different configurations to drive different backends through the APIs. To add tests covering all drivers, update the base test class in
The structure of backend testing is in transition, migrating from having all classes in a single file (
test_backend.py) to one where there is a directory structure to reduce the size of the test files. See:
To add new drivers, subclass the base class at
test_backend.py (look at
test_backend_sql.py for examples) and update the configuration of the test class in
test_backend.py has a sequence of tests under the class
keystone.tests.unit.test_backend.IdentityTests that will work with the default drivers. The
test_backend_sql.py module subclasses those tests, changing the configuration by overriding with configuration files stored in the
tests/unit/config_files directory aimed at enabling the SQL backend for the Identity module.
The application of schema migrations can be tested using SQLAlchemy Migrate's built-in test runner, one migration at a time.
This may leave your database in an inconsistent state; attempt this in non-production environments only!
This is useful for testing the next migration in sequence in a database under version control:
$ python keystone/common/sql/migrate_repo/manage.py test \ \ --url=sqlite:///test.db --repository=keystone/common/sql/migrate_repo/
This command references to a SQLite database (test.db) to be used. Depending on the migration, this command alone does not make assertions as to the integrity of your data during migration.
LDAP has a fake backend that performs rudimentary operations. If you are building more significant LDAP functionality, you should test against a live LDAP server. Devstack has an option to set up a directory server for Keystone to use. Add ldap to the
ENABLED_SERVICES environment variable, and set environment variables
KEYSTONE_CLEAR_LDAP=yes in your
The unit tests can be run against a live server with
keystone/tests/unit/test_ldap_pool_livetest.py. The default password is
test but if you have installed devstack with a different LDAP password, modify the file
keystone/tests/unit/config_files/backend_pool_liveldap.conf to reflect your password.
To run the live tests you need to set the environment variable
ENABLE_LDAP_LIVE_TEST to a non-negative value.
Work in progress (WIP) tests are very useful in a variety of situations including:
keystone.tests.unit.utils.wip decorator can be used to mark a test as WIP. A WIP test will always be run. If the test fails then a TestSkipped exception is raised because we expect the test to fail. We do not pass the test in this case so that it doesn't count toward the number of successfully run tests. If the test passes an AssertionError exception is raised so that the developer knows they made the test pass. This is a reminder to remove the decorator.
keystone.tests.unit.utils.wip decorator requires that the author provides a message. This message is important because it will tell other developers why this test is marked as a work in progress. Reviewers will require that these messages are descriptive and accurate.
keystone.tests.unit.utils.wip decorator is not a replacement for skipping tests.
@wip('waiting on bug #000000') def test(): pass
Another strategy is to not use the wip decorator and instead show how the code currently incorrectly works. Which strategy is chosen is up to the developer.
Keystone provides API and scenario tests via a tempest plugin which is located in a separate repository. This tempest plugin is mainly intended for specific scenarios that require a special deployment, such as the tests for the
Federated Identity feature or live testing against LDAP. For the deployment of these scenarios, keystone also provides a devstack plugin.
For example, to setup a working federated environment, add the following lines in your devstack local.conf` file:
[[local|localrc]] enable_plugin keystone https://opendev.org/openstack/keystone enable_service keystone-saml2-federation
Clone and install keystone-tempest-plugin.
git clone https://opendev.org/openstack/keystone-tempest-plugin sudo pip install ./keystone-tempest-plugin
Finally, to run keystone's API and scenario tests, deploy tempest with devstack (using the configuration above) and then run the following command from the tempest directory:
tox -e all -- keystone_tempest_plugin
Most of keystone's API tests are implemented in tempest and it is usually the correct place to add new tests.
When writing tests for the keystone tempest plugin, we should follow the official tempest guidelines, details about the guidelines can be found at the tempest coding guide. There are also specific guides for the API and scenario tests: Tempest Field Guide to API tests and Tempest Field Guide to Scenario tests.
