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    1  OPENSSL INSTALLATION
    2  --------------------
    3 
    4  This document describes installation on all supported operating
    5  systems (the Unix/Linux family (which includes Mac OS/X), OpenVMS,
    6  and Windows).
    7 
    8  To install OpenSSL, you will need:
    9 
   10   * A make implementation
   11   * Perl 5 with core modules (please read NOTES.PERL)
   12   * The perl module Text::Template (please read NOTES.PERL)
   13   * an ANSI C compiler
   14   * a development environment in the form of development libraries and C
   15     header files
   16   * a supported operating system
   17 
   18  For additional platform specific requirements, solutions to specific
   19  issues and other details, please read one of these:
   20 
   21   * NOTES.UNIX (any supported Unix like system)
   22   * NOTES.VMS (OpenVMS)
   23   * NOTES.WIN (any supported Windows)
   24   * NOTES.DJGPP (DOS platform with DJGPP)
   25   * NOTES.ANDROID (obviously Android [NDK])
   26 
   27  Notational conventions in this document
   28  ---------------------------------------
   29 
   30  Throughout this document, we use the following conventions in command
   31  examples:
   32 
   33  $ command                      Any line starting with a dollar sign
   34                                 ($) is a command line.
   35 
   36  { word1 | word2 | word3 }      This denotes a mandatory choice, to be
   37                                 replaced with one of the given words.
   38                                 A simple example would be this:
   39 
   40                                 $ echo { FOO | BAR | COOKIE }
   41 
   42                                 which is to be understood as one of
   43                                 these:
   44 
   45                                 $ echo FOO
   46                                 - or -
   47                                 $ echo BAR
   48                                 - or -
   49                                 $ echo COOKIE
   50 
   51  [ word1 | word2 | word3 ]      Similar to { word1 | word2 | word3 }
   52                                 except it's optional to give any of
   53                                 those.  In addition to the examples
   54                                 above, this would also be valid:
   55 
   56                                 $ echo
   57 
   58  {{ target }}                   This denotes a mandatory word or
   59                                 sequence of words of some sort.  A
   60                                 simple example would be this:
   61 
   62                                 $ type {{ filename }}
   63 
   64                                 which is to be understood to use the
   65                                 command 'type' on some file name
   66                                 determined by the user.
   67 
   68  [[ options ]]                  Similar to {{ target }}, but is
   69                                 optional.
   70 
   71  Note that the notation assumes spaces around {, }, [, ], {{, }} and
   72  [[, ]].  This is to differentiate from OpenVMS directory
   73  specifications, which also use [ and ], but without spaces.
   74 
   75  Quick Start
   76  -----------
   77 
   78  If you want to just get on with it, do:
   79 
   80   on Unix (again, this includes Mac OS/X):
   81 
   82     $ ./config
   83     $ make
   84     $ make test
   85     $ make install
   86 
   87   on OpenVMS:
   88 
   89     $ @config
   90     $ mms
   91     $ mms test
   92     $ mms install
   93 
   94   on Windows (only pick one of the targets for configuration):
   95 
   96     $ perl Configure { VC-WIN32 | VC-WIN64A | VC-WIN64I | VC-CE }
   97     $ nmake
   98     $ nmake test
   99     $ nmake install
  100 
  101  If any of these steps fails, see section Installation in Detail below.
  102 
  103  This will build and install OpenSSL in the default location, which is:
  104 
  105   Unix:    normal installation directories under /usr/local
  106   OpenVMS: SYS$COMMON:[OPENSSL-'version'...], where 'version' is the
  107            OpenSSL version number with underscores instead of periods.
  108   Windows: C:\Program Files\OpenSSL or C:\Program Files (x86)\OpenSSL
  109 
  110  If you want to install it anywhere else, run config like this:
  111 
  112   On Unix:
  113 
  114     $ ./config --prefix=/opt/openssl --openssldir=/usr/local/ssl
  115 
  116   On OpenVMS:
  117 
  118     $ @config --prefix=PROGRAM:[INSTALLS] --openssldir=SYS$MANAGER:[OPENSSL]
  119 
  120  (Note: if you do add options to the configuration command, please make sure
  121  you've read more than just this Quick Start, such as relevant NOTES.* files,
  122  the options outline below, as configuration options may change the outcome
  123  in otherwise unexpected ways)
  124 
  125 
  126  Configuration Options
  127  ---------------------
  128 
  129  There are several options to ./config (or ./Configure) to customize
  130  the build (note that for Windows, the defaults for --prefix and
  131  --openssldir depend in what configuration is used and what Windows
  132  implementation OpenSSL is built on.  More notes on this in NOTES.WIN):
  133 
  134   --api=x.y.z
  135                    Don't build with support for deprecated APIs below the
  136                    specified version number. For example "--api=1.1.0" will
  137                    remove support for all APIS that were deprecated in OpenSSL
  138                    version 1.1.0 or below.
  139 
  140   --cross-compile-prefix=PREFIX
  141                    The PREFIX to include in front of commands for your
  142                    toolchain. It's likely to have to end with dash, e.g.
  143                    a-b-c- would invoke GNU compiler as a-b-c-gcc, etc.
  144                    Unfortunately cross-compiling is too case-specific to
  145                    put together one-size-fits-all instructions. You might
  146                    have to pass more flags or set up environment variables
  147                    to actually make it work. Android and iOS cases are
  148                    discussed in corresponding Configurations/15-*.conf
  149                    files. But there are cases when this option alone is
  150                    sufficient. For example to build the mingw64 target on
  151                    Linux "--cross-compile-prefix=x86_64-w64-mingw32-"
  152                    works. Naturally provided that mingw packages are
  153                    installed. Today Debian and Ubuntu users have option to
  154                    install a number of prepackaged cross-compilers along
  155                    with corresponding run-time and development packages for
  156                    "alien" hardware. To give another example
  157                    "--cross-compile-prefix=mipsel-linux-gnu-" suffices
  158                    in such case. Needless to mention that you have to
  159                    invoke ./Configure, not ./config, and pass your target
  160                    name explicitly. Also, note that --openssldir refers
  161                    to target's file system, not one you are building on.
  162 
  163   --debug
  164                    Build OpenSSL with debugging symbols and zero optimization
  165                    level.
