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    1 '\" t
    2 .TH LESSKEY 1 "Version 562: 19 May 2020"
    3 .SH NAME
    4 lesskey \- specify key bindings for less
    5 .SH SYNOPSIS
    6 .B "lesskey [\-o output] [\-\-] [input]"
    7 .br
    8 .B "lesskey [\-\-output=output] [\-\-] [input]"
    9 .br
   10 .B "lesskey \-V"
   11 .br
   12 .B "lesskey \-\-version"
   13 .SH DESCRIPTION
   14 .I Lesskey
   15 is used to specify a set of key bindings to be used by
   16 .IR less .
   17 The input file is a text file which describes the key bindings.
   18 If the input file is "\-", standard input is read.
   19 If no input file is specified, a standard filename is used
   20 as the name of the input file, which depends on the system being used:
   21 On Unix systems, $HOME/.lesskey is used;
   22 on MS-DOS systems, $HOME/_lesskey is used;
   23 and on OS/2 systems $HOME/lesskey.ini is used,
   24 or $INIT/lesskey.ini if $HOME is undefined.
   25 The output file is a binary file which is used by
   26 .IR less .
   27 If no output file is specified,
   28 and the environment variable LESSKEY is set,
   29 the value of LESSKEY is used as the name of the output file.
   30 Otherwise, a standard filename is used as the name of the output file,
   31 which depends on the system being used:
   32 On Unix and OS-9 systems, $HOME/.less is used;
   33 on MS-DOS systems, $HOME/_less is used;
   34 and on OS/2 systems, $HOME/less.ini is used,
   35 or $INIT/less.ini if $HOME is undefined.
   36 If the output file already exists,
   37 .I lesskey
   38 will overwrite it.
   39 .PP
   40 The \-V or \-\-version option causes
   41 .I lesskey
   42 to print its version number and immediately exit.
   43 If \-V or \-\-version is present, other options and arguments are ignored.
   44 .PP
   45 The input file consists of one or more
   46 .I sections.
   47 Each section starts with a line that identifies the type of section.
   48 Possible sections are:
   49 .IP #command
   50 Defines new command keys.
   51 .IP #line-edit
   52 Defines new line-editing keys.
   53 .IP #env
   54 Defines environment variables.
   55 .PP
   56 Blank lines and lines which start with a pound sign (#) are ignored,
   57 except for the special section header lines.
   58 .
   59 .SH "COMMAND SECTION"
   60 The command section begins with the line
   61 .sp
   62 #command
   63 .sp
   64 If the command section is the first section in the file,
   65 this line may be omitted.
   66 The command section consists of lines of the form:
   67 .sp
   68 	\fIstring\fP <whitespace> \fIaction\fP [extra-string] <newline>
   69 .sp
   70 Whitespace is any sequence of one or more spaces and/or tabs.
   71 The \fIstring\fP is the command key(s) which invoke the action.
   72 The \fIstring\fP may be a single command key, or a sequence of up to 15 keys.
   73 The \fIaction\fP is the name of the less action, from the list below.
   74 The characters in the \fIstring\fP may appear literally, or be
   75 prefixed by a caret to indicate a control key.
   76 A backslash followed by one to three octal digits may be used to
   77 specify a character by its octal value.
   78 A backslash followed by certain characters specifies input
   79 characters as follows:
   80 .IP \eb
   81 BACKSPACE
   82 .IP \ee
   83 ESCAPE
   84 .IP \en
   85 NEWLINE
   86 .IP \er
   87 RETURN
   88 .IP \et
   89 TAB
   90 .IP \eku
   91 UP ARROW
   92 .IP \ekd
   93 DOWN ARROW
   94 .IP \ekr
   95 RIGHT ARROW
   96 .IP \ekl
   97 LEFT ARROW
   98 .IP \ekU
   99 PAGE UP
  100 .IP \ekD
  101 PAGE DOWN
  102 .IP \ekh
  103 HOME
  104 .IP \eke
  105 END
  106 .IP \ekx
  107 DELETE
  108 .PP
  109 A backslash followed by any other character indicates that character is
  110 to be taken literally.
  111 Characters which must be preceded by backslash include
  112 caret, space, tab and the backslash itself.
  113 .PP
  114 An action may be followed by an "extra" string.
  115 When such a command is entered while running
  116 .IR less ,
  117 the action is performed, and then the extra
  118 string is parsed, just as if it were typed in to
  119 .IR less .