The keystone tempest plugin also provides a base class. For most cases, the tests should inherit from it:
keystone_tempest_plugin.tests.base.BaseIdentityTest. This class already setups the identity API version and is the container of all API services clients. New API services clients
keystone_tempest_plugin.services (which are used to communicate with the REST API from the services) should also be added to this class. For example, below we have a snippet from the tests at :py
class IdentityProvidersTest(base.BaseIdentityTest): ... def _create_idp(self, idp_id, idp_ref): = self.idps_client.create_identity_provider( idp **idp_ref)['identity_provider'] idp_id, self.addCleanup( self.idps_client.delete_identity_provider, idp_id) return idp @decorators.idempotent_id('09450910-b816-4150-8513-a2fd4628a0c3') def test_identity_provider_create(self): = data_utils.rand_uuid_hex() idp_id = fixtures.idp_ref() idp_ref = self._create_idp(idp_id, idp_ref) idp # The identity provider is disabled by default 'enabled'] = False idp_ref[ # The remote_ids attribute should be set to an empty list by default 'remote_ids'] =  idp_ref[ self._assert_identity_provider_attributes(idp, idp_id, idp_ref)
The test class extends
keystone_tempest_plugin.tests.base.BaseIdentityTest. Also, the
_create_idp method calls keystone's API using the
idps_client, which is an instance from.
Additionally, to illustrate the construction of a new test class, below we have a snippet from the scenario test that checks the complete federated authentication workflow ( :py
keystone_tempest_plugin.tests.scenario.test_federated_authentication.py). In the test setup, all of the needed resources are created using the API service clients. Since it is a scenario test, it is common to need some customized settings that will come from the environment (in this case, from the devstack plugin) - these settings are collected in the
class TestSaml2EcpFederatedAuthentication(base.BaseIdentityTest): ... def _setup_settings(self): self.idp_id = CONF.fed_scenario.idp_id self.idp_url = CONF.fed_scenario.idp_ecp_url self.keystone_v3_endpoint = CONF.identity.uri_v3 self.password = CONF.fed_scenario.idp_password self.protocol_id = CONF.fed_scenario.protocol_id self.username = CONF.fed_scenario.idp_username ... def setUp(self): super(TestSaml2EcpFederatedAuthentication, self).setUp() self._setup_settings() # Reset client's session to avoid getting garbage from another runs self.saml2_client.reset_session() # Setup identity provider, mapping and protocol self._setup_idp() self._setup_mapping() self._setup_protocol()
Finally, the tests perform the complete workflow of the feature, asserting correctness in each step:
def _request_unscoped_token(self): = self.saml2_client.send_service_provider_request( resp self.keystone_v3_endpoint, self.idp_id, self.protocol_id) self.assertEqual(http_client.OK, resp.status_code) = etree.XML(resp.content) saml2_authn_request = self._str_from_xml( relay_state self.ECP_RELAY_STATE) saml2_authn_request, = self._str_from_xml( sp_consumer_url self.ECP_SERVICE_PROVIDER_CONSUMER_URL) saml2_authn_request, # Perform the authn request to the identity provider = self.saml2_client.send_identity_provider_authn_request( resp self.idp_url, self.username, self.password) saml2_authn_request, self.assertEqual(http_client.OK, resp.status_code) = etree.XML(resp.content) saml2_idp_authn_response = self._str_from_xml( idp_consumer_url self.ECP_IDP_CONSUMER_URL) saml2_idp_authn_response, # Assert that both saml2_authn_request and saml2_idp_authn_response # have the same consumer URL. self.assertEqual(sp_consumer_url, idp_consumer_url) ... @testtools.skipUnless(CONF.identity_feature_enabled.federation, "Federated Identity feature not enabled") def test_request_unscoped_token(self): self._request_unscoped_token()
Notice that the
test_request_unscoped_token test only executes if the
federation feature flag is enabled.
For each patch submitted upstream, all of the tests from the keystone tempest plugin are executed in the