  166 
  167   --libdir=DIR
  168                    The name of the directory under the top of the installation
  169                    directory tree (see the --prefix option) where libraries will
  170                    be installed. By default this is "lib". Note that on Windows
  171                    only ".lib" files will be stored in this location. dll files
  172                    will always be installed to the "bin" directory.
  173 
  174   --openssldir=DIR
  175                    Directory for OpenSSL configuration files, and also the
  176                    default certificate and key store.  Defaults are:
  177 
  178                    Unix:           /usr/local/ssl
  179                    Windows:        C:\Program Files\Common Files\SSL
  180                                 or C:\Program Files (x86)\Common Files\SSL
  181                    OpenVMS:        SYS$COMMON:[OPENSSL-COMMON]
  182 
  183   --prefix=DIR
  184                    The top of the installation directory tree.  Defaults are:
  185 
  186                    Unix:           /usr/local
  187                    Windows:        C:\Program Files\OpenSSL
  188                                 or C:\Program Files (x86)\OpenSSL
  189                    OpenVMS:        SYS$COMMON:[OPENSSL-'version']
  190 
  191   --release
  192                    Build OpenSSL without debugging symbols. This is the default.
  193 
  194   --strict-warnings
  195                    This is a developer flag that switches on various compiler
  196                    options recommended for OpenSSL development. It only works
  197                    when using gcc or clang as the compiler. If you are
  198                    developing a patch for OpenSSL then it is recommended that
  199                    you use this option where possible.
  200 
  201   --with-zlib-include=DIR
  202                    The directory for the location of the zlib include file. This
  203                    option is only necessary if enable-zlib (see below) is used
  204                    and the include file is not already on the system include
  205                    path.
  206 
  207   --with-zlib-lib=LIB
  208                    On Unix: this is the directory containing the zlib library.
  209                    If not provided the system library path will be used.
  210                    On Windows: this is the filename of the zlib library (with or
  211                    without a path). This flag must be provided if the
  212                    zlib-dynamic option is not also used. If zlib-dynamic is used
  213                    then this flag is optional and a default value ("ZLIB1") is
  214                    used if not provided.
  215                    On VMS: this is the filename of the zlib library (with or
  216                    without a path). This flag is optional and if not provided
  217                    then "GNV$LIBZSHR", "GNV$LIBZSHR32" or "GNV$LIBZSHR64" is
  218                    used by default depending on the pointer size chosen.
  219 
  220 
  221   --with-rand-seed=seed1[,seed2,...]
  222                    A comma separated list of seeding methods which will be tried
  223                    by OpenSSL in order to obtain random input (a.k.a "entropy")
  224                    for seeding its cryptographically secure random number
  225                    generator (CSPRNG). The current seeding methods are:
  226 
  227                    os:         Use a trusted operating system entropy source.
  228                                This is the default method if such an entropy
  229                                source exists.
  230                    getrandom:  Use the L<getrandom(2)> or equivalent system
  231                                call.
  232                    devrandom:  Use the the first device from the DEVRANDOM list
  233                                which can be opened to read random bytes. The
  234                                DEVRANDOM preprocessor constant expands to
  235                                "/dev/urandom","/dev/random","/dev/srandom" on
  236                                most unix-ish operating systems.
  237                    egd:        Check for an entropy generating daemon.
  238                    rdcpu:      Use the RDSEED or RDRAND command if provided by
  239                                the CPU.
  240                    librandom:  Use librandom (not implemented yet).
  241                    none:       Disable automatic seeding. This is the default
  242                                on some operating systems where no suitable
  243                                entropy source exists, or no support for it is
  244                                implemented yet.
  245 
  246                    For more information, see the section 'Note on random number
  247                    generation' at the end of this document.
  248 
  249   no-afalgeng
  250                    Don't build the AFALG engine. This option will be forced if
  251                    on a platform that does not support AFALG.
  252 
  253   enable-asan
  254                    Build with the Address sanitiser. This is a developer option
  255                    only. It may not work on all platforms and should never be
  256                    used in production environments. It will only work when used
  257                    with gcc or clang and should be used in conjunction with the
  258                    no-shared option.
  259 
  260   no-asm
  261                    Do not use assembler code. This should be viewed as
  262                    debugging/trouble-shooting option rather than production.
  263                    On some platforms a small amount of assembler code may
  264                    still be used even with this option.
  265 
  266   no-async
  267                    Do not build support for async operations.
  268 
  269   no-autoalginit
  270                    Don't automatically load all supported ciphers and digests.
  271                    Typically OpenSSL will make available all of its supported
  272                    ciphers and digests. For a statically linked application this
  273                    may be undesirable if small executable size is an objective.
  274                    This only affects libcrypto. Ciphers and digests will have to
  275                    be loaded manually using EVP_add_cipher() and
  276                    EVP_add_digest() if this option is used. This option will
  277                    force a non-shared build.
  278 
  279   no-autoerrinit
  280                    Don't automatically load all libcrypto/libssl error strings.
  281                    Typically OpenSSL will automatically load human readable
  282                    error strings. For a statically linked application this may
  283                    be undesirable if small executable size is an objective.
  284 
  285   no-autoload-config
  286                    Don't automatically load the default openssl.cnf file.
  287                    Typically OpenSSL will automatically load a system config
  288                    file which configures default ssl options.
  289 
  290   no-capieng
  291                    Don't build the CAPI engine. This option will be forced if
  292                    on a platform that does not support CAPI.
  293 
  294   no-cms
  295                    Don't build support for CMS features
  296 
  297   no-comp
  298                    Don't build support for SSL/TLS compression. If this option
  299                    is left enabled (the default), then compression will only
  300                    work if the zlib or zlib-dynamic options are also chosen.
  301 
  302   enable-crypto-mdebug
  303                    Build support for debugging memory allocated via
  304                    OPENSSL_malloc() or OPENSSL_zalloc().
  305 
  306   enable-crypto-mdebug-backtrace
  307                    As for crypto-mdebug, but additionally provide backtrace
  308                    information for allocated memory.
  309                    TO BE USED WITH CARE: this uses GNU C functionality, and
  310                    is therefore not usable for non-GNU config targets.  If
  311                    your build complains about the use of '-rdynamic' or the
  312                    lack of header file execinfo.h, this option is not for you.
  313                    ALSO NOTE that even though execinfo.h is available on your
  314                    system (through Gnulib), the functions might just be stubs
  315                    that do nothing.
