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    5 <title>NASM - The Netwide Assembler</title>
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    9 <body>
   10 <ul class="navbar">
   11 <li><a class="toc" href="nasmdoc0.html">Contents</a></li>
   12 <li class="last"><a class="index" href="nasmdoci.html">Index</a></li>
   13 </ul>
   14 <div class="title">
   15 <h1>NASM - The Netwide Assembler</h1>
   16 <span class="subtitle">version 2.15.05</span>
   17 </div>
   18 <div class="contents"
   19 >
   20 <p>This manual documents NASM, the Netwide Assembler: an assembler
   21 targetting the Intel x86 series of processors, with portable source.
   22 </p><div class="toc">
   23 <ol class="toc1">
   24 <li class="toc1">
   25 <span class="node">Chapter 1: </span><a href="nasmdoc1.html">Introduction</a>
   26 <ol class="toc2">
   27 <li class="toc2">
   28 <span class="node">Section 1.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc1.html#section-1.1">What Is NASM?</a>
   29 <ol class="toc3">
   30 <li class="toc3">
   31 <span class="node">Section 1.1.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc1.html#section-1.1.1">License</a>
   32 </li>
   33 </ol>
   34 </li>
   35 </ol>
   36 </li>
   37 <li class="toc1">
   38 <span class="node">Chapter 2: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html">Running NASM</a>
   39 <ol class="toc2">
   40 <li class="toc2">
   41 <span class="node">Section 2.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1">NASM Command-Line Syntax</a>
   42 <ol class="toc3">
   43 <li class="toc3">
   44 <span class="node">Section 2.1.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.1">The <code>-o</code> Option: Specifying the Output File Name</a>
   45 </li>
   46 <li class="toc3">
   47 <span class="node">Section 2.1.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.2">The <code>-f</code> Option: Specifying the Output File Format</a>
   48 </li>
   49 <li class="toc3">
   50 <span class="node">Section 2.1.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.3">The <code>-l</code> Option: Generating a Listing File</a>
   51 </li>
   52 <li class="toc3">
   53 <span class="node">Section 2.1.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.4">The <code>-L</code> Option: Additional or Modified Listing Info</a>
   54 </li>
   55 <li class="toc3">
   56 <span class="node">Section 2.1.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.5">The <code>-M</code> Option: Generate Makefile Dependencies</a>
   57 </li>
   58 <li class="toc3">
   59 <span class="node">Section 2.1.6: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.6">The <code>-MG</code> Option: Generate Makefile Dependencies</a>
   60 </li>
   61 <li class="toc3">
   62 <span class="node">Section 2.1.7: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.7">The <code>-MF</code> Option: Set Makefile Dependency File</a>
   63 </li>
   64 <li class="toc3">
   65 <span class="node">Section 2.1.8: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.8">The <code>-MD</code> Option: Assemble and Generate Dependencies</a>
   66 </li>
   67 <li class="toc3">
   68 <span class="node">Section 2.1.9: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.9">The <code>-MT</code> Option: Dependency Target Name</a>
   69 </li>
   70 <li class="toc3">
   71 <span class="node">Section 2.1.10: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.10">The <code>-MQ</code> Option: Dependency Target Name (Quoted)</a>
   72 </li>
   73 <li class="toc3">
   74 <span class="node">Section 2.1.11: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.11">The <code>-MP</code> Option: Emit phony targets</a>
   75 </li>
   76 <li class="toc3">
   77 <span class="node">Section 2.1.12: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.12">The <code>-MW</code> Option: Watcom Make quoting style</a>
   78 </li>
   79 <li class="toc3">
   80 <span class="node">Section 2.1.13: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.13">The <code>-F</code> Option: Selecting a Debug Information Format</a>
   81 </li>
   82 <li class="toc3">
   83 <span class="node">Section 2.1.14: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.14">The <code>-g</code> Option: Enabling Debug Information.</a>
   84 </li>
   85 <li class="toc3">
   86 <span class="node">Section 2.1.15: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.15">The <code>-X</code> Option: Selecting an Error Reporting Format</a>
   87 </li>
   88 <li class="toc3">
   89 <span class="node">Section 2.1.16: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.16">The <code>-Z</code> Option: Send Errors to a File</a>
   90 </li>
   91 <li class="toc3">
   92 <span class="node">Section 2.1.17: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.17">The <code>-s</code> Option: Send Errors to <code>stdout</code></a>
   93 </li>
   94 <li class="toc3">
   95 <span class="node">Section 2.1.18: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.18">The <code>-i</code> Option: Include File Search Directories</a>
   96 </li>
   97 <li class="toc3">
   98 <span class="node">Section 2.1.19: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.19">The <code>-p</code> Option: Pre-Include a File</a>
   99 </li>
  100 <li class="toc3">
  101 <span class="node">Section 2.1.20: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.20">The <code>-d</code> Option: Pre-Define a Macro</a>
  102 </li>
  103 <li class="toc3">
  104 <span class="node">Section 2.1.21: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.21">The <code>-u</code> Option: Undefine a Macro</a>
  105 </li>
  106 <li class="toc3">
  107 <span class="node">Section 2.1.22: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.22">The <code>-E</code> Option: Preprocess Only</a>
  108 </li>
  109 <li class="toc3">
  110 <span class="node">Section 2.1.23: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.23">The <code>-a</code> Option: Don't Preprocess At All</a>
  111 </li>
  112 <li class="toc3">
  113 <span class="node">Section 2.1.24: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.24">The <code>-O</code> Option: Specifying Multipass Optimization</a>
  114 </li>
  115 <li class="toc3">
  116 <span class="node">Section 2.1.25: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.25">The <code>-t</code> Option: Enable TASM Compatibility Mode</a>
  117 </li>
  118 <li class="toc3">
  119 <span class="node">Section 2.1.26: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.26">The <code>-w</code> and <code>-W</code> Options: Enable or Disable Assembly Warnings</a>
  120 </li>
  121 <li class="toc3">
  122 <span class="node">Section 2.1.27: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.27">The <code>-v</code> Option: Display Version Info</a>
  123 </li>
  124 <li class="toc3">
  125 <span class="node">Section 2.1.28: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.28">The <code>--(g|l)prefix</code>, <code>--(g|l)postfix</code> Options.</a>
  126 </li>
  127 <li class="toc3">
  128 <span class="node">Section 2.1.29: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.29">The <code>--pragma</code> Option</a>
  129 </li>
  130 <li class="toc3">
  131 <span class="node">Section 2.1.30: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.30">The <code>--before</code> Option</a>
  132 </li>
  133 <li class="toc3">
  134 <span class="node">Section 2.1.31: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.31">The <code>--limit-X</code> Option</a>
  135 </li>
  136 <li class="toc3">
  137 <span class="node">Section 2.1.32: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.32">The <code>--keep-all</code> Option</a>
  138 </li>
  139 <li class="toc3">
  140 <span class="node">Section 2.1.33: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.33">The <code>--no-line</code> Option</a>
  141 </li>
  142 <li class="toc3">
  143 <span class="node">Section 2.1.34: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.34">The <code>--reproducible</code> Option</a>
  144 </li>
  145 <li class="toc3">
  146 <span class="node">Section 2.1.35: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.1.35">The <code>NASMENV</code> Environment Variable</a>
  147 </li>
  148 </ol>
  149 </li>
  150 <li class="toc2">
  151 <span class="node">Section 2.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.2">Quick Start for MASM Users</a>
  152 <ol class="toc3">
  153 <li class="toc3">
  154 <span class="node">Section 2.2.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.2.1">NASM Is Case-Sensitive</a>
  155 </li>
  156 <li class="toc3">
  157 <span class="node">Section 2.2.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.2.2">NASM Requires Square Brackets For Memory References</a>
  158 </li>
  159 <li class="toc3">
  160 <span class="node">Section 2.2.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.2.3">NASM Doesn't Store Variable Types</a>
  161 </li>
  162 <li class="toc3">
  163 <span class="node">Section 2.2.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.2.4">NASM Doesn't <code>ASSUME</code></a>
  164 </li>
  165 <li class="toc3">
  166 <span class="node">Section 2.2.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.2.5">NASM Doesn't Support Memory Models</a>
  167 </li>
  168 <li class="toc3">
  169 <span class="node">Section 2.2.6: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.2.6">Floating-Point Differences</a>
  170 </li>
  171 <li class="toc3">
  172 <span class="node">Section 2.2.7: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.2.7">Other Differences</a>
  173 </li>
  174 <li class="toc3">
  175 <span class="node">Section 2.2.8: </span><a href="nasmdoc2.html#section-2.2.8">MASM compatibility package</a>
  176 </li>
  177 </ol>
  178 </li>
  179 </ol>
  180 </li>
  181 <li class="toc1">
  182 <span class="node">Chapter 3: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html">The NASM Language</a>
  183 <ol class="toc2">
  184 <li class="toc2">
  185 <span class="node">Section 3.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.1">Layout of a NASM Source Line</a>
  186 </li>
  187 <li class="toc2">
  188 <span class="node">Section 3.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.2">Pseudo-Instructions</a>
  189 <ol class="toc3">
  190 <li class="toc3">
  191 <span class="node">Section 3.2.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.2.1"><code>Dx</code>: Declaring Initialized Data</a>
  192 </li>
  193 <li class="toc3">
  194 <span class="node">Section 3.2.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.2.2"><code>RESB</code> and Friends: Declaring Uninitialized Data</a>
  195 </li>
  196 <li class="toc3">
  197 <span class="node">Section 3.2.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.2.3"><code>INCBIN</code>: Including External Binary Files</a>
  198 </li>
  199 <li class="toc3">