  120 This feature can be used in certain cases to extend
  121 the functionality of a command.
  122 For example, see the "{" and ":t" commands in the example below.
  123 The extra string has a special meaning for the "quit" action:
  124 when
  125 .I less
  126 quits, first character of the extra string is used as its exit status.
  127 .
  128 .SH EXAMPLE
  129 The following input file describes the set of
  130 default command keys used by less:
  131 .sp
  132 .RS 5m
  133 .TS
  134 l l.
  135 #command
  136 \er	forw-line
  137 \en	forw-line
  138 e	forw-line
  139 j	forw-line
  140 \ekd	forw-line
  141 ^E	forw-line
  142 ^N	forw-line
  143 k	back-line
  144 y	back-line
  145 ^Y	back-line
  146 ^K	back-line
  147 ^P	back-line
  148 J	forw-line-force
  149 K	back-line-force
  150 Y	back-line-force
  151 d	forw-scroll
  152 ^D	forw-scroll
  153 u	back-scroll
  154 ^U	back-scroll
  155 \e40	forw-screen
  156 f	forw-screen
  157 ^F	forw-screen
  158 ^V	forw-screen
  159 \ekD	forw-screen
  160 b	back-screen
  161 ^B	back-screen
  162 \eev	back-screen
  163 \ekU	back-screen
  164 z	forw-window
  165 w	back-window
  166 \ee\e40	forw-screen-force
  167 F	forw-forever
  168 \eeF	forw-until-hilite
  169 R	repaint-flush
  170 r	repaint
  171 ^R	repaint
  172 ^L	repaint
  173 \eeu	undo-hilite
  174 g	goto-line
  175 \ekh	goto-line
  176 <	goto-line
  177 \ee<	goto-line
  178 p	percent
  179 %	percent
  180 \ee[	left-scroll
  181 \ee]	right-scroll
  182 \ee(	left-scroll
  183 \ee)	right-scroll
  184 \ekl	left-scroll
  185 \ekr	right-scroll
  186 \ee{	no-scroll
  187 \ee}	end-scroll
  188 {	forw-bracket {}
  189 }	back-bracket {}
  190 (	forw-bracket ()
  191 )	back-bracket ()
  192 [	forw-bracket []
  193 ]	back-bracket []
  194 \ee^F	forw-bracket
  195 \ee^B	back-bracket
  196 G	goto-end
  197 \ee>	goto-end
  198 >	goto-end
  199 \eke	goto-end
  200 \eeG	goto-end-buffered
  201 \&=	status
  202 ^G	status
  203 :f	status
  204 /	forw-search
  205 ?	back-search
  206 \ee/	forw-search *
  207 \ee?	back-search *
  208 n	repeat-search
  209 \een	repeat-search-all
  210 N	reverse-search
  211 \eeN	reverse-search-all
  212 &	filter
  213 m	set-mark
  214 M	set-mark-bottom
  215 \eem	clear-mark
  216 '	goto-mark
  217 ^X^X	goto-mark
  218 E	examine
  219 :e	examine
  220 ^X^V	examine
  221 :n	next-file
  222 :p	prev-file
  223 t	next-tag
  224 T	prev-tag
  225 :x	index-file
  226 :d	remove-file
  227 -	toggle-option
  228 :t	toggle-option t
  229 s	toggle-option o
  230 \&_	display-option
  231 |	pipe
  232 v	visual
  233 !	shell
  234 +	firstcmd
  235 H	help
  236 h	help
  237 V	version
  238 0	digit
  239 1	digit
  240 2	digit
  241 3	digit
  242 4	digit
  243 5	digit
  244 6	digit
  245 7	digit
  246 8	digit
  247 9	digit
  248 q	quit
  249 Q	quit
  250 :q	quit
  251 :Q	quit
  252 ZZ	quit
  253 .TE
  254 .RE
  255 .sp
  256 .SH PRECEDENCE
  257 Commands specified by
  258 .I lesskey
  259 take precedence over the default commands.
  260 A default command key may be disabled by including it in the
  261 input file with the action "invalid".
  262 Alternatively, a key may be defined
  263 to do nothing by using the action "noaction".