  316 
  317   no-ct
  318                    Don't build support for Certificate Transparency.
  319 
  320   no-deprecated
  321                    Don't build with support for any deprecated APIs. This is the
  322                    same as using "--api" and supplying the latest version
  323                    number.
  324 
  325   no-dgram
  326                    Don't build support for datagram based BIOs. Selecting this
  327                    option will also force the disabling of DTLS.
  328 
  329   enable-devcryptoeng
  330                    Build the /dev/crypto engine.  It is automatically selected
  331                    on BSD implementations, in which case it can be disabled with
  332                    no-devcryptoeng.
  333 
  334   no-dso
  335                    Don't build support for loading Dynamic Shared Objects.
  336 
  337   no-dynamic-engine
  338                    Don't build the dynamically loaded engines. This only has an
  339                    effect in a "shared" build
  340 
  341   no-ec
  342                    Don't build support for Elliptic Curves.
  343 
  344   no-ec2m
  345                    Don't build support for binary Elliptic Curves
  346 
  347   enable-ec_nistp_64_gcc_128
  348                    Enable support for optimised implementations of some commonly
  349                    used NIST elliptic curves.
  350                    This is only supported on platforms:
  351                    - with little-endian storage of non-byte types
  352                    - that tolerate misaligned memory references
  353                    - where the compiler:
  354                      - supports the non-standard type __uint128_t
  355                      - defines the built-in macro __SIZEOF_INT128__
  356 
  357   enable-egd
  358                    Build support for gathering entropy from EGD (Entropy
  359                    Gathering Daemon).
  360 
  361   no-engine
  362                    Don't build support for loading engines.
  363 
  364   no-err
  365                    Don't compile in any error strings.
  366 
  367   enable-external-tests
  368                    Enable building of integration with external test suites.
  369                    This is a developer option and may not work on all platforms.
  370                    The only supported external test suite at the current time is
  371                    the BoringSSL test suite. See the file test/README.external
  372                    for further details.
  373 
  374   no-filenames
  375                    Don't compile in filename and line number information (e.g.
  376                    for errors and memory allocation).
  377 
  378   enable-fuzz-libfuzzer, enable-fuzz-afl
  379                    Build with support for fuzzing using either libfuzzer or AFL.
  380                    These are developer options only. They may not work on all
  381                    platforms and should never be used in production environments.
  382                    See the file fuzz/README.md for further details.
  383 
  384   no-gost
  385                    Don't build support for GOST based ciphersuites. Note that
  386                    if this feature is enabled then GOST ciphersuites are only
  387                    available if the GOST algorithms are also available through
  388                    loading an externally supplied engine.
  389 
  390   no-hw-padlock
  391                    Don't build the padlock engine.
  392 
  393   no-makedepend
  394                    Don't generate dependencies.
  395 
  396   no-multiblock
  397                    Don't build support for writing multiple records in one
  398                    go in libssl (Note: this is a different capability to the
  399                    pipelining functionality).
  400 
  401   no-nextprotoneg
  402                    Don't build support for the NPN TLS extension.
  403 
  404   no-ocsp
  405                    Don't build support for OCSP.
  406 
  407   no-pic
  408                    Don't build with support for Position Independent Code.
  409 
  410   no-pinshared     By default OpenSSL will attempt to stay in memory until the
  411                    process exits. This is so that libcrypto and libssl can be
  412                    properly cleaned up automatically via an "atexit()" handler.
  413                    The handler is registered by libcrypto and cleans up both
  414                    libraries. On some platforms the atexit() handler will run on
  415                    unload of libcrypto (if it has been dynamically loaded)
  416                    rather than at process exit. This option can be used to stop
  417                    OpenSSL from attempting to stay in memory until the process
  418                    exits. This could lead to crashes if either libcrypto or
  419                    libssl have already been unloaded at the point
  420                    that the atexit handler is invoked, e.g. on a platform which
  421                    calls atexit() on unload of the library, and libssl is
  422                    unloaded before libcrypto then a crash is likely to happen.
  423                    Applications can suppress running of the atexit() handler at
  424                    run time by using the OPENSSL_INIT_NO_ATEXIT option to
  425                    OPENSSL_init_crypto(). See the man page for it for further
  426                    details.
  427 
  428   no-posix-io
  429                    Don't use POSIX IO capabilities.
  430 
  431   no-psk
  432                    Don't build support for Pre-Shared Key based ciphersuites.
  433 
  434   no-rdrand
  435                    Don't use hardware RDRAND capabilities.
  436 
  437   no-rfc3779
  438                    Don't build support for RFC3779 ("X.509 Extensions for IP
  439                    Addresses and AS Identifiers")
  440 
  441   sctp
  442                    Build support for SCTP
  443 
  444   no-shared
  445                    Do not create shared libraries, only static ones.  See "Note
  446                    on shared libraries" below.
  447 
  448   no-sock
  449                    Don't build support for socket BIOs
  450 
  451   no-srp
  452                    Don't build support for SRP or SRP based ciphersuites.
  453 
  454   no-srtp
  455                    Don't build SRTP support
  456 
  457   no-sse2
  458                    Exclude SSE2 code paths from 32-bit x86 assembly modules.
  459                    Normally SSE2 extension is detected at run-time, but the
  460                    decision whether or not the machine code will be executed
  461                    is taken solely on CPU capability vector. This means that
  462                    if you happen to run OS kernel which does not support SSE2
  463                    extension on Intel P4 processor, then your application
  464                    might be exposed to "illegal instruction" exception.
  465                    There might be a way to enable support in kernel, e.g.
  466                    FreeBSD kernel can  be compiled with CPU_ENABLE_SSE, and
  467                    there is a way to disengage SSE2 code paths upon application
  468                    start-up, but if you aim for wider "audience" running
  469                    such kernel, consider no-sse2. Both the 386 and
  470                    no-asm options imply no-sse2.
  471 
  472   enable-ssl-trace
  473                    Build with the SSL Trace capabilities (adds the "-trace"
  474                    option to s_client and s_server).
  475 
  476   no-static-engine
  477                    Don't build the statically linked engines. This only
  478                    has an impact when not built "shared".
  479 
  480   no-stdio
  481                    Don't use anything from the C header file "stdio.h" that
  482                    makes use of the "FILE" type. Only libcrypto and libssl can
  483                    be built in this way. Using this option will suppress
  484                    building the command line applications. Additionally since
  485                    the OpenSSL tests also use the command line applications the
  486                    tests will also be skipped.