  200 <span class="node">Section 3.2.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.2.4"><code>EQU</code>: Defining Constants</a>
  201 </li>
  202 <li class="toc3">
  203 <span class="node">Section 3.2.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.2.5"><code>TIMES</code>: Repeating Instructions or Data</a>
  204 </li>
  205 </ol>
  206 </li>
  207 <li class="toc2">
  208 <span class="node">Section 3.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.3">Effective Addresses</a>
  209 </li>
  210 <li class="toc2">
  211 <span class="node">Section 3.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.4">Constants</a>
  212 <ol class="toc3">
  213 <li class="toc3">
  214 <span class="node">Section 3.4.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.4.1">Numeric Constants</a>
  215 </li>
  216 <li class="toc3">
  217 <span class="node">Section 3.4.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.4.2">Character Strings</a>
  218 </li>
  219 <li class="toc3">
  220 <span class="node">Section 3.4.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.4.3">Character Constants</a>
  221 </li>
  222 <li class="toc3">
  223 <span class="node">Section 3.4.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.4.4">String Constants</a>
  224 </li>
  225 <li class="toc3">
  226 <span class="node">Section 3.4.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.4.5">Unicode Strings</a>
  227 </li>
  228 <li class="toc3">
  229 <span class="node">Section 3.4.6: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.4.6">Floating-Point Constants</a>
  230 </li>
  231 <li class="toc3">
  232 <span class="node">Section 3.4.7: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.4.7">Packed BCD Constants</a>
  233 </li>
  234 </ol>
  235 </li>
  236 <li class="toc2">
  237 <span class="node">Section 3.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.5">Expressions</a>
  238 <ol class="toc3">
  239 <li class="toc3">
  240 <span class="node">Section 3.5.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.5.1"><code>?</code> ... <code>:</code>: Conditional Operator</a>
  241 </li>
  242 <li class="toc3">
  243 <span class="node">Section 3.5.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.5.2">: <code>||</code>: Boolean OR Operator</a>
  244 </li>
  245 <li class="toc3">
  246 <span class="node">Section 3.5.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.5.3">: <code>^^</code>: Boolean XOR Operator</a>
  247 </li>
  248 <li class="toc3">
  249 <span class="node">Section 3.5.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.5.4">: <code>&amp;&amp;</code>: Boolean AND Operator</a>
  250 </li>
  251 <li class="toc3">
  252 <span class="node">Section 3.5.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.5.5">: Comparison Operators</a>
  253 </li>
  254 <li class="toc3">
  255 <span class="node">Section 3.5.6: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.5.6"><code>|</code>: Bitwise OR Operator</a>
  256 </li>
  257 <li class="toc3">
  258 <span class="node">Section 3.5.7: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.5.7"><code>^</code>: Bitwise XOR Operator</a>
  259 </li>
  260 <li class="toc3">
  261 <span class="node">Section 3.5.8: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.5.8"><code>&amp;</code>: Bitwise AND Operator</a>
  262 </li>
  263 <li class="toc3">
  264 <span class="node">Section 3.5.9: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.5.9">Bit Shift Operators</a>
  265 </li>
  266 <li class="toc3">
  267 <span class="node">Section 3.5.10: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.5.10"><code>+</code> and <code>-</code>: Addition and Subtraction Operators</a>
  268 </li>
  269 <li class="toc3">
  270 <span class="node">Section 3.5.11: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.5.11">Multiplication, Division and Modulo</a>
  271 </li>
  272 <li class="toc3">
  273 <span class="node">Section 3.5.12: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.5.12">Unary Operators</a>
  274 </li>
  275 </ol>
  276 </li>
  277 <li class="toc2">
  278 <span class="node">Section 3.6: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.6"><code>SEG</code> and <code>WRT</code></a>
  279 </li>
  280 <li class="toc2">
  281 <span class="node">Section 3.7: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.7"><code>STRICT</code>: Inhibiting Optimization</a>
  282 </li>
  283 <li class="toc2">
  284 <span class="node">Section 3.8: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.8">Critical Expressions</a>
  285 </li>
  286 <li class="toc2">
  287 <span class="node">Section 3.9: </span><a href="nasmdoc3.html#section-3.9">Local Labels</a>
  288 </li>
  289 </ol>
  290 </li>
  291 <li class="toc1">
  292 <span class="node">Chapter 4: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html">The NASM Preprocessor</a>
  293 <ol class="toc2">
  294 <li class="toc2">
  295 <span class="node">Section 4.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.1">Single-Line Macros</a>
  296 <ol class="toc3">
  297 <li class="toc3">
  298 <span class="node">Section 4.1.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.1.1">The Normal Way: <code>%define</code></a>
  299 </li>
  300 <li class="toc3">
  301 <span class="node">Section 4.1.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.1.2">Resolving <code>%define</code>: <code>%xdefine</code></a>
  302 </li>
  303 <li class="toc3">
  304 <span class="node">Section 4.1.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.1.3">Macro Indirection: <code>%[...]</code></a>
  305 </li>
  306 <li class="toc3">
  307 <span class="node">Section 4.1.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.1.4">Concatenating Single Line Macro Tokens: <code>%+</code></a>
  308 </li>
  309 <li class="toc3">
  310 <span class="node">Section 4.1.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.1.5">The Macro Name Itself: <code>%?</code> and <code>%??</code></a>
  311 </li>
  312 <li class="toc3">
  313 <span class="node">Section 4.1.6: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.1.6">The Single-Line Macro Name: <code>%*?</code> and <code>%*??</code></a>
  314 </li>
  315 <li class="toc3">
  316 <span class="node">Section 4.1.7: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.1.7">Undefining Single-Line Macros: <code>%undef</code></a>
  317 </li>
  318 <li class="toc3">
  319 <span class="node">Section 4.1.8: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.1.8">Preprocessor Variables: <code>%assign</code></a>
  320 </li>
  321 <li class="toc3">
  322 <span class="node">Section 4.1.9: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.1.9">Defining Strings: <code>%defstr</code></a>
  323 </li>
  324 <li class="toc3">
  325 <span class="node">Section 4.1.10: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.1.10">Defining Tokens: <code>%deftok</code></a>
  326 </li>
  327 <li class="toc3">
  328 <span class="node">Section 4.1.11: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.1.11">Defining Aliases: <code>%defalias</code></a>
  329 </li>
  330 <li class="toc3">
  331 <span class="node">Section 4.1.12: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.1.12">Conditional Comma Operator: <code>%,</code></a>
  332 </li>
  333 </ol>
  334 </li>
  335 <li class="toc2">
  336 <span class="node">Section 4.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.2">String Manipulation in Macros</a>
  337 <ol class="toc3">
  338 <li class="toc3">
  339 <span class="node">Section 4.2.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.2.1">Concatenating Strings: <code>%strcat</code></a>
  340 </li>
  341 <li class="toc3">
  342 <span class="node">Section 4.2.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.2.2">String Length: <code>%strlen</code></a>
  343 </li>
  344 <li class="toc3">
  345 <span class="node">Section 4.2.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.2.3">Extracting Substrings: <code>%substr</code></a>
  346 </li>
  347 </ol>
  348 </li>
  349 <li class="toc2">
  350 <span class="node">Section 4.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.3">Multi-Line Macros: <code>%macro</code></a>
  351 <ol class="toc3">
  352 <li class="toc3">
  353 <span class="node">Section 4.3.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.3.1">Overloading Multi-Line Macros</a>
  354 </li>
  355 <li class="toc3">
  356 <span class="node">Section 4.3.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.3.2">Macro-Local Labels</a>
  357 </li>
  358 <li class="toc3">
  359 <span class="node">Section 4.3.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.3.3">Greedy Macro Parameters</a>
  360 </li>
  361 <li class="toc3">
  362 <span class="node">Section 4.3.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.3.4">Macro Parameters Range</a>
  363 </li>
  364 <li class="toc3">
  365 <span class="node">Section 4.3.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.3.5">Default Macro Parameters</a>
  366 </li>
  367 <li class="toc3">
  368 <span class="node">Section 4.3.6: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.3.6"><code>%0</code>: Macro Parameter Counter</a>
  369 </li>
  370 <li class="toc3">
  371 <span class="node">Section 4.3.7: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.3.7"><code>%00</code>: Label Preceeding Macro</a>
  372 </li>
  373 <li class="toc3">
  374 <span class="node">Section 4.3.8: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.3.8"><code>%rotate</code>: Rotating Macro Parameters</a>
  375 </li>
  376 <li class="toc3">
  377 <span class="node">Section 4.3.9: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.3.9">Concatenating Macro Parameters</a>
  378 </li>
  379 <li class="toc3">
  380 <span class="node">Section 4.3.10: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.3.10">Condition Codes as Macro Parameters</a>
  381 </li>
  382 <li class="toc3">
  383 <span class="node">Section 4.3.11: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.3.11">Disabling Listing Expansion</a>
  384 </li>
  385 <li class="toc3">
  386 <span class="node">Section 4.3.12: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.3.12">Undefining Multi-Line Macros: <code>%unmacro</code></a>
  387 </li>
  388 </ol>
  389 </li>
  390 <li class="toc2">
  391 <span class="node">Section 4.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.4">Conditional Assembly</a>
  392 <ol class="toc3">
  393 <li class="toc3">
  394 <span class="node">Section 4.4.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.4.1"><code>%ifdef</code>: Testing Single-Line Macro Existence</a>
  395 </li>
  396 <li class="toc3">
  397 <span class="node">Section 4.4.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.4.2"><code>%ifmacro</code>: Testing Multi-Line Macro Existence</a>
  398 </li>
  399 <li class="toc3">
  400 <span class="node">Section 4.4.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.4.3"><code>%ifctx</code>: Testing the Context Stack</a>
