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    1 <DRAFT!>
    2 			HOWTO certificates
    4 1. Introduction
    6 How you handle certificates depends a great deal on what your role is.
    7 Your role can be one or several of:
    9   - User of some client application
   10   - User of some server application
   11   - Certificate authority
   13 This file is for users who wish to get a certificate of their own.
   14 Certificate authorities should read https://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ca.html.
   16 In all the cases shown below, the standard configuration file, as
   17 compiled into openssl, will be used.  You may find it in /etc/,
   18 /usr/local/ssl/ or somewhere else.  By default the file is named
   19 openssl.cnf and is described at https://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/config.html.
   20 You can specify a different configuration file using the
   21 '-config {file}' argument with the commands shown below.
   24 2. Relationship with keys
   26 Certificates are related to public key cryptography by containing a
   27 public key.  To be useful, there must be a corresponding private key
   28 somewhere.  With OpenSSL, public keys are easily derived from private
   29 keys, so before you create a certificate or a certificate request, you
   30 need to create a private key.
   32 Private keys are generated with 'openssl genrsa -out privkey.pem' if
   33 you want a RSA private key, or if you want a DSA private key:
   34 'openssl dsaparam -out dsaparam.pem 2048; openssl gendsa -out privkey.pem dsaparam.pem'.
   36 The private keys created by these commands are not passphrase protected;
   37 it might or might not be the desirable thing.  Further information on how to
   38 create private keys can be found at https://www.openssl.org/docs/HOWTO/keys.txt.
   39 The rest of this text assumes you have a private key in the file privkey.pem.
   42 3. Creating a certificate request
   44 To create a certificate, you need to start with a certificate request
   45 (or, as some certificate authorities like to put it, "certificate
   46 signing request", since that's exactly what they do, they sign it and
   47 give you the result back, thus making it authentic according to their
   48 policies).  A certificate request is sent to a certificate authority
   49 to get it signed into a certificate. You can also sign the certificate
   50 yourself if you have your own certificate authority or create a
   51 self-signed certificate (typically for testing purpose).
   53 The certificate request is created like this:
   55   openssl req -new -key privkey.pem -out cert.csr
   57 Now, cert.csr can be sent to the certificate authority, if they can
   58 handle files in PEM format.  If not, use the extra argument '-outform'
   59 followed by the keyword for the format to use (see another HOWTO
   60 <formats.txt?>).  In some cases, -outform does not let you output the
   61 certificate request in the right format and you will have to use one
   62 of the various other commands that are exposed by openssl (or get
   63 creative and use a combination of tools).
   65 The certificate authority performs various checks (according to their
   66 policies) and usually waits for payment from you. Once that is
   67 complete, they send you your new certificate.
   69 Section 5 will tell you more on how to handle the certificate you
   70 received.
   73 4. Creating a self-signed test certificate
   75 You can create a self-signed certificate if you don't want to deal
   76 with a certificate authority, or if you just want to create a test
   77 certificate for yourself.  This is similar to creating a certificate
   78 request, but creates a certificate instead of a certificate request.
   79 This is NOT the recommended way to create a CA certificate, see
   80 https://www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ca.html.
   82   openssl req -new -x509 -key privkey.pem -out cacert.pem -days 1095
   85 5. What to do with the certificate
   87 If you created everything yourself, or if the certificate authority
   88 was kind enough, your certificate is a raw DER thing in PEM format.
   89 Your key most definitely is if you have followed the examples above.
   90 However, some (most?) certificate authorities will encode them with
   91 things like PKCS7 or PKCS12, or something else.  Depending on your
   92 applications, this may be perfectly OK, it all depends on what they
   93 know how to decode.  If not, there are a number of OpenSSL tools to
   94 convert between some (most?) formats.
   96 So, depending on your application, you may have to convert your
   97 certificate and your key to various formats, most often also putting
   98 them together into one file.  The ways to do this is described in
   99 another HOWTO <formats.txt?>, I will just mention the simplest case.
  100 In the case of a raw DER thing in PEM format, and assuming that's all
  101 right for your applications, simply concatenating the certificate and
  102 the key into a new file and using that one should be enough.  With
  103 some applications, you don't even have to do that.
  106 By now, you have your certificate and your private key and can start
  107 using applications that depend on it.
  109 --
  110 Richard Levitte