  264 "noaction" is similar to "invalid", but
  265 .I less
  266 will give an error beep for an "invalid" command,
  267 but not for a "noaction" command.
  268 In addition, ALL default commands may be disabled by
  269 adding this control line to the input file:
  270 .sp
  271 #stop
  272 .sp
  273 This will cause all default commands to be ignored.
  274 The #stop line should be the last line in that section of the file.
  275 .PP
  276 Be aware that #stop can be dangerous.
  277 Since all default commands are disabled,
  278 you must provide sufficient commands before the #stop line
  279 to enable all necessary actions.
  280 For example, failure to provide a "quit" command can lead to frustration.
  281 .
  282 .SH "LINE EDITING SECTION"
  283 The line-editing section begins with the line:
  284 .sp
  285 #line-edit
  286 .sp
  287 This section specifies new key bindings for the line editing commands,
  288 in a manner similar to the way key bindings for
  289 ordinary commands are specified in the #command section.
  290 The line-editing section consists of a list of keys and actions,
  291 one per line as in the example below.
  292 .
  293 .SH EXAMPLE
  294 The following input file describes the set of
  295 default line-editing keys used by less:
  296 .sp
  297 .RS 5m
  298 .TS
  299 l l.
  300 #line-edit
  301 \et	forw-complete
  302 \e17	back-complete
  303 \ee\et	back-complete
  304 ^L	expand
  305 ^V	literal
  306 ^A	literal
  307 \eel	right
  308 \ekr	right
  309 \eeh	left
  310 \ekl	left
  311 \eeb	word-left
  312 \ee\ekl	word-left
  313 \eew	word-right
  314 \ee\ekr	word-right
  315 \eei	insert
  316 \eex	delete
  317 \ekx	delete
  318 \eeX	word-delete
  319 \eekx	word-delete
  320 \ee\eb	word-backspace
  321 \ee0	home
  322 \ekh	home
  323 \ee$	end
  324 \eke	end
  325 \eek	up
  326 \eku	up
  327 \eej	down
  328 ^G	abort
  329 .TE
  330 .RE
  331 .sp
  332 .
  333 .SH "LESS ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES"
  334 The environment variable section begins with the line
  335 .sp
  336 #env
  337 .sp
  338 Following this line is a list of environment variable assignments.
  339 Each line consists of an environment variable name, an equals sign (=)
  340 and the value to be assigned to the environment variable.
  341 White space before and after the equals sign is ignored.
  342 Variables assigned in this way are visible only to
  343 .IR less .
  344 If a variable is specified in the system environment and also in a
  345 lesskey file, the value in the lesskey file takes precedence.
  346 Although the lesskey file can be used to override variables set in the
  347 environment, the main purpose of assigning variables in the lesskey file
  348 is simply to have all
  349 .I less
  350 configuration information stored in one file.
  351 .
  352 .SH EXAMPLE
  353 The following input file sets the \-i option whenever
  354 .I less
  355 is run, and specifies the character set to be "latin1":
  356 .sp
  357 .nf
  358 	#env
  359 	LESS = \-i
  360 	LESSCHARSET = latin1
  361 .fi
  362 .sp
  363 .
  364 .SH "SEE ALSO"
  365 .BR less (1)
  366 .
  367 .SH WARNINGS
  368 On MS-DOS and OS/2 systems, certain keys send a sequence of characters
  369 which start with a NUL character (0).
  370 This NUL character should be represented as \e340 in a lesskey file.
  371 .
  372 .SH COPYRIGHT
  373 Copyright (C) 1984-2020  Mark Nudelman
  374 .PP
  375 less is part of the GNU project and is free software.
  376 You can redistribute it and/or modify it
  377 under the terms of either
  378 (1) the GNU General Public License as published by
  379 the Free Software Foundation; or (2) the Less License.
  380 See the file README in the less distribution for more details
  381 regarding redistribution.
  382 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
  383 along with the source for less; see the file COPYING.
  384 If not, write to the Free Software Foundation, 59 Temple Place,
  385 Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307, USA.
  386 You should also have received a copy of the Less License;
  387 see the file LICENSE.
  388 .PP
  389 less is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
  390 WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY
  391 or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
  392 See the GNU General Public License for more details.
  393 .
  394 .SH AUTHOR
  395 .
  396 Mark Nudelman
  397 .br
  398 Send bug reports or comments to <bug-less@gnu.org>.