  401 </li>
  402 <li class="toc3">
  403 <span class="node">Section 4.4.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.4.4"><code>%if</code>: Testing Arbitrary Numeric Expressions</a>
  404 </li>
  405 <li class="toc3">
  406 <span class="node">Section 4.4.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.4.5"><code>%ifidn</code> and <code>%ifidni</code>: Testing Exact Text Identity</a>
  407 </li>
  408 <li class="toc3">
  409 <span class="node">Section 4.4.6: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.4.6"><code>%ifid</code>, <code>%ifnum</code>, <code>%ifstr</code>: Testing Token Types</a>
  410 </li>
  411 <li class="toc3">
  412 <span class="node">Section 4.4.7: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.4.7"><code>%iftoken</code>: Test for a Single Token</a>
  413 </li>
  414 <li class="toc3">
  415 <span class="node">Section 4.4.8: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.4.8"><code>%ifempty</code>: Test for Empty Expansion</a>
  416 </li>
  417 <li class="toc3">
  418 <span class="node">Section 4.4.9: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.4.9"><code>%ifenv</code>: Test If Environment Variable Exists</a>
  419 </li>
  420 </ol>
  421 </li>
  422 <li class="toc2">
  423 <span class="node">Section 4.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.5">Preprocessor Loops: <code>%rep</code></a>
  424 </li>
  425 <li class="toc2">
  426 <span class="node">Section 4.6: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.6">Source Files and Dependencies</a>
  427 <ol class="toc3">
  428 <li class="toc3">
  429 <span class="node">Section 4.6.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.6.1"><code>%include</code>: Including Other Files</a>
  430 </li>
  431 <li class="toc3">
  432 <span class="node">Section 4.6.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.6.2"><code>%pathsearch</code>: Search the Include Path</a>
  433 </li>
  434 <li class="toc3">
  435 <span class="node">Section 4.6.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.6.3"><code>%depend</code>: Add Dependent Files</a>
  436 </li>
  437 <li class="toc3">
  438 <span class="node">Section 4.6.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.6.4"><code>%use</code>: Include Standard Macro Package</a>
  439 </li>
  440 </ol>
  441 </li>
  442 <li class="toc2">
  443 <span class="node">Section 4.7: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.7">The Context Stack</a>
  444 <ol class="toc3">
  445 <li class="toc3">
  446 <span class="node">Section 4.7.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.7.1"><code>%push</code> and <code>%pop</code>: Creating and Removing Contexts</a>
  447 </li>
  448 <li class="toc3">
  449 <span class="node">Section 4.7.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.7.2">Context-Local Labels</a>
  450 </li>
  451 <li class="toc3">
  452 <span class="node">Section 4.7.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.7.3">Context-Local Single-Line Macros</a>
  453 </li>
  454 <li class="toc3">
  455 <span class="node">Section 4.7.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.7.4">Context Fall-Through Lookup <em>(deprecated)</em></a>
  456 </li>
  457 <li class="toc3">
  458 <span class="node">Section 4.7.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.7.5"><code>%repl</code>: Renaming a Context</a>
  459 </li>
  460 <li class="toc3">
  461 <span class="node">Section 4.7.6: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.7.6">Example Use of the Context Stack: Block IFs</a>
  462 </li>
  463 </ol>
  464 </li>
  465 <li class="toc2">
  466 <span class="node">Section 4.8: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.8">Stack Relative Preprocessor Directives</a>
  467 <ol class="toc3">
  468 <li class="toc3">
  469 <span class="node">Section 4.8.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.8.1"><code>%arg</code> Directive</a>
  470 </li>
  471 <li class="toc3">
  472 <span class="node">Section 4.8.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.8.2"><code>%stacksize</code> Directive</a>
  473 </li>
  474 <li class="toc3">
  475 <span class="node">Section 4.8.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.8.3"><code>%local</code> Directive</a>
  476 </li>
  477 </ol>
  478 </li>
  479 <li class="toc2">
  480 <span class="node">Section 4.9: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.9">Reporting User-Defined Errors: <code>%error</code>, <code>%warning</code>, <code>%fatal</code></a>
  481 </li>
  482 <li class="toc2">
  483 <span class="node">Section 4.10: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.10"><code>%pragma</code>: Setting Options</a>
  484 <ol class="toc3">
  485 <li class="toc3">
  486 <span class="node">Section 4.10.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.10.1">Preprocessor Pragmas</a>
  487 </li>
  488 </ol>
  489 </li>
  490 <li class="toc2">
  491 <span class="node">Section 4.11: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.11">Other Preprocessor Directives</a>
  492 <ol class="toc3">
  493 <li class="toc3">
  494 <span class="node">Section 4.11.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.11.1"><code>%line</code> Directive</a>
  495 </li>
  496 <li class="toc3">
  497 <span class="node">Section 4.11.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.11.2"><code>%!</code><em>variable</em>: Read an Environment Variable.</a>
  498 </li>
  499 <li class="toc3">
  500 <span class="node">Section 4.11.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc4.html#section-4.11.3"><code>%clear</code>: Clear All Macro Definitions</a>
  501 </li>
  502 </ol>
  503 </li>
  504 </ol>
  505 </li>
  506 <li class="toc1">
  507 <span class="node">Chapter 5: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html">Standard Macros</a>
  508 <ol class="toc2">
  509 <li class="toc2">
  510 <span class="node">Section 5.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html#section-5.1">NASM Version Macros</a>
  511 <ol class="toc3">
  512 <li class="toc3">
  513 <span class="node">Section 5.1.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html#section-5.1.1"><code>__?NASM_VERSION_ID?__</code>: NASM Version ID</a>
  514 </li>
  515 <li class="toc3">
  516 <span class="node">Section 5.1.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html#section-5.1.2"><code>__?NASM_VER?__</code>: NASM Version String</a>
  517 </li>
  518 </ol>
  519 </li>
  520 <li class="toc2">
  521 <span class="node">Section 5.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html#section-5.2"><code>__?FILE?__</code> and <code>__?LINE?__</code>: File Name and Line Number</a>
  522 </li>
  523 <li class="toc2">
  524 <span class="node">Section 5.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html#section-5.3"><code>__?BITS?__</code>: Current Code Generation Mode</a>
  525 </li>
  526 <li class="toc2">
  527 <span class="node">Section 5.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html#section-5.4"><code>__?OUTPUT_FORMAT?__</code>: Current Output Format</a>
  528 </li>
  529 <li class="toc2">
  530 <span class="node">Section 5.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html#section-5.5"><code>__?DEBUG_FORMAT?__</code>: Current Debug Format</a>
  531 </li>
  532 <li class="toc2">
  533 <span class="node">Section 5.6: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html#section-5.6">Assembly Date and Time Macros</a>
  534 </li>
  535 <li class="toc2">
  536 <span class="node">Section 5.7: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html#section-5.7"><code>__?USE_</code><em>package</em><code>?__</code>: Package Include Test</a>
  537 </li>
  538 <li class="toc2">
  539 <span class="node">Section 5.8: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html#section-5.8"><code>__?PASS?__</code>: Assembly Pass</a>
  540 </li>
  541 <li class="toc2">
  542 <span class="node">Section 5.9: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html#section-5.9">Structure Data Types</a>
  543 <ol class="toc3">
  544 <li class="toc3">
  545 <span class="node">Section 5.9.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html#section-5.9.1"><code>STRUC</code> and <code>ENDSTRUC</code>: Declaring Structure Data Types</a>
  546 </li>
  547 <li class="toc3">
  548 <span class="node">Section 5.9.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html#section-5.9.2"><code>ISTRUC</code>, <code>AT</code> and <code>IEND</code>: Declaring Instances of Structures</a>
  549 </li>
  550 </ol>
  551 </li>
  552 <li class="toc2">
  553 <span class="node">Section 5.10: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html#section-5.10">Alignment Control</a>
  554 <ol class="toc3">
  555 <li class="toc3">
  556 <span class="node">Section 5.10.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html#section-5.10.1"><code>ALIGN</code> and <code>ALIGNB</code>: Code and Data Alignment</a>
  557 </li>
  558 <li class="toc3">
  559 <span class="node">Section 5.10.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc5.html#section-5.10.2"><code>SECTALIGN</code>: Section Alignment</a>
  560 </li>
  561 </ol>
  562 </li>
  563 </ol>
  564 </li>
  565 <li class="toc1">
  566 <span class="node">Chapter 6: </span><a href="nasmdoc6.html">Standard Macro Packages</a>
  567 <ol class="toc2">
  568 <li class="toc2">
  569 <span class="node">Section 6.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc6.html#section-6.1"><code>altreg</code>: Alternate Register Names</a>
  570 </li>
  571 <li class="toc2">
  572 <span class="node">Section 6.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc6.html#section-6.2"><code>smartalign</code>: Smart <code>ALIGN</code> Macro</a>
  573 </li>
  574 <li class="toc2">
  575 <span class="node">Section 6.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc6.html#section-6.3"><code>fp</code>: Floating-point macros</a>
  576 </li>
  577 <li class="toc2">
  578 <span class="node">Section 6.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc6.html#section-6.4"><code>ifunc</code>: Integer functions</a>
  579 <ol class="toc3">
  580 <li class="toc3">
  581 <span class="node">Section 6.4.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc6.html#section-6.4.1">Integer logarithms</a>
  582 </li>
  583 </ol>
  584 </li>
  585 <li class="toc2">
  586 <span class="node">Section 6.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc6.html#section-6.5"><code>masm</code>: MASM compatibility</a>
  587 </li>
  588 </ol>
  589 </li>
  590 <li class="toc1">
  591 <span class="node">Chapter 7: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html">Assembler Directives</a>
  592 <ol class="toc2">
  593 <li class="toc2">
  594 <span class="node">Section 7.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.1"><code>BITS</code>: Specifying Target Processor Mode</a>
  595 <ol class="toc3">
  596 <li class="toc3">