  487 
  488   no-tests
  489                    Don't build test programs or run any test.
  490 
  491   no-threads
  492                    Don't try to build with support for multi-threaded
  493                    applications.
  494 
  495   threads
  496                    Build with support for multi-threaded applications. Most
  497                    platforms will enable this by default. However if on a
  498                    platform where this is not the case then this will usually
  499                    require additional system-dependent options! See "Note on
  500                    multi-threading" below.
  501 
  502   no-ts
  503                    Don't build Time Stamping Authority support.
  504 
  505   enable-ubsan
  506                    Build with the Undefined Behaviour sanitiser. This is a
  507                    developer option only. It may not work on all platforms and
  508                    should never be used in production environments. It will only
  509                    work when used with gcc or clang and should be used in
  510                    conjunction with the "-DPEDANTIC" option (or the
  511                    --strict-warnings option).
  512 
  513   no-ui
  514                    Don't build with the "UI" capability (i.e. the set of
  515                    features enabling text based prompts).
  516 
  517   enable-unit-test
  518                    Enable additional unit test APIs. This should not typically
  519                    be used in production deployments.
  520 
  521   enable-weak-ssl-ciphers
  522                    Build support for SSL/TLS ciphers that are considered "weak"
  523                    (e.g. RC4 based ciphersuites).
  524 
  525   zlib
  526                    Build with support for zlib compression/decompression.
  527 
  528   zlib-dynamic
  529                    Like "zlib", but has OpenSSL load the zlib library
  530                    dynamically when needed.  This is only supported on systems
  531                    where loading of shared libraries is supported.
  532 
  533   386
  534                    In 32-bit x86 builds, when generating assembly modules,
  535                    use the 80386 instruction set only (the default x86 code
  536                    is more efficient, but requires at least a 486). Note:
  537                    This doesn't affect code generated by compiler, you're
  538                    likely to complement configuration command line with
  539                    suitable compiler-specific option.
  540 
  541   no-<prot>
  542                    Don't build support for negotiating the specified SSL/TLS
  543                    protocol (one of ssl, ssl3, tls, tls1, tls1_1, tls1_2,
  544                    tls1_3, dtls, dtls1 or dtls1_2). If "no-tls" is selected then
  545                    all of tls1, tls1_1, tls1_2 and tls1_3 are disabled.
  546                    Similarly "no-dtls" will disable dtls1 and dtls1_2. The
  547                    "no-ssl" option is synonymous with "no-ssl3". Note this only
  548                    affects version negotiation. OpenSSL will still provide the
  549                    methods for applications to explicitly select the individual
  550                    protocol versions.
  551 
  552   no-<prot>-method
  553                    As for no-<prot> but in addition do not build the methods for
  554                    applications to explicitly select individual protocol
  555                    versions. Note that there is no "no-tls1_3-method" option
  556                    because there is no application method for TLSv1.3. Using
  557                    individual protocol methods directly is deprecated.
  558                    Applications should use TLS_method() instead.
  559 
  560   enable-<alg>
  561                    Build with support for the specified algorithm, where <alg>
  562                    is one of: md2 or rc5.
  563 
  564   no-<alg>
  565                    Build without support for the specified algorithm, where
  566                    <alg> is one of: aria, bf, blake2, camellia, cast, chacha,
  567                    cmac, des, dh, dsa, ecdh, ecdsa, idea, md4, mdc2, ocb,
  568                    poly1305, rc2, rc4, rmd160, scrypt, seed, siphash, sm2, sm3,
  569                    sm4 or whirlpool.  The "ripemd" algorithm is deprecated and
  570                    if used is synonymous with rmd160.
  571 
  572   -Dxxx, -Ixxx, -Wp, -lxxx, -Lxxx, -Wl, -rpath, -R, -framework, -static
  573                    These system specific options will be recognised and
  574                    passed through to the compiler to allow you to define
  575                    preprocessor symbols, specify additional libraries, library
  576                    directories or other compiler options. It might be worth
  577                    noting that some compilers generate code specifically for
  578                    processor the compiler currently executes on. This is not
  579                    necessarily what you might have in mind, since it might be
  580                    unsuitable for execution on other, typically older,
  581                    processor. Consult your compiler documentation.
  582 
  583                    Take note of the VAR=value documentation below and how
  584                    these flags interact with those variables.
  585 
  586   -xxx, +xxx
  587                    Additional options that are not otherwise recognised are
  588                    passed through as they are to the compiler as well.  Again,
  589                    consult your compiler documentation.
  590 
  591                    Take note of the VAR=value documentation below and how
  592                    these flags interact with those variables.
  593 
  594   VAR=value
  595                    Assignment of environment variable for Configure.  These
  596                    work just like normal environment variable assignments,
  597                    but are supported on all platforms and are confined to
  598                    the configuration scripts only.  These assignments override
  599                    the corresponding value in the inherited environment, if
  600                    there is one.
  601 
  602                    The following variables are used as "make variables" and
  603                    can be used as an alternative to giving preprocessor,
  604                    compiler and linker options directly as configuration.
  605                    The following variables are supported:
  606 
  607                    AR              The static library archiver.
  608                    ARFLAGS         Flags for the static library archiver.
  609                    AS              The assembler compiler.
  610                    ASFLAGS         Flags for the assembler compiler.
  611                    CC              The C compiler.
  612                    CFLAGS          Flags for the C compiler.
  613                    CXX             The C++ compiler.
  614                    CXXFLAGS        Flags for the C++ compiler.
  615                    CPP             The C/C++ preprocessor.
  616                    CPPFLAGS        Flags for the C/C++ preprocessor.
  617                    CPPDEFINES      List of CPP macro definitions, separated
  618                                    by a platform specific character (':' or
  619                                    space for Unix, ';' for Windows, ',' for
  620                                    VMS).  This can be used instead of using
  621                                    -D (or what corresponds to that on your
  622                                    compiler) in CPPFLAGS.
  623                    CPPINCLUDES     List of CPP inclusion directories, separated
  624                                    the same way as for CPPDEFINES.  This can
  625                                    be used instead of -I (or what corresponds
  626                                    to that on your compiler) in CPPFLAGS.
  627                    HASHBANGPERL    Perl invocation to be inserted after '#!'
  628                                    in public perl scripts (only relevant on
  629                                    Unix).
  630                    LD              The program linker (not used on Unix, $(CC)
  631                                    is used there).