  597 <span class="node">Section 7.1.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.1.1"><code>USE16</code> &amp; <code>USE32</code>: Aliases for BITS</a>
  598 </li>
  599 </ol>
  600 </li>
  601 <li class="toc2">
  602 <span class="node">Section 7.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.2"><code>DEFAULT</code>: Change the assembler defaults</a>
  603 <ol class="toc3">
  604 <li class="toc3">
  605 <span class="node">Section 7.2.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.2.1"><code>REL</code> &amp; <code>ABS</code>: RIP-relative addressing</a>
  606 </li>
  607 <li class="toc3">
  608 <span class="node">Section 7.2.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.2.2"><code>BND</code> &amp; <code>NOBND</code>: <code>BND</code> prefix</a>
  609 </li>
  610 </ol>
  611 </li>
  612 <li class="toc2">
  613 <span class="node">Section 7.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.3"><code>SECTION</code> or <code>SEGMENT</code>: Changing and Defining Sections</a>
  614 <ol class="toc3">
  615 <li class="toc3">
  616 <span class="node">Section 7.3.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.3.1">The <code>__?SECT?__</code> Macro</a>
  617 </li>
  618 </ol>
  619 </li>
  620 <li class="toc2">
  621 <span class="node">Section 7.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.4"><code>ABSOLUTE</code>: Defining Absolute Labels</a>
  622 </li>
  623 <li class="toc2">
  624 <span class="node">Section 7.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.5"><code>EXTERN</code>: Importing Symbols from Other Modules</a>
  625 </li>
  626 <li class="toc2">
  627 <span class="node">Section 7.6: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.6"><code>REQUIRED</code>: Unconditionally Importing Symbols from Other Modules</a>
  628 </li>
  629 <li class="toc2">
  630 <span class="node">Section 7.7: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.7"><code>GLOBAL</code>: Exporting Symbols to Other Modules</a>
  631 </li>
  632 <li class="toc2">
  633 <span class="node">Section 7.8: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.8"><code>COMMON</code>: Defining Common Data Areas</a>
  634 </li>
  635 <li class="toc2">
  636 <span class="node">Section 7.9: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.9"><code>STATIC</code>: Local Symbols within Modules</a>
  637 </li>
  638 <li class="toc2">
  639 <span class="node">Section 7.10: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.10"><code>(G|L)PREFIX</code>, <code>(G|L)POSTFIX</code>: Mangling Symbols</a>
  640 </li>
  641 <li class="toc2">
  642 <span class="node">Section 7.11: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.11"><code>CPU</code>: Defining CPU Dependencies</a>
  643 </li>
  644 <li class="toc2">
  645 <span class="node">Section 7.12: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.12"><code>FLOAT</code>: Handling of floating-point constants</a>
  646 </li>
  647 <li class="toc2">
  648 <span class="node">Section 7.13: </span><a href="nasmdoc7.html#section-7.13"><code>[WARNING]</code>: Enable or disable warnings</a>
  649 </li>
  650 </ol>
  651 </li>
  652 <li class="toc1">
  653 <span class="node">Chapter 8: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html">Output Formats</a>
  654 <ol class="toc2">
  655 <li class="toc2">
  656 <span class="node">Section 8.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.1"><code>bin</code>: Flat-Form Binary Output</a>
  657 <ol class="toc3">
  658 <li class="toc3">
  659 <span class="node">Section 8.1.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.1.1"><code>ORG</code>: Binary File Program Origin</a>
  660 </li>
  661 <li class="toc3">
  662 <span class="node">Section 8.1.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.1.2"><code>bin</code> Extensions to the <code>SECTION</code> Directive, <code>bin</code> extensions to}</a>
  663 </li>
  664 <li class="toc3">
  665 <span class="node">Section 8.1.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.1.3">Multisection Support for the <code>bin</code> Format</a>
  666 </li>
  667 <li class="toc3">
  668 <span class="node">Section 8.1.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.1.4">Map Files</a>
  669 </li>
  670 </ol>
  671 </li>
  672 <li class="toc2">
  673 <span class="node">Section 8.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.2"><code>ith</code>: Intel Hex Output</a>
  674 </li>
  675 <li class="toc2">
  676 <span class="node">Section 8.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.3"><code>srec</code>: Motorola S-Records Output</a>
  677 </li>
  678 <li class="toc2">
  679 <span class="node">Section 8.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.4"><code>obj</code>: Microsoft OMF Object Files</a>
  680 <ol class="toc3">
  681 <li class="toc3">
  682 <span class="node">Section 8.4.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.4.1"><code>obj</code> Extensions to the <code>SEGMENT</code> Directive</a>
  683 </li>
  684 <li class="toc3">
  685 <span class="node">Section 8.4.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.4.2"><code>GROUP</code>: Defining Groups of Segments</a>
  686 </li>
  687 <li class="toc3">
  688 <span class="node">Section 8.4.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.4.3"><code>UPPERCASE</code>: Disabling Case Sensitivity in Output</a>
  689 </li>
  690 <li class="toc3">
  691 <span class="node">Section 8.4.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.4.4"><code>IMPORT</code>: Importing DLL Symbols</a>
  692 </li>
  693 <li class="toc3">
  694 <span class="node">Section 8.4.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.4.5"><code>EXPORT</code>: Exporting DLL Symbols</a>
  695 </li>
  696 <li class="toc3">
  697 <span class="node">Section 8.4.6: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.4.6"><code>..start</code>: Defining the Program Entry Point</a>
  698 </li>
  699 <li class="toc3">
  700 <span class="node">Section 8.4.7: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.4.7"><code>obj</code> Extensions to the <code>EXTERN</code> Directive</a>
  701 </li>
  702 <li class="toc3">
  703 <span class="node">Section 8.4.8: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.4.8"><code>obj</code> Extensions to the <code>COMMON</code> Directive</a>
  704 </li>
  705 <li class="toc3">
  706 <span class="node">Section 8.4.9: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.4.9">Embedded File Dependency Information</a>
  707 </li>
  708 </ol>
  709 </li>
  710 <li class="toc2">
  711 <span class="node">Section 8.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.5"><code>win32</code>: Microsoft Win32 Object Files</a>
  712 <ol class="toc3">
  713 <li class="toc3">
  714 <span class="node">Section 8.5.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.5.1"><code>win32</code> Extensions to the <code>SECTION</code> Directive</a>
  715 </li>
  716 <li class="toc3">
  717 <span class="node">Section 8.5.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.5.2"><code>win32</code>: Safe Structured Exception Handling</a>
  718 </li>
  719 <li class="toc3">
  720 <span class="node">Section 8.5.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.5.3">Debugging formats for Windows </a>
  721 </li>
  722 </ol>
  723 </li>
  724 <li class="toc2">
  725 <span class="node">Section 8.6: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.6"><code>win64</code>: Microsoft Win64 Object Files</a>
  726 <ol class="toc3">
  727 <li class="toc3">
  728 <span class="node">Section 8.6.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.6.1"><code>win64</code>: Writing Position-Independent Code</a>
  729 </li>
  730 <li class="toc3">
  731 <span class="node">Section 8.6.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.6.2"><code>win64</code>: Structured Exception Handling</a>
  732 </li>
  733 </ol>
  734 </li>
  735 <li class="toc2">
  736 <span class="node">Section 8.7: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.7"><code>coff</code>: Common Object File Format</a>
  737 </li>
  738 <li class="toc2">
  739 <span class="node">Section 8.8: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.8"><code>macho32</code> and <code>macho64</code>: Mach Object File Format</a>
  740 <ol class="toc3">
  741 <li class="toc3">
  742 <span class="node">Section 8.8.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.8.1"><code>macho</code> extensions to the <code>SECTION</code> Directive </a>
  743 </li>
  744 <li class="toc3">
  745 <span class="node">Section 8.8.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.8.2">Thread Local Storage in Mach-O: <code>macho</code> special symbols and <code>WRT</code></a>
  746 </li>
  747 <li class="toc3">
  748 <span class="node">Section 8.8.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.8.3"><code>macho</code> specfic directive <code>subsections_via_symbols</code></a>
  749 </li>
  750 <li class="toc3">
  751 <span class="node">Section 8.8.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.8.4"><code>macho</code> specfic directive <code>no_dead_strip</code></a>
  752 </li>
  753 <li class="toc3">
  754 <span class="node">Section 8.8.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.8.5"><code>macho</code> specific extensions to the <code>GLOBAL</code> Directive: <code>private_extern</code></a>
  755 </li>
  756 </ol>
  757 </li>
  758 <li class="toc2">
  759 <span class="node">Section 8.9: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.9"><code>elf32</code>, <code>elf64</code>, <code>elfx32</code>: Executable and Linkable Format Object Files</a>
  760 <ol class="toc3">
  761 <li class="toc3">
  762 <span class="node">Section 8.9.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.9.1">ELF specific directive <code>osabi</code></a>
  763 </li>
  764 <li class="toc3">
  765 <span class="node">Section 8.9.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.9.2">ELF extensions to the <code>SECTION</code> Directive </a>
  766 </li>
  767 <li class="toc3">
  768 <span class="node">Section 8.9.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.9.3">Position-Independent Code: ELF Special Symbols and <code>WRT</code></a>
  769 </li>
  770 <li class="toc3">
  771 <span class="node">Section 8.9.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.9.4">Thread Local Storage in ELF: <code>elf</code> Special Symbols and <code>WRT</code></a>
  772 </li>
  773 <li class="toc3">
  774 <span class="node">Section 8.9.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.9.5"><code>elf</code> Extensions to the <code>GLOBAL</code> Directive</a>
  775 </li>
  776 <li class="toc3">
  777 <span class="node">Section 8.9.6: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.9.6"><code>elf</code> Extensions to the <code>EXTERN</code> Directive</a>
  778 </li>
  779 <li class="toc3">
  780 <span class="node">Section 8.9.7: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.9.7"><code>elf</code> Extensions to the <code>COMMON</code> Directive </a>
  781 </li>
  782 <li class="toc3">
  783 <span class="node">Section 8.9.8: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.9.8">16-bit code and ELF </a>
  784 </li>
  785 <li class="toc3">
  786 <span class="node">Section 8.9.9: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.9.9">Debug formats and ELF </a>
  787 </li>
  788 </ol>
  789 </li>
  790 <li class="toc2">
  791 <span class="node">Section 8.10: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.10"><code>aout</code>: Linux <code>a.out</code> Object Files</a>
  792 </li>
  793 <li class="toc2">
  794 <span class="node">Section 8.11: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.11"><code>aoutb</code>: NetBSD/FreeBSD/OpenBSD <code>a.out</code> Object Files</a>
  795 </li>
  796 <li class="toc2">
  797 <span class="node">Section 8.12: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.12"><code>as86</code>: Minix/Linux <code>as86</code> Object Files</a>
  798 </li>
  799 <li class="toc2">
  800 <span class="node">Section 8.13: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.13"><code>rdf</code>: Relocatable Dynamic Object File Format (deprecated)</a>
  801 <ol class="toc3">
  802 <li class="toc3">
  803 <span class="node">Section 8.13.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.13.1">Requiring a Library: The <code>LIBRARY</code> Directive</a>
  804 </li>
  805 <li class="toc3">
  806 <span class="node">Section 8.13.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.13.2">Specifying a Module Name: The <code>MODULE</code> Directive</a>
  807 </li>
  808 <li class="toc3">
  809 <span class="node">Section 8.13.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.13.3"><code>rdf</code> Extensions to the <code>GLOBAL</code> Directive</a>
  810 </li>
  811 <li class="toc3">
  812 <span class="node">Section 8.13.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.13.4"><code>rdf</code> Extensions to the <code>EXTERN</code> Directive</a>
  813 </li>
  814 </ol>
  815 </li>
  816 <li class="toc2">
  817 <span class="node">Section 8.14: </span><a href="nasmdoc8.html#section-8.14"><code>dbg</code>: Debugging Format</a>
  818 </li>
  819 </ol>
  820 </li>
  821 <li class="toc1">
  822 <span class="node">Chapter 9: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html">Writing 16-bit Code (DOS, Windows 3/3.1)</a>
  823 <ol class="toc2">
  824 <li class="toc2">
  825 <span class="node">Section 9.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.1">Producing <code>.EXE</code> Files</a>
  826 <ol class="toc3">
  827 <li class="toc3">
  828 <span class="node">Section 9.1.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.1.1">Using the <code>obj</code> Format To Generate <code>.EXE</code> Files</a>
  829 </li>
  830 <li class="toc3">
  831 <span class="node">Section 9.1.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.1.2">Using the <code>bin</code> Format To Generate <code>.EXE</code> Files</a>
  832 </li>
  833 </ol>
  834 </li>
  835 <li class="toc2">
  836 <span class="node">Section 9.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.2">Producing <code>.COM</code> Files</a>
  837 <ol class="toc3">
  838 <li class="toc3">
  839 <span class="node">Section 9.2.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.2.1">Using the <code>bin</code> Format To Generate <code>.COM</code> Files</a>
  840 </li>
  841 <li class="toc3">
  842 <span class="node">Section 9.2.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.2.2">Using the <code>obj</code> Format To Generate <code>.COM</code> Files</a>
  843 </li>
  844 </ol>
  845 </li>
  846 <li class="toc2">
  847 <span class="node">Section 9.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.3">Producing <code>.SYS</code> Files</a>
  848 </li>
  849 <li class="toc2">
  850 <span class="node">Section 9.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.4">Interfacing to 16-bit C Programs</a>
  851 <ol class="toc3">
  852 <li class="toc3">
  853 <span class="node">Section 9.4.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.4.1">External Symbol Names</a>
  854 </li>
  855 <li class="toc3">
  856 <span class="node">Section 9.4.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.4.2">Memory Models</a>
  857 </li>
  858 <li class="toc3">
  859 <span class="node">Section 9.4.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.4.3">Function Definitions and Function Calls</a>
  860 </li>
  861 <li class="toc3">
  862 <span class="node">Section 9.4.4: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.4.4">Accessing Data Items</a>
  863 </li>
  864 <li class="toc3">
  865 <span class="node">Section 9.4.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.4.5"><code>c16.mac</code>: Helper Macros for the 16-bit C Interface</a>
  866 </li>
  867 </ol>
  868 </li>
  869 <li class="toc2">
  870 <span class="node">Section 9.5: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.5">Interfacing to Borland Pascal Programs</a>
  871 <ol class="toc3">
  872 <li class="toc3">
  873 <span class="node">Section 9.5.1: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.5.1">The Pascal Calling Convention</a>
  874 </li>
  875 <li class="toc3">
  876 <span class="node">Section 9.5.2: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.5.2">Borland Pascal Segment Name Restrictions</a>
  877 </li>
  878 <li class="toc3">
  879 <span class="node">Section 9.5.3: </span><a href="nasmdoc9.html#section-9.5.3">Using <code>c16.mac</code> With Pascal Programs</a>
  880 </li>
  881 </ol>
  882 </li>
  883 </ol>
  884 </li>
  885 <li class="toc1">
  886 <span class="node">Chapter 10: </span><a href="nasmdo10.html">Writing 32-bit Code (Unix, Win32, DJGPP)</a>
  887 <ol class="toc2">
  888 <li class="toc2">
  889 <span class="node">Section 10.1: </span><a href="nasmdo10.html#section-10.1">Interfacing to 32-bit C Programs</a>
  890 <ol class="toc3">
  891 <li class="toc3">
  892 <span class="node">Section 10.1.1: </span><a href="nasmdo10.html#section-10.1.1">External Symbol Names</a>
  893 </li>
  894 <li class="toc3">
  895 <span class="node">Section 10.1.2: </span><a href="nasmdo10.html#section-10.1.2">Function Definitions and Function Calls</a>
  896 </li>
  897 <li class="toc3">
  898 <span class="node">Section 10.1.3: </span><a href="nasmdo10.html#section-10.1.3">Accessing Data Items</a>
  899 </li>
  900 <li class="toc3">
  901 <span class="node">Section 10.1.4: </span><a href="nasmdo10.html#section-10.1.4"><code>c32.mac</code>: Helper Macros for the 32-bit C Interface</a>
  902 </li>
  903 </ol>
  904 </li>
  905 <li class="toc2">
  906 <span class="node">Section 10.2: </span><a href="nasmdo10.html#section-10.2">Writing NetBSD/FreeBSD/OpenBSD and Linux/ELF Shared Libraries</a>
  907 <ol class="toc3">
  908 <li class="toc3">
  909 <span class="node">Section 10.2.1: </span><a href="nasmdo10.html#section-10.2.1">Obtaining the Address of the GOT</a>
  910 </li>
  911 <li class="toc3">
  912 <span class="node">Section 10.2.2: </span><a href="nasmdo10.html#section-10.2.2">Finding Your Local Data Items</a>
  913 </li>
  914 <li class="toc3">
  915 <span class="node">Section 10.2.3: </span><a href="nasmdo10.html#section-10.2.3">Finding External and Common Data Items</a>
  916 </li>
  917 <li class="toc3">
  918 <span class="node">Section 10.2.4: </span><a href="nasmdo10.html#section-10.2.4">Exporting Symbols to the Library User</a>
  919 </li>
  920 <li class="toc3">
  921 <span class="node">Section 10.2.5: </span><a href="nasmdo10.html#section-10.2.5">Calling Procedures Outside the Library</a>
  922 </li>
  923 <li class="toc3">
  924 <span class="node">Section 10.2.6: </span><a href="nasmdo10.html#section-10.2.6">Generating the Library File</a>
  925 </li>
  926 </ol>
  927 </li>
  928 </ol>
  929 </li>
  930 <li class="toc1">
  931 <span class="node">Chapter 11: </span><a href="nasmdo11.html">Mixing 16- and 32-bit Code</a>
  932 <ol class="toc2">
  933 <li class="toc2">
  934 <span class="node">Section 11.1: </span><a href="nasmdo11.html#section-11.1">Mixed-Size Jumps</a>
  935 </li>
  936 <li class="toc2">
  937 <span class="node">Section 11.2: </span><a href="nasmdo11.html#section-11.2">Addressing Between Different-Size Segments</a>
  938 </li>
  939 <li class="toc2">
  940 <span class="node">Section 11.3: </span><a href="nasmdo11.html#section-11.3">Other Mixed-Size Instructions</a>
  941 </li>
  942 </ol>
  943 </li>
  944 <li class="toc1">
  945 <span class="node">Chapter 12: </span><a href="nasmdo12.html">Writing 64-bit Code (Unix, Win64)</a>
  946 <ol class="toc2">
  947 <li class="toc2">
  948 <span class="node">Section 12.1: </span><a href="nasmdo12.html#section-12.1">Register Names in 64-bit Mode</a>
  949 </li>
  950 <li class="toc2">
  951 <span class="node">Section 12.2: </span><a href="nasmdo12.html#section-12.2">Immediates and Displacements in 64-bit Mode</a>
  952 </li>
  953 <li class="toc2">
  954 <span class="node">Section 12.3: </span><a href="nasmdo12.html#section-12.3">Interfacing to 64-bit C Programs (Unix)</a>
  955 </li>
  956 <li class="toc2">
  957 <span class="node">Section 12.4: </span><a href="nasmdo12.html#section-12.4">Interfacing to 64-bit C Programs (Win64)</a>
  958 </li>
  959 </ol>
  960 </li>
  961 <li class="toc1">
  962 <span class="node">Chapter 13: </span><a href="nasmdo13.html">Troubleshooting</a>
  963 <ol class="toc2">
  964 <li class="toc2">
  965 <span class="node">Section 13.1: </span><a href="nasmdo13.html#section-13.1">Common Problems</a>
  966 <ol class="toc3">
  967 <li class="toc3">
  968 <span class="node">Section 13.1.1: </span><a href="nasmdo13.html#section-13.1.1">NASM Generates Inefficient Code</a>
  969 </li>
  970 <li class="toc3">
  971 <span class="node">Section 13.1.2: </span><a href="nasmdo13.html#section-13.1.2">My Jumps are Out of Range</a>
  972 </li>
  973 <li class="toc3">
  974 <span class="node">Section 13.1.3: </span><a href="nasmdo13.html#section-13.1.3"><code>ORG</code> Doesn't Work</a>
  975 </li>
  976 <li class="toc3">
  977 <span class="node">Section 13.1.4: </span><a href="nasmdo13.html#section-13.1.4"><code>TIMES</code> Doesn't Work</a>
  978 </li>
  979 </ol>
  980 </li>
  981 </ol>
  982 </li>
  983 <li class="toc1">
  984 <span class="node">Appendix A: </span><a href="nasmdoca.html">Ndisasm</a>
  985 <ol class="toc2">
  986 <li class="toc2">
  987 <span class="node">Section A.1: </span><a href="nasmdoca.html#section-A.1">Introduction</a>
  988 </li>
  989 <li class="toc2">
  990 <span class="node">Section A.2: </span><a href="nasmdoca.html#section-A.2">Running NDISASM</a>
  991 <ol class="toc3">
  992 <li class="toc3">
  993 <span class="node">Section A.2.1: </span><a href="nasmdoca.html#section-A.2.1">COM Files: Specifying an Origin</a>
  994 </li>
  995 <li class="toc3">
  996 <span class="node">Section A.2.2: </span><a href="nasmdoca.html#section-A.2.2">Code Following Data: Synchronization</a>