  632                    LDFLAGS         Flags for the shared library, DSO and
  633                                    program linker.
  634                    LDLIBS          Extra libraries to use when linking.
  635                                    Takes the form of a space separated list
  636                                    of library specifications on Unix and
  637                                    Windows, and as a comma separated list of
  638                                    libraries on VMS.
  639                    RANLIB          The library archive indexer.
  640                    RC              The Windows resource compiler.
  641                    RCFLAGS         Flags for the Windows resource compiler.
  642                    RM              The command to remove files and directories.
  643 
  644                    These cannot be mixed with compiling / linking flags given
  645                    on the command line.  In other words, something like this
  646                    isn't permitted.
  647 
  648                        ./config -DFOO CPPFLAGS=-DBAR -DCOOKIE
  649 
  650                    Backward compatibility note:
  651 
  652                    To be compatible with older configuration scripts, the
  653                    environment variables are ignored if compiling / linking
  654                    flags are given on the command line, except for these:
  655 
  656                    AR, CC, CXX, CROSS_COMPILE, HASHBANGPERL, PERL, RANLIB, RC
  657                    and WINDRES
  658 
  659                    For example, the following command will not see -DBAR:
  660 
  661                         CPPFLAGS=-DBAR ./config -DCOOKIE
  662 
  663                    However, the following will see both set variables:
  664 
  665                         CC=gcc CROSS_COMPILE=x86_64-w64-mingw32- \
  666                         ./config -DCOOKIE
  667 
  668   reconf
  669   reconfigure
  670                    Reconfigure from earlier data.  This fetches the previous
  671                    command line options and environment from data saved in
  672                    "configdata.pm", and runs the configuration process again,
  673                    using these options and environment.
  674                    Note: NO other option is permitted together with "reconf".
  675                    This means that you also MUST use "./Configure" (or
  676                    what corresponds to that on non-Unix platforms) directly
  677                    to invoke this option.
  678                    Note: The original configuration saves away values for ALL
  679                    environment variables that were used, and if they weren't
  680                    defined, they are still saved away with information that
  681                    they weren't originally defined.  This information takes
  682                    precedence over environment variables that are defined
  683                    when reconfiguring.
  684 
  685  Displaying configuration data
  686  -----------------------------
  687 
  688  The configuration script itself will say very little, and finishes by
  689  creating "configdata.pm".  This perl module can be loaded by other scripts
  690  to find all the configuration data, and it can also be used as a script to
  691  display all sorts of configuration data in a human readable form.
  692 
  693  For more information, please do:
  694 
  695        $ ./configdata.pm --help                         # Unix
  696 
  697        or
  698 
  699        $ perl configdata.pm --help                      # Windows and VMS
  700 
  701  Installation in Detail
  702  ----------------------
  703 
  704  1a. Configure OpenSSL for your operation system automatically:
  705 
  706      NOTE: This is not available on Windows.
  707 
  708        $ ./config [[ options ]]                         # Unix
  709 
  710        or
  711 
  712        $ @config [[ options ]]                          ! OpenVMS
  713 
  714      For the remainder of this text, the Unix form will be used in all
  715      examples, please use the appropriate form for your platform.
  716 
  717      This guesses at your operating system (and compiler, if necessary) and
  718      configures OpenSSL based on this guess. Run ./config -t to see
  719      if it guessed correctly. If you want to use a different compiler, you
  720      are cross-compiling for another platform, or the ./config guess was
  721      wrong for other reasons, go to step 1b. Otherwise go to step 2.
  722 
  723      On some systems, you can include debugging information as follows:
  724 
  725        $ ./config -d [[ options ]]
  726 
  727  1b. Configure OpenSSL for your operating system manually
  728 
  729      OpenSSL knows about a range of different operating system, hardware and
  730      compiler combinations. To see the ones it knows about, run
  731 
  732        $ ./Configure                                    # Unix
  733 
  734        or
  735 
  736        $ perl Configure                                 # All other platforms
  737 
  738      For the remainder of this text, the Unix form will be used in all
  739      examples, please use the appropriate form for your platform.
  740 
  741      Pick a suitable name from the list that matches your system. For most
  742      operating systems there is a choice between using "cc" or "gcc".  When
  743      you have identified your system (and if necessary compiler) use this name
  744      as the argument to Configure. For example, a "linux-elf" user would
  745      run:
  746 
  747        $ ./Configure linux-elf [[ options ]]
  748 
  749      If your system isn't listed, you will have to create a configuration
  750      file named Configurations/{{ something }}.conf and add the correct
  751      configuration for your system. See the available configs as examples
  752      and read Configurations/README and Configurations/README.design for
  753      more information.
  754 
  755      The generic configurations "cc" or "gcc" should usually work on 32 bit
  756      Unix-like systems.
  757 
  758      Configure creates a build file ("Makefile" on Unix, "makefile" on Windows
  759      and "descrip.mms" on OpenVMS) from a suitable template in Configurations,
  760      and defines various macros in include/openssl/opensslconf.h (generated from
  761      include/openssl/opensslconf.h.in).
  762 
  763  1c. Configure OpenSSL for building outside of the source tree.
  764 
  765      OpenSSL can be configured to build in a build directory separate from
  766      the directory with the source code.  It's done by placing yourself in
  767      some other directory and invoking the configuration commands from
  768      there.
  769 
  770      Unix example:
  771 
  772        $ mkdir /var/tmp/openssl-build
  773        $ cd /var/tmp/openssl-build
  774        $ /PATH/TO/OPENSSL/SOURCE/config [[ options ]]
  775 
  776        or
  777 
  778        $ /PATH/TO/OPENSSL/SOURCE/Configure {{ target }} [[ options ]]
  779 
  780      OpenVMS example:
  781 
  782        $ set default sys$login:
  783        $ create/dir [.tmp.openssl-build]
  784        $ set default [.tmp.openssl-build]
  785        $ @[PATH.TO.OPENSSL.SOURCE]config [[ options ]]
  786 
  787        or
  788 
  789        $ @[PATH.TO.OPENSSL.SOURCE]Configure {{ target }} [[ options ]]
  790 
  791      Windows example:
  792 
  793        $ C:
  794        $ mkdir \temp-openssl
  795        $ cd \temp-openssl
  796        $ perl d:\PATH\TO\OPENSSL\SOURCE\Configure {{ target }} [[ options ]]
  797 
  798      Paths can be relative just as well as absolute.  Configure will
  799      do its best to translate them to relative paths whenever possible.
  800 
  801   2. Build OpenSSL by running:
  802 
  803        $ make                                           # Unix
  804        $ mms                                            ! (or mmk) OpenVMS
  805        $ nmake                                          # Windows
  806 
  807      This will build the OpenSSL libraries (libcrypto.a and libssl.a on
  808      Unix, corresponding on other platforms) and the OpenSSL binary
  809      ("openssl"). The libraries will be built in the top-level directory,
  810      and the binary will be in the "apps" subdirectory.
  811 
  812      Troubleshooting:
  813 
  814      If the build fails, look at the output.  There may be reasons
  815      for the failure that aren't problems in OpenSSL itself (like
  816      missing standard headers).
  817 
  818      If the build succeeded previously, but fails after a source or
  819      configuration change, it might be helpful to clean the build tree
  820      before attempting another build. Use this command:
  821 
  822        $ make clean                                     # Unix
  823        $ mms clean                                      ! (or mmk) OpenVMS
  824        $ nmake clean                                    # Windows
  825 
  826      Assembler error messages can sometimes be sidestepped by using the
  827      "no-asm" configuration option.
  828 
  829      Compiling parts of OpenSSL with gcc and others with the system
  830      compiler will result in unresolved symbols on some systems.
  831 
  832      If you are still having problems you can get help by sending an email
  833      to the openssl-users email list (see
  834      https://www.openssl.org/community/mailinglists.html for details). If
  835      it is a bug with OpenSSL itself, please open an issue on GitHub, at
  836      https://github.com/openssl/openssl/issues. Please review the existing
  837      ones first; maybe the bug was already reported or has already been
  838      fixed.
  839 
  840   3. After a successful build, the libraries should be tested. Run:
  841 
  842        $ make test                                      # Unix
  843        $ mms test                                       ! OpenVMS
  844        $ nmake test                                     # Windows
  845 
  846      NOTE: you MUST run the tests from an unprivileged account (or
  847      disable your privileges temporarily if your platform allows it).
  848 
  849      If some tests fail, look at the output.  There may be reasons for
  850      the failure that isn't a problem in OpenSSL itself (like a
  851      malfunction with Perl).  You may want increased verbosity, that
  852      can be accomplished like this:
  853 
  854        $ make VERBOSE=1 test                            # Unix
  855 
  856        $ mms /macro=(VERBOSE=1) test                    ! OpenVMS
  857 
  858        $ nmake VERBOSE=1 test                           # Windows
  859 
  860      If you want to run just one or a few specific tests, you can use
  861      the make variable TESTS to specify them, like this:
  862 
  863        $ make TESTS='test_rsa test_dsa' test            # Unix
  864        $ mms/macro="TESTS=test_rsa test_dsa" test       ! OpenVMS
  865        $ nmake TESTS='test_rsa test_dsa' test           # Windows
  866 
  867      And of course, you can combine (Unix example shown):
  868 
  869        $ make VERBOSE=1 TESTS='test_rsa test_dsa' test
  870 
  871      You can find the list of available tests like this:
  872 
  873        $ make list-tests                                # Unix
  874        $ mms list-tests                                 ! OpenVMS
  875        $ nmake list-tests                               # Windows
  876 
  877      Have a look at the manual for the perl module Test::Harness to
  878      see what other HARNESS_* variables there are.
  879 
  880      If you find a problem with OpenSSL itself, try removing any
  881      compiler optimization flags from the CFLAGS line in Makefile and
  882      run "make clean; make" or corresponding.
  883 
  884      To report a bug please open an issue on GitHub, at
  885      https://github.com/openssl/openssl/issues.
  886 
  887      For more details on how the make variables TESTS can be used,
  888      see section TESTS in Detail below.
  889 
  890   4. If everything tests ok, install OpenSSL with
  891 
  892        $ make install                                   # Unix
  893        $ mms install                                    ! OpenVMS
  894        $ nmake install                                  # Windows
  895 
  896      This will install all the software components in this directory
  897      tree under PREFIX (the directory given with --prefix or its
  898      default):
  899 
  900        Unix:
  901 
  902          bin/           Contains the openssl binary and a few other
  903                         utility scripts.
  904          include/openssl
  905                         Contains the header files needed if you want
  906                         to build your own programs that use libcrypto
  907                         or libssl.
  908          lib            Contains the OpenSSL library files.
  909          lib/engines    Contains the OpenSSL dynamically loadable engines.
  910 
  911          share/man/man1 Contains the OpenSSL command line man-pages.
  912          share/man/man3 Contains the OpenSSL library calls man-pages.
  913          share/man/man5 Contains the OpenSSL configuration format man-pages.
  914          share/man/man7 Contains the OpenSSL other misc man-pages.
  915 
  916          share/doc/openssl/html/man1
  917          share/doc/openssl/html/man3
  918          share/doc/openssl/html/man5
  919          share/doc/openssl/html/man7
  920                         Contains the HTML rendition of the man-pages.
  921 
  922        OpenVMS ('arch' is replaced with the architecture name, "Alpha"
  923        or "ia64", 'sover' is replaced with the shared library version
  924        (0101 for 1.1), and 'pz' is replaced with the pointer size
  925        OpenSSL was built with):
  926 
  927          [.EXE.'arch']  Contains the openssl binary.
  928          [.EXE]         Contains a few utility scripts.
  929          [.include.openssl]
  930                         Contains the header files needed if you want
  931                         to build your own programs that use libcrypto
  932                         or libssl.
  933          [.LIB.'arch']  Contains the OpenSSL library files.
  934          [.ENGINES'sover''pz'.'arch']
  935                         Contains the OpenSSL dynamically loadable engines.
  936          [.SYS$STARTUP] Contains startup, login and shutdown scripts.
  937                         These define appropriate logical names and
  938                         command symbols.
  939          [.SYSTEST]     Contains the installation verification procedure.
  940          [.HTML]        Contains the HTML rendition of the manual pages.
  941 
  942 
  943      Additionally, install will add the following directories under
  944      OPENSSLDIR (the directory given with --openssldir or its default)
  945      for you convenience:
  946 
  947          certs          Initially empty, this is the default location
  948                         for certificate files.