  997 </li>
  998 <li class="toc3">
  999 <span class="node">Section A.2.3: </span><a href="nasmdoca.html#section-A.2.3">Mixed Code and Data: Automatic (Intelligent) Synchronization </a>
 1000 </li>
 1001 <li class="toc3">
 1002 <span class="node">Section A.2.4: </span><a href="nasmdoca.html#section-A.2.4">Other Options</a>
 1003 </li>
 1004 </ol>
 1005 </li>
 1006 </ol>
 1007 </li>
 1008 <li class="toc1">
 1009 <span class="node">Appendix B: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html">Instruction List</a>
 1010 <ol class="toc2">
 1011 <li class="toc2">
 1012 <span class="node">Section B.1: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1">Introduction</a>
 1013 <ol class="toc3">
 1014 <li class="toc3">
 1015 <span class="node">Section B.1.1: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.1">Special instructions (pseudo-ops)</a>
 1016 </li>
 1017 <li class="toc3">
 1018 <span class="node">Section B.1.2: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.2">Conventional instructions</a>
 1019 </li>
 1020 <li class="toc3">
 1021 <span class="node">Section B.1.3: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.3">Katmai Streaming SIMD instructions (SSE &ndash;&ndash; a.k.a. KNI, XMM, MMX2)</a>
 1022 </li>
 1023 <li class="toc3">
 1024 <span class="node">Section B.1.4: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.4">Introduced in Deschutes but necessary for SSE support</a>
 1025 </li>
 1026 <li class="toc3">
 1027 <span class="node">Section B.1.5: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.5">XSAVE group (AVX and extended state)</a>
 1028 </li>
 1029 <li class="toc3">
 1030 <span class="node">Section B.1.6: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.6">Generic memory operations</a>
 1031 </li>
 1032 <li class="toc3">
 1033 <span class="node">Section B.1.7: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.7">New MMX instructions introduced in Katmai</a>
 1034 </li>
 1035 <li class="toc3">
 1036 <span class="node">Section B.1.8: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.8">AMD Enhanced 3DNow! (Athlon) instructions</a>
 1037 </li>
 1038 <li class="toc3">
 1039 <span class="node">Section B.1.9: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.9">Willamette SSE2 Cacheability Instructions</a>
 1040 </li>
 1041 <li class="toc3">
 1042 <span class="node">Section B.1.10: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.10">Willamette MMX instructions (SSE2 SIMD Integer Instructions)</a>
 1043 </li>
 1044 <li class="toc3">
 1045 <span class="node">Section B.1.11: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.11">Willamette Streaming SIMD instructions (SSE2)</a>
 1046 </li>
 1047 <li class="toc3">
 1048 <span class="node">Section B.1.12: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.12">Prescott New Instructions (SSE3)</a>
 1049 </li>
 1050 <li class="toc3">
 1051 <span class="node">Section B.1.13: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.13">VMX/SVM Instructions</a>
 1052 </li>
 1053 <li class="toc3">
 1054 <span class="node">Section B.1.14: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.14">Extended Page Tables VMX instructions</a>
 1055 </li>
 1056 <li class="toc3">
 1057 <span class="node">Section B.1.15: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.15">Tejas New Instructions (SSSE3)</a>
 1058 </li>
 1059 <li class="toc3">
 1060 <span class="node">Section B.1.16: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.16">AMD SSE4A</a>
 1061 </li>
 1062 <li class="toc3">
 1063 <span class="node">Section B.1.17: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.17">New instructions in Barcelona</a>
 1064 </li>
 1065 <li class="toc3">
 1066 <span class="node">Section B.1.18: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.18">Penryn New Instructions (SSE4.1)</a>
 1067 </li>
 1068 <li class="toc3">
 1069 <span class="node">Section B.1.19: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.19">Nehalem New Instructions (SSE4.2)</a>
 1070 </li>
 1071 <li class="toc3">
 1072 <span class="node">Section B.1.20: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.20">Intel SMX</a>
 1073 </li>
 1074 <li class="toc3">
 1075 <span class="node">Section B.1.21: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.21">Geode (Cyrix) 3DNow! additions</a>
 1076 </li>
 1077 <li class="toc3">
 1078 <span class="node">Section B.1.22: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.22">Intel new instructions in ???</a>
 1079 </li>
 1080 <li class="toc3">
 1081 <span class="node">Section B.1.23: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.23">Intel AES instructions</a>
 1082 </li>
 1083 <li class="toc3">
 1084 <span class="node">Section B.1.24: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.24">Intel AVX AES instructions</a>
 1085 </li>
 1086 <li class="toc3">
 1087 <span class="node">Section B.1.25: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.25">Intel instruction extension based on pub number 319433-030 dated October 2017</a>
 1088 </li>
 1089 <li class="toc3">
 1090 <span class="node">Section B.1.26: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.26">Intel AVX instructions</a>
 1091 </li>
 1092 <li class="toc3">
 1093 <span class="node">Section B.1.27: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.27">Intel Carry-Less Multiplication instructions (CLMUL)</a>
 1094 </li>
 1095 <li class="toc3">
 1096 <span class="node">Section B.1.28: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.28">Intel AVX Carry-Less Multiplication instructions (CLMUL)</a>
 1097 </li>
 1098 <li class="toc3">
 1099 <span class="node">Section B.1.29: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.29">Intel Fused Multiply-Add instructions (FMA)</a>
 1100 </li>
 1101 <li class="toc3">
 1102 <span class="node">Section B.1.30: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.30">Intel post-32 nm processor instructions</a>
 1103 </li>
 1104 <li class="toc3">
 1105 <span class="node">Section B.1.31: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.31">VIA (Centaur) security instructions</a>
 1106 </li>
 1107 <li class="toc3">
 1108 <span class="node">Section B.1.32: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.32">AMD Lightweight Profiling (LWP) instructions</a>
 1109 </li>
 1110 <li class="toc3">
 1111 <span class="node">Section B.1.33: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.33">AMD XOP and FMA4 instructions (SSE5)</a>
 1112 </li>
 1113 <li class="toc3">
 1114 <span class="node">Section B.1.34: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.34">Intel AVX2 instructions</a>
 1115 </li>
 1116 <li class="toc3">
 1117 <span class="node">Section B.1.35: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.35">Intel Transactional Synchronization Extensions (TSX)</a>
 1118 </li>
 1119 <li class="toc3">
 1120 <span class="node">Section B.1.36: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.36">Intel BMI1 and BMI2 instructions, AMD TBM instructions</a>
 1121 </li>
 1122 <li class="toc3">
 1123 <span class="node">Section B.1.37: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.37">Intel Memory Protection Extensions (MPX)</a>
 1124 </li>
 1125 <li class="toc3">
 1126 <span class="node">Section B.1.38: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.38">Intel SHA acceleration instructions</a>
 1127 </li>
 1128 <li class="toc3">
 1129 <span class="node">Section B.1.39: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.39">AVX-512 mask register instructions</a>
 1130 </li>
 1131 <li class="toc3">
 1132 <span class="node">Section B.1.40: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.40">AVX-512 mask register instructions (aliases requiring explicit size support)</a>
 1133 </li>
 1134 <li class="toc3">
 1135 <span class="node">Section B.1.41: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.41">AVX-512 instructions</a>
 1136 </li>
 1137 <li class="toc3">
 1138 <span class="node">Section B.1.42: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.42">Intel memory protection keys for userspace (PKU aka PKEYs)</a>
 1139 </li>
 1140 <li class="toc3">
 1141 <span class="node">Section B.1.43: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.43">Read Processor ID</a>
 1142 </li>
 1143 <li class="toc3">
 1144 <span class="node">Section B.1.44: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.44">New memory instructions</a>
 1145 </li>
 1146 <li class="toc3">
 1147 <span class="node">Section B.1.45: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.45">Processor trace write</a>
 1148 </li>
 1149 <li class="toc3">
 1150 <span class="node">Section B.1.46: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.46">Instructions from the Intel Instruction Set Extensions,</a>
 1151 </li>
 1152 <li class="toc3">
 1153 <span class="node">Section B.1.47: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.47">doc 319433-034 May 2018</a>
 1154 </li>
 1155 <li class="toc3">
 1156 <span class="node">Section B.1.48: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.48">Galois field operations (GFNI)</a>
 1157 </li>
 1158 <li class="toc3">
 1159 <span class="node">Section B.1.49: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.49">AVX512 Vector Bit Manipulation Instructions 2</a>
 1160 </li>
 1161 <li class="toc3">
 1162 <span class="node">Section B.1.50: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.50">AVX512 VNNI</a>
 1163 </li>
 1164 <li class="toc3">
 1165 <span class="node">Section B.1.51: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.51">AVX512 Bit Algorithms</a>
 1166 </li>
 1167 <li class="toc3">
 1168 <span class="node">Section B.1.52: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.52">AVX512 4-iteration Multiply-Add</a>
 1169 </li>
 1170 <li class="toc3">
 1171 <span class="node">Section B.1.53: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.53">AVX512 4-iteration Dot Product</a>
 1172 </li>
 1173 <li class="toc3">
 1174 <span class="node">Section B.1.54: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.54">Intel Software Guard Extensions (SGX)</a>
 1175 </li>
 1176 <li class="toc3">
 1177 <span class="node">Section B.1.55: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.55">Intel Control-Flow Enforcement Technology (CET)</a>
 1178 </li>
 1179 <li class="toc3">
 1180 <span class="node">Section B.1.56: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.56">Instructions from ISE doc 319433-040, June 2020</a>
 1181 </li>
 1182 <li class="toc3">
 1183 <span class="node">Section B.1.57: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.57">AVX512 Bfloat16 instructions</a>
 1184 </li>
 1185 <li class="toc3">
 1186 <span class="node">Section B.1.58: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.58">AVX512 mask intersect instructions</a>
 1187 </li>
 1188 <li class="toc3">