  949          private        Initially empty, this is the default location
  950                         for private key files.
  951          misc           Various scripts.
  952 
  953      Package builders who want to configure the library for standard
  954      locations, but have the package installed somewhere else so that
  955      it can easily be packaged, can use
  956 
  957        $ make DESTDIR=/tmp/package-root install         # Unix
  958        $ mms/macro="DESTDIR=TMP:[PACKAGE-ROOT]" install ! OpenVMS
  959 
  960      The specified destination directory will be prepended to all
  961      installation target paths.
  962 
  963   Compatibility issues with previous OpenSSL versions:
  964 
  965   *  COMPILING existing applications
  966 
  967      Starting with version 1.1.0, OpenSSL hides a number of structures
  968      that were previously open.  This includes all internal libssl
  969      structures and a number of EVP types.  Accessor functions have
  970      been added to allow controlled access to the structures' data.
  971 
  972      This means that some software needs to be rewritten to adapt to
  973      the new ways of doing things.  This often amounts to allocating
  974      an instance of a structure explicitly where you could previously
  975      allocate them on the stack as automatic variables, and using the
  976      provided accessor functions where you would previously access a
  977      structure's field directly.
  978 
  979      Some APIs have changed as well.  However, older APIs have been
  980      preserved when possible.
  981 
  982  Environment Variables
  983  ---------------------
  984 
  985  A number of environment variables can be used to provide additional control
  986  over the build process. Typically these should be defined prior to running
  987  config or Configure. Not all environment variables are relevant to all
  988  platforms.
  989 
  990  AR
  991                 The name of the ar executable to use.
  992 
  993  BUILDFILE
  994                 Use a different build file name than the platform default
  995                 ("Makefile" on Unix-like platforms, "makefile" on native Windows,
  996                 "descrip.mms" on OpenVMS).  This requires that there is a
  997                 corresponding build file template.  See Configurations/README
  998                 for further information.
  999 
 1000  CC
 1001                 The compiler to use. Configure will attempt to pick a default
 1002                 compiler for your platform but this choice can be overridden
 1003                 using this variable. Set it to the compiler executable you wish
 1004                 to use, e.g. "gcc" or "clang".
 1005 
 1006  CROSS_COMPILE
 1007                 This environment variable has the same meaning as for the
 1008                 "--cross-compile-prefix" Configure flag described above. If both
 1009                 are set then the Configure flag takes precedence.
 1010 
 1011  NM
 1012                 The name of the nm executable to use.
 1013 
 1014  OPENSSL_LOCAL_CONFIG_DIR
 1015                 OpenSSL comes with a database of information about how it
 1016                 should be built on different platforms as well as build file
 1017                 templates for those platforms. The database is comprised of
 1018                 ".conf" files in the Configurations directory.  The build
 1019                 file templates reside there as well as ".tmpl" files. See the
 1020                 file Configurations/README for further information about the
 1021                 format of ".conf" files as well as information on the ".tmpl"
 1022                 files.
 1023                 In addition to the standard ".conf" and ".tmpl" files, it is
 1024                 possible to create your own ".conf" and ".tmpl" files and store
 1025                 them locally, outside the OpenSSL source tree. This environment
 1026                 variable can be set to the directory where these files are held
 1027                 and will be considered by Configure before it looks in the
 1028                 standard directories.
 1029 
 1030  PERL
 1031                 The name of the Perl executable to use when building OpenSSL.
 1032                 This variable is used in config script only. Configure on the
 1033                 other hand imposes the interpreter by which it itself was
 1034                 executed on the whole build procedure.
 1035 
 1036  HASHBANGPERL
 1037                 The command string for the Perl executable to insert in the
 1038                 #! line of perl scripts that will be publically installed.
 1039                 Default: /usr/bin/env perl
 1040                 Note: the value of this variable is added to the same scripts
 1041                 on all platforms, but it's only relevant on Unix-like platforms.
 1042 
 1043  RC
 1044                 The name of the rc executable to use. The default will be as
 1045                 defined for the target platform in the ".conf" file. If not
 1046                 defined then "windres" will be used. The WINDRES environment
 1047                 variable is synonymous to this. If both are defined then RC
 1048                 takes precedence.
 1049 
 1050  RANLIB
 1051                 The name of the ranlib executable to use.
 1052 
 1053  WINDRES
 1054                 See RC.
 1055 
 1056  Makefile targets
 1057  ----------------
 1058 
 1059  The Configure script generates a Makefile in a format relevant to the specific
 1060  platform. The Makefiles provide a number of targets that can be used. Not all
 1061  targets may be available on all platforms. Only the most common targets are
 1062  described here. Examine the Makefiles themselves for the full list.
 1063 
 1064  all
 1065                 The default target to build all the software components.
 1066 
 1067  clean
 1068                 Remove all build artefacts and return the directory to a "clean"
 1069                 state.
 1070 
 1071  depend
 1072                 Rebuild the dependencies in the Makefiles. This is a legacy
 1073                 option that no longer needs to be used since OpenSSL 1.1.0.
 1074 
 1075  install
 1076                 Install all OpenSSL components.
 1077 
 1078  install_sw
 1079                 Only install the OpenSSL software components.
 1080 
 1081  install_docs
 1082                 Only install the OpenSSL documentation components.
 1083 
 1084  install_man_docs
 1085                 Only install the OpenSSL man pages (Unix only).
 1086 
 1087  install_html_docs
 1088                 Only install the OpenSSL html documentation.
 1089 
 1090  list-tests
 1091                 Prints a list of all the self test names.
 1092 
 1093  test
 1094                 Build and run the OpenSSL self tests.
 1095 
 1096  uninstall
 1097                 Uninstall all OpenSSL components.
 1098 
 1099  reconfigure
 1100  reconf
 1101                 Re-run the configuration process, as exactly as the last time
 1102                 as possible.
 1103 
 1104  update
 1105                 This is a developer option. If you are developing a patch for
 1106                 OpenSSL you may need to use this if you want to update
 1107                 automatically generated files; add new error codes or add new
 1108                 (or change the visibility of) public API functions. (Unix only).
 1109 
 1110  TESTS in Detail
 1111  ---------------
 1112 
 1113  The make variable TESTS supports a versatile set of space separated tokens
 1114  with which you can specify a set of tests to be performed.  With a "current
 1115  set of tests" in mind, initially being empty, here are the possible tokens:
 1116 
 1117  alltests       The current set of tests becomes the whole set of available
 1118                 tests (as listed when you do 'make list-tests' or similar).