 1189 <span class="node">Section B.1.59: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.59">Intel Advanced Matrix Extensions (AMX)</a>
 1190 </li>
 1191 <li class="toc3">
 1192 <span class="node">Section B.1.60: </span><a href="nasmdocb.html#section-B.1.60">Systematic names for the hinting nop instructions</a>
 1193 </li>
 1194 </ol>
 1195 </li>
 1196 </ol>
 1197 </li>
 1198 <li class="toc1">
 1199 <span class="node">Appendix C: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html">NASM Version History</a>
 1200 <ol class="toc2">
 1201 <li class="toc2">
 1202 <span class="node">Section C.1: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1">NASM 2 Series</a>
 1203 <ol class="toc3">
 1204 <li class="toc3">
 1205 <span class="node">Section C.1.1: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.1">Version 2.15.05</a>
 1206 </li>
 1207 <li class="toc3">
 1208 <span class="node">Section C.1.2: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.2">Version 2.15.04</a>
 1209 </li>
 1210 <li class="toc3">
 1211 <span class="node">Section C.1.3: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.3">Version 2.15.03</a>
 1212 </li>
 1213 <li class="toc3">
 1214 <span class="node">Section C.1.4: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.4">Version 2.15.02</a>
 1215 </li>
 1216 <li class="toc3">
 1217 <span class="node">Section C.1.5: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.5">Version 2.15.01</a>
 1218 </li>
 1219 <li class="toc3">
 1220 <span class="node">Section C.1.6: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.6">Version 2.15</a>
 1221 </li>
 1222 <li class="toc3">
 1223 <span class="node">Section C.1.7: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.7">Version 2.14.03</a>
 1224 </li>
 1225 <li class="toc3">
 1226 <span class="node">Section C.1.8: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.8">Version 2.14.02</a>
 1227 </li>
 1228 <li class="toc3">
 1229 <span class="node">Section C.1.9: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.9">Version 2.14.01</a>
 1230 </li>
 1231 <li class="toc3">
 1232 <span class="node">Section C.1.10: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.10">Version 2.14</a>
 1233 </li>
 1234 <li class="toc3">
 1235 <span class="node">Section C.1.11: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.11">Version 2.13.03</a>
 1236 </li>
 1237 <li class="toc3">
 1238 <span class="node">Section C.1.12: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.12">Version 2.13.02</a>
 1239 </li>
 1240 <li class="toc3">
 1241 <span class="node">Section C.1.13: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.13">Version 2.13.01</a>
 1242 </li>
 1243 <li class="toc3">
 1244 <span class="node">Section C.1.14: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.14">Version 2.13</a>
 1245 </li>
 1246 <li class="toc3">
 1247 <span class="node">Section C.1.15: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.15">Version 2.12.02</a>
 1248 </li>
 1249 <li class="toc3">
 1250 <span class="node">Section C.1.16: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.16">Version 2.12.01</a>
 1251 </li>
 1252 <li class="toc3">
 1253 <span class="node">Section C.1.17: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.17">Version 2.12</a>
 1254 </li>
 1255 <li class="toc3">
 1256 <span class="node">Section C.1.18: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.18">Version 2.11.09</a>
 1257 </li>
 1258 <li class="toc3">
 1259 <span class="node">Section C.1.19: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.19">Version 2.11.08</a>
 1260 </li>
 1261 <li class="toc3">
 1262 <span class="node">Section C.1.20: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.20">Version 2.11.07</a>
 1263 </li>
 1264 <li class="toc3">
 1265 <span class="node">Section C.1.21: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.21">Version 2.11.06</a>
 1266 </li>
 1267 <li class="toc3">
 1268 <span class="node">Section C.1.22: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.22">Version 2.11.05</a>
 1269 </li>
 1270 <li class="toc3">
 1271 <span class="node">Section C.1.23: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.23">Version 2.11.04</a>
 1272 </li>
 1273 <li class="toc3">
 1274 <span class="node">Section C.1.24: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.24">Version 2.11.03</a>
 1275 </li>
 1276 <li class="toc3">
 1277 <span class="node">Section C.1.25: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.25">Version 2.11.02</a>
 1278 </li>
 1279 <li class="toc3">
 1280 <span class="node">Section C.1.26: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.26">Version 2.11.01</a>
 1281 </li>
 1282 <li class="toc3">
 1283 <span class="node">Section C.1.27: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.27">Version 2.11</a>
 1284 </li>
 1285 <li class="toc3">
 1286 <span class="node">Section C.1.28: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.28">Version 2.10.09</a>
 1287 </li>
 1288 <li class="toc3">
 1289 <span class="node">Section C.1.29: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.29">Version 2.10.08</a>
 1290 </li>
 1291 <li class="toc3">
 1292 <span class="node">Section C.1.30: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.30">Version 2.10.07</a>
 1293 </li>
 1294 <li class="toc3">
 1295 <span class="node">Section C.1.31: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.31">Version 2.10.06</a>
 1296 </li>
 1297 <li class="toc3">
 1298 <span class="node">Section C.1.32: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.32">Version 2.10.05</a>
 1299 </li>
 1300 <li class="toc3">
 1301 <span class="node">Section C.1.33: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.33">Version 2.10.04</a>
 1302 </li>
 1303 <li class="toc3">
 1304 <span class="node">Section C.1.34: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.34">Version 2.10.03</a>
 1305 </li>
 1306 <li class="toc3">
 1307 <span class="node">Section C.1.35: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.35">Version 2.10.02</a>
 1308 </li>
 1309 <li class="toc3">
 1310 <span class="node">Section C.1.36: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.36">Version 2.10.01</a>
 1311 </li>
 1312 <li class="toc3">
 1313 <span class="node">Section C.1.37: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.37">Version 2.10</a>
 1314 </li>
 1315 <li class="toc3">
 1316 <span class="node">Section C.1.38: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.38">Version 2.09.10</a>
 1317 </li>
 1318 <li class="toc3">
 1319 <span class="node">Section C.1.39: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.39">Version 2.09.09</a>
 1320 </li>
 1321 <li class="toc3">
 1322 <span class="node">Section C.1.40: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.40">Version 2.09.08</a>
 1323 </li>
 1324 <li class="toc3">
 1325 <span class="node">Section C.1.41: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.41">Version 2.09.07</a>
 1326 </li>
 1327 <li class="toc3">
 1328 <span class="node">Section C.1.42: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.42">Version 2.09.06</a>
 1329 </li>
 1330 <li class="toc3">
 1331 <span class="node">Section C.1.43: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.43">Version 2.09.05</a>
 1332 </li>
 1333 <li class="toc3">
 1334 <span class="node">Section C.1.44: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.44">Version 2.09.04</a>
 1335 </li>
 1336 <li class="toc3">
 1337 <span class="node">Section C.1.45: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.45">Version 2.09.03</a>
 1338 </li>
 1339 <li class="toc3">
 1340 <span class="node">Section C.1.46: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.46">Version 2.09.02</a>
 1341 </li>
 1342 <li class="toc3">
 1343 <span class="node">Section C.1.47: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.47">Version 2.09.01</a>
 1344 </li>
 1345 <li class="toc3">
 1346 <span class="node">Section C.1.48: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.48">Version 2.09</a>
 1347 </li>
 1348 <li class="toc3">
 1349 <span class="node">Section C.1.49: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.49">Version 2.08.02</a>
 1350 </li>
 1351 <li class="toc3">
 1352 <span class="node">Section C.1.50: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.50">Version 2.08.01</a>
 1353 </li>
 1354 <li class="toc3">
 1355 <span class="node">Section C.1.51: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.51">Version 2.08</a>
 1356 </li>
 1357 <li class="toc3">
 1358 <span class="node">Section C.1.52: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.52">Version 2.07</a>
 1359 </li>
 1360 <li class="toc3">
 1361 <span class="node">Section C.1.53: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.53">Version 2.06</a>
 1362 </li>
 1363 <li class="toc3">
 1364 <span class="node">Section C.1.54: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.54">Version 2.05.01</a>
 1365 </li>
 1366 <li class="toc3">
 1367 <span class="node">Section C.1.55: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.55">Version 2.05</a>
 1368 </li>
 1369 <li class="toc3">
 1370 <span class="node">Section C.1.56: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.56">Version 2.04</a>
 1371 </li>
 1372 <li class="toc3">
 1373 <span class="node">Section C.1.57: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.57">Version 2.03.01</a>
 1374 </li>
 1375 <li class="toc3">
 1376 <span class="node">Section C.1.58: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.58">Version 2.03</a>
 1377 </li>
 1378 <li class="toc3">
 1379 <span class="node">Section C.1.59: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.59">Version 2.02</a>
 1380 </li>
 1381 <li class="toc3">
 1382 <span class="node">Section C.1.60: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.60">Version 2.01</a>
 1383 </li>
 1384 <li class="toc3">
 1385 <span class="node">Section C.1.61: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.1.61">Version 2.00</a>
 1386 </li>
 1387 </ol>
 1388 </li>
 1389 <li class="toc2">
 1390 <span class="node">Section C.2: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2">NASM 0.98 Series</a>
 1391 <ol class="toc3">
 1392 <li class="toc3">
 1393 <span class="node">Section C.2.1: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.1">Version 0.98.39</a>
 1394 </li>
 1395 <li class="toc3">
 1396 <span class="node">Section C.2.2: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.2">Version 0.98.38</a>
 1397 </li>
 1398 <li class="toc3">
 1399 <span class="node">Section C.2.3: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.3">Version 0.98.37</a>
 1400 </li>
 1401 <li class="toc3">
 1402 <span class="node">Section C.2.4: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.4">Version 0.98.36</a>
 1403 </li>
 1404 <li class="toc3">
 1405 <span class="node">Section C.2.5: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.5">Version 0.98.35</a>
 1406 </li>
 1407 <li class="toc3">
 1408 <span class="node">Section C.2.6: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.6">Version 0.98.34</a>
 1409 </li>
 1410 <li class="toc3">
 1411 <span class="node">Section C.2.7: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.7">Version 0.98.33</a>
 1412 </li>
 1413 <li class="toc3">
 1414 <span class="node">Section C.2.8: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.8">Version 0.98.32</a>
 1415 </li>
 1416 <li class="toc3">
 1417 <span class="node">Section C.2.9: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.9">Version 0.98.31</a>
 1418 </li>
 1419 <li class="toc3">
 1420 <span class="node">Section C.2.10: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.10">Version 0.98.30</a>
 1421 </li>
 1422 <li class="toc3">
 1423 <span class="node">Section C.2.11: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.11">Version 0.98.28</a>
 1424 </li>
 1425 <li class="toc3">
 1426 <span class="node">Section C.2.12: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.12">Version 0.98.26</a>
 1427 </li>
 1428 <li class="toc3">
 1429 <span class="node">Section C.2.13: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.13">Version 0.98.25alt</a>
 1430 </li>
 1431 <li class="toc3">
 1432 <span class="node">Section C.2.14: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.14">Version 0.98.25</a>
 1433 </li>
 1434 <li class="toc3">
 1435 <span class="node">Section C.2.15: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.15">Version 0.98.24p1</a>
 1436 </li>
 1437 <li class="toc3">
 1438 <span class="node">Section C.2.16: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.16">Version 0.98.24</a>
 1439 </li>
 1440 <li class="toc3">
 1441 <span class="node">Section C.2.17: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.17">Version 0.98.23</a>
 1442 </li>
 1443 <li class="toc3">
 1444 <span class="node">Section C.2.18: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.18">Version 0.98.22</a>
 1445 </li>
 1446 <li class="toc3">
 1447 <span class="node">Section C.2.19: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.19">Version 0.98.21</a>
 1448 </li>
 1449 <li class="toc3">
 1450 <span class="node">Section C.2.20: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.20">Version 0.98.20</a>
 1451 </li>
 1452 <li class="toc3">
 1453 <span class="node">Section C.2.21: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.21">Version 0.98.19</a>
 1454 </li>
 1455 <li class="toc3">
 1456 <span class="node">Section C.2.22: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.22">Version 0.98.18</a>
 1457 </li>
 1458 <li class="toc3">
 1459 <span class="node">Section C.2.23: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.23">Version 0.98.17</a>
 1460 </li>
 1461 <li class="toc3">
 1462 <span class="node">Section C.2.24: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.24">Version 0.98.16</a>
 1463 </li>
 1464 <li class="toc3">
 1465 <span class="node">Section C.2.25: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.25">Version 0.98.15</a>
 1466 </li>
 1467 <li class="toc3">
 1468 <span class="node">Section C.2.26: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.26">Version 0.98.14</a>
 1469 </li>
 1470 <li class="toc3">
 1471 <span class="node">Section C.2.27: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.27">Version 0.98.13</a>
 1472 </li>
 1473 <li class="toc3">
 1474 <span class="node">Section C.2.28: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.28">Version 0.98.12</a>
 1475 </li>
 1476 <li class="toc3">
 1477 <span class="node">Section C.2.29: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.29">Version 0.98.11</a>
 1478 </li>
 1479 <li class="toc3">
 1480 <span class="node">Section C.2.30: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.30">Version 0.98.10</a>
 1481 </li>
 1482 <li class="toc3">
 1483 <span class="node">Section C.2.31: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.31">Version 0.98.09</a>
 1484 </li>
 1485 <li class="toc3">
 1486 <span class="node">Section C.2.32: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.32">Version 0.98.08</a>
 1487 </li>
 1488 <li class="toc3">
 1489 <span class="node">Section C.2.33: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.33">Version 0.98.09b with John Coffman patches released 28-Oct-2001</a>
 1490 </li>
 1491 <li class="toc3">
 1492 <span class="node">Section C.2.34: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.34">Version 0.98.07 released 01/28/01</a>
 1493 </li>
 1494 <li class="toc3">
 1495 <span class="node">Section C.2.35: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.35">Version 0.98.06f released 01/18/01</a>
 1496 </li>
 1497 <li class="toc3">
 1498 <span class="node">Section C.2.36: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.36">Version 0.98.06e released 01/09/01</a>
 1499 </li>
 1500 <li class="toc3">
 1501 <span class="node">Section C.2.37: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.37">Version 0.98p1</a>
 1502 </li>
 1503 <li class="toc3">
 1504 <span class="node">Section C.2.38: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.38">Version 0.98bf (bug-fixed)</a>
 1505 </li>
 1506 <li class="toc3">
 1507 <span class="node">Section C.2.39: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.39">Version 0.98.03 with John Coffman's changes released 27-Jul-2000</a>
 1508 </li>
 1509 <li class="toc3">
 1510 <span class="node">Section C.2.40: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.40">Version 0.98.03</a>
 1511 </li>
 1512 <li class="toc3">
 1513 <span class="node">Section C.2.41: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.41">Version 0.98</a>
 1514 </li>
 1515 <li class="toc3">
 1516 <span class="node">Section C.2.42: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.42">Version 0.98p9</a>
 1517 </li>
 1518 <li class="toc3">
 1519 <span class="node">Section C.2.43: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.43">Version 0.98p8</a>
 1520 </li>
 1521 <li class="toc3">
 1522 <span class="node">Section C.2.44: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.44">Version 0.98p7</a>
 1523 </li>
 1524 <li class="toc3">
 1525 <span class="node">Section C.2.45: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.45">Version 0.98p6</a>
 1526 </li>
 1527 <li class="toc3">
 1528 <span class="node">Section C.2.46: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.46">Version 0.98p3.7</a>
 1529 </li>
 1530 <li class="toc3">
 1531 <span class="node">Section C.2.47: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.47">Version 0.98p3.6</a>
 1532 </li>
 1533 <li class="toc3">
 1534 <span class="node">Section C.2.48: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.48">Version 0.98p3.5</a>
 1535 </li>
 1536 <li class="toc3">
 1537 <span class="node">Section C.2.49: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.49">Version 0.98p3.4</a>
 1538 </li>
 1539 <li class="toc3">
 1540 <span class="node">Section C.2.50: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.50">Version 0.98p3.3</a>
 1541 </li>
 1542 <li class="toc3">
 1543 <span class="node">Section C.2.51: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.51">Version 0.98p3.2</a>
 1544 </li>
 1545 <li class="toc3">
 1546 <span class="node">Section C.2.52: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.52">Version 0.98p3-hpa</a>
 1547 </li>
 1548 <li class="toc3">
 1549 <span class="node">Section C.2.53: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.53">Version 0.98 pre-release 3</a>
 1550 </li>
 1551 <li class="toc3">
 1552 <span class="node">Section C.2.54: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.54">Version 0.98 pre-release 2</a>
 1553 </li>
 1554 <li class="toc3">
 1555 <span class="node">Section C.2.55: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.2.55">Version 0.98 pre-release 1</a>
 1556 </li>
 1557 </ol>
 1558 </li>
 1559 <li class="toc2">
 1560 <span class="node">Section C.3: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.3">NASM 0.9 Series</a>
 1561 <ol class="toc3">
 1562 <li class="toc3">
 1563 <span class="node">Section C.3.1: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.3.1">Version 0.97 released December 1997</a>
 1564 </li>
 1565 <li class="toc3">
 1566 <span class="node">Section C.3.2: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.3.2">Version 0.96 released November 1997</a>
 1567 </li>
 1568 <li class="toc3">
 1569 <span class="node">Section C.3.3: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.3.3">Version 0.95 released July 1997</a>
 1570 </li>
 1571 <li class="toc3">
 1572 <span class="node">Section C.3.4: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.3.4">Version 0.94 released April 1997</a>
 1573 </li>
 1574 <li class="toc3">
 1575 <span class="node">Section C.3.5: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.3.5">Version 0.93 released January 1997</a>
 1576 </li>
 1577 <li class="toc3">
 1578 <span class="node">Section C.3.6: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.3.6">Version 0.92 released January 1997</a>
 1579 </li>
 1580 <li class="toc3">
 1581 <span class="node">Section C.3.7: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.3.7">Version 0.91 released November 1996</a>
 1582 </li>
 1583 <li class="toc3">
 1584 <span class="node">Section C.3.8: </span><a href="nasmdocc.html#section-C.3.8">Version 0.90 released October 1996</a>
 1585 </li>
 1586 </ol>
 1587 </li>
 1588 </ol>
 1589 </li>
 1590 <li class="toc1">
 1591 <span class="node">Appendix D: </span><a href="nasmdocd.html">Building NASM from Source</a>
 1592 <ol class="toc2">
 1593 <li class="toc2">
 1594 <span class="node">Section D.1: </span><a href="nasmdocd.html#section-D.1">Building from a Source Archive</a>
 1595 </li>
 1596 <li class="toc2">
 1597 <span class="node">Section D.2: </span><a href="nasmdocd.html#section-D.2">Building from the <code>git</code> Repository</a>
 1598 </li>
 1599 <li class="toc2">
 1600 <span class="node">Section D.3: </span><a href="nasmdocd.html#section-D.3">Building the documentation</a>
 1601 </li>
 1602 </ol>
 1603 </li>
 1604 <li class="toc1">
 1605 <span class="node">Appendix E: </span><a href="nasmdoce.html">Contact Information</a>
 1606 <ol class="toc2">
 1607 <li class="toc2">
 1608 <span class="node">Section E.1: </span><a href="nasmdoce.html#section-E.1">Website</a>
 1609 <ol class="toc3">
 1610 <li class="toc3">
 1611 <span class="node">Section E.1.1: </span><a href="nasmdoce.html#section-E.1.1">User Forums</a>
 1612 </li>
 1613 <li class="toc3">
 1614 <span class="node">Section E.1.2: </span><a href="nasmdoce.html#section-E.1.2">Development Community</a>
 1615 </li>
 1616 </ol>
 1617 </li>
 1618 <li class="toc2">
 1619 <span class="node">Section E.2: </span><a href="nasmdoce.html#section-E.2">Reporting Bugs</a>
 1620 </li>
 1621 </ol>
 1622 </li>
 1623 </ol>
 1624 </div>
 1625 </body>
 1626 </html>