 1119  xxx            Adds the test 'xxx' to the current set of tests.
 1120  -xxx           Removes 'xxx' from the current set of tests.  If this is the
 1121                 first token in the list, the current set of tests is first
 1122                 assigned the whole set of available tests, effectively making
 1123                 this token equivalent to TESTS="alltests -xxx".
 1124  nn             Adds the test group 'nn' (which is a number) to the current
 1125                 set of tests.
 1126  -nn            Removes the test group 'nn' from the current set of tests.
 1127                 If this is the first token in the list, the current set of
 1128                 tests is first assigned the whole set of available tests,
 1129                 effectively making this token equivalent to
 1130                 TESTS="alltests -xxx".
 1131 
 1132  Also, all tokens except for "alltests" may have wildcards, such as *.
 1133  (on Unix and Windows, BSD style wildcards are supported, while on VMS,
 1134  it's VMS style wildcards)
 1135 
 1136  Example: All tests except for the fuzz tests:
 1137 
 1138  $ make TESTS=-test_fuzz test
 1139 
 1140  or (if you want to be explicit)
 1141 
 1142  $ make TESTS='alltests -test_fuzz' test
 1143 
 1144  Example: All tests that have a name starting with "test_ssl" but not those
 1145  starting with "test_ssl_":
 1146 
 1147  $ make TESTS='test_ssl* -test_ssl_*' test
 1148 
 1149  Example: Only test group 10:
 1150 
 1151  $ make TESTS='10'
 1152 
 1153  Example: All tests except the slow group (group 99):
 1154 
 1155  $ make TESTS='-99'
 1156 
 1157  Example: All tests in test groups 80 to 99 except for tests in group 90:
 1158 
 1159  $ make TESTS='[89]? -90'
 1160 
 1161  Note on multi-threading
 1162  -----------------------
 1163 
 1164  For some systems, the OpenSSL Configure script knows what compiler options
 1165  are needed to generate a library that is suitable for multi-threaded
 1166  applications.  On these systems, support for multi-threading is enabled
 1167  by default; use the "no-threads" option to disable (this should never be
 1168  necessary).
 1169 
 1170  On other systems, to enable support for multi-threading, you will have
 1171  to specify at least two options: "threads", and a system-dependent option.
 1172  (The latter is "-D_REENTRANT" on various systems.)  The default in this
 1173  case, obviously, is not to include support for multi-threading (but
 1174  you can still use "no-threads" to suppress an annoying warning message
 1175  from the Configure script.)
 1176 
 1177  OpenSSL provides built-in support for two threading models: pthreads (found on
 1178  most UNIX/Linux systems), and Windows threads. No other threading models are
 1179  supported. If your platform does not provide pthreads or Windows threads then
 1180  you should Configure with the "no-threads" option.
 1181 
 1182  Notes on shared libraries
 1183  -------------------------
 1184 
 1185  For most systems the OpenSSL Configure script knows what is needed to
 1186  build shared libraries for libcrypto and libssl. On these systems
 1187  the shared libraries will be created by default. This can be suppressed and
 1188  only static libraries created by using the "no-shared" option. On systems
 1189  where OpenSSL does not know how to build shared libraries the "no-shared"
 1190  option will be forced and only static libraries will be created.
 1191 
 1192  Shared libraries are named a little differently on different platforms.
 1193  One way or another, they all have the major OpenSSL version number as
 1194  part of the file name, i.e. for OpenSSL 1.1.x, 1.1 is somehow part of
 1195  the name.
 1196 
 1197  On most POSIX platforms, shared libraries are named libcrypto.so.1.1
 1198  and libssl.so.1.1.
 1199 
 1200  on Cygwin, shared libraries are named cygcrypto-1.1.dll and cygssl-1.1.dll
 1201  with import libraries libcrypto.dll.a and libssl.dll.a.
 1202 
 1203  On Windows build with MSVC or using MingW, shared libraries are named
 1204  libcrypto-1_1.dll and libssl-1_1.dll for 32-bit Windows, libcrypto-1_1-x64.dll
 1205  and libssl-1_1-x64.dll for 64-bit x86_64 Windows, and libcrypto-1_1-ia64.dll
 1206  and libssl-1_1-ia64.dll for IA64 Windows.  With MSVC, the import libraries
 1207  are named libcrypto.lib and libssl.lib, while with MingW, they are named
 1208  libcrypto.dll.a and libssl.dll.a.
 1209 
 1210  On VMS, shareable images (VMS speak for shared libraries) are named
 1211  ossl$libcrypto0101_shr.exe and ossl$libssl0101_shr.exe.  However, when
 1212  OpenSSL is specifically built for 32-bit pointers, the shareable images
 1213  are named ossl$libcrypto0101_shr32.exe and ossl$libssl0101_shr32.exe
 1214  instead, and when built for 64-bit pointers, they are named
 1215  ossl$libcrypto0101_shr64.exe and ossl$libssl0101_shr64.exe.
 1216 
 1217  Note on random number generation
 1218  --------------------------------
 1219 
 1220  Availability of cryptographically secure random numbers is required for
 1221  secret key generation. OpenSSL provides several options to seed the
 1222  internal CSPRNG. If not properly seeded, the internal CSPRNG will refuse
 1223  to deliver random bytes and a "PRNG not seeded error" will occur.
 1224 
 1225  The seeding method can be configured using the --with-rand-seed option,
 1226  which can be used to specify a comma separated list of seed methods.
 1227  However in most cases OpenSSL will choose a suitable default method,
 1228  so it is not necessary to explicitly provide this option. Note also
 1229  that not all methods are available on all platforms.
 1230 
 1231  I) On operating systems which provide a suitable randomness source (in
 1232  form  of a system call or system device), OpenSSL will use the optimal
 1233  available  method to seed the CSPRNG from the operating system's
 1234  randomness sources. This corresponds to the option --with-rand-seed=os.
 1235 
 1236  II) On systems without such a suitable randomness source, automatic seeding
 1237  and reseeding is disabled (--with-rand-seed=none) and it may be necessary
 1238  to install additional support software to obtain a random seed and reseed
 1239  the CSPRNG manually.  Please check out the manual pages for RAND_add(),
 1240  RAND_bytes(), RAND_egd(), and the FAQ for more information.