"Fossies" - the Fresh Open Source Software Archive

Member "gitrevisions.html" (15 Dec 2018, 39197 Bytes) of package /linux/misc/git-htmldocs-2.20.1.tar.xz:


As a special service "Fossies" has tried to format the requested source page into HTML format using (guessed) HTML source code syntax highlighting (style: standard) with prefixed line numbers. Alternatively you can here view or download the uninterpreted source code file.

    1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    2 <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1//EN"
    3     "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/DTD/xhtml11.dtd">
    4 <html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
    5 <head>
    6 <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="application/xhtml+xml; charset=UTF-8" />
    7 <meta name="generator" content="AsciiDoc 8.6.10" />
    8 <title>gitrevisions(7)</title>
    9 <style type="text/css">
   10 /* Shared CSS for AsciiDoc xhtml11 and html5 backends */
   11 
   12 /* Default font. */
   13 body {
   14   font-family: Georgia,serif;
   15 }
   16 
   17 /* Title font. */
   18 h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6,
   19 div.title, caption.title,
   20 thead, p.table.header,
   21 #toctitle,
   22 #author, #revnumber, #revdate, #revremark,
   23 #footer {
   24   font-family: Arial,Helvetica,sans-serif;
   25 }
   26 
   27 body {
   28   margin: 1em 5% 1em 5%;
   29 }
   30 
   31 a {
   32   color: blue;
   33   text-decoration: underline;
   34 }
   35 a:visited {
   36   color: fuchsia;
   37 }
   38 
   39 em {
   40   font-style: italic;
   41   color: navy;
   42 }
   43 
   44 strong {
   45   font-weight: bold;
   46   color: #083194;
   47 }
   48 
   49 h1, h2, h3, h4, h5, h6 {
   50   color: #527bbd;
   51   margin-top: 1.2em;
   52   margin-bottom: 0.5em;
   53   line-height: 1.3;
   54 }
   55 
   56 h1, h2, h3 {
   57   border-bottom: 2px solid silver;
   58 }
   59 h2 {
   60   padding-top: 0.5em;
   61 }
   62 h3 {
   63   float: left;
   64 }
   65 h3 + * {
   66   clear: left;
   67 }
   68 h5 {
   69   font-size: 1.0em;
   70 }
   71 
   72 div.sectionbody {
   73   margin-left: 0;
   74 }
   75 
   76 hr {
   77   border: 1px solid silver;
   78 }
   79 
   80 p {
   81   margin-top: 0.5em;
   82   margin-bottom: 0.5em;
   83 }
   84 
   85 ul, ol, li > p {
   86   margin-top: 0;
   87 }
   88 ul > li     { color: #aaa; }
   89 ul > li > * { color: black; }
   90 
   91 .monospaced, code, pre {
   92   font-family: "Courier New", Courier, monospace;
   93   font-size: inherit;
   94   color: navy;
   95   padding: 0;
   96   margin: 0;
   97 }
   98 pre {
   99   white-space: pre-wrap;
  100 }
  101 
  102 #author {
  103   color: #527bbd;
  104   font-weight: bold;
  105   font-size: 1.1em;
  106 }
  107 #email {
  108 }
  109 #revnumber, #revdate, #revremark {
  110 }
  111 
  112 #footer {
  113   font-size: small;
  114   border-top: 2px solid silver;
  115   padding-top: 0.5em;
  116   margin-top: 4.0em;
  117 }
  118 #footer-text {
  119   float: left;
  120   padding-bottom: 0.5em;
  121 }
  122 #footer-badges {
  123   float: right;
  124   padding-bottom: 0.5em;
  125 }
  126 
  127 #preamble {
  128   margin-top: 1.5em;
  129   margin-bottom: 1.5em;
  130 }
  131 div.imageblock, div.exampleblock, div.verseblock,
  132 div.quoteblock, div.literalblock, div.listingblock, div.sidebarblock,
  133 div.admonitionblock {
  134   margin-top: 1.0em;
  135   margin-bottom: 1.5em;
  136 }
  137 div.admonitionblock {
  138   margin-top: 2.0em;
  139   margin-bottom: 2.0em;
  140   margin-right: 10%;
  141   color: #606060;
  142 }
  143 
  144 div.content { /* Block element content. */
  145   padding: 0;
  146 }
  147 
  148 /* Block element titles. */
  149 div.title, caption.title {
  150   color: #527bbd;
  151   font-weight: bold;
  152   text-align: left;
  153   margin-top: 1.0em;
  154   margin-bottom: 0.5em;
  155 }
  156 div.title + * {
  157   margin-top: 0;
  158 }
  159 
  160 td div.title:first-child {
  161   margin-top: 0.0em;
  162 }
  163 div.content div.title:first-child {
  164   margin-top: 0.0em;
  165 }
  166 div.content + div.title {
  167   margin-top: 0.0em;
  168 }
  169 
  170 div.sidebarblock > div.content {
  171   background: #ffffee;
  172   border: 1px solid #dddddd;
  173   border-left: 4px solid #f0f0f0;
  174   padding: 0.5em;
  175 }
  176 
  177 div.listingblock > div.content {
  178   border: 1px solid #dddddd;
  179   border-left: 5px solid #f0f0f0;
  180   background: #f8f8f8;
  181   padding: 0.5em;
  182 }
  183 
  184 div.quoteblock, div.verseblock {
  185   padding-left: 1.0em;
  186   margin-left: 1.0em;
  187   margin-right: 10%;
  188   border-left: 5px solid #f0f0f0;
  189   color: #888;
  190 }
  191 
  192 div.quoteblock > div.attribution {
  193   padding-top: 0.5em;
  194   text-align: right;
  195 }
  196 
  197 div.verseblock > pre.content {
  198   font-family: inherit;
  199   font-size: inherit;
  200 }
  201 div.verseblock > div.attribution {
  202   padding-top: 0.75em;
  203   text-align: left;
  204 }
  205 /* DEPRECATED: Pre version 8.2.7 verse style literal block. */
  206 div.verseblock + div.attribution {
  207   text-align: left;
  208 }
  209 
  210 div.admonitionblock .icon {
  211   vertical-align: top;
  212   font-size: 1.1em;
  213   font-weight: bold;
  214   text-decoration: underline;
  215   color: #527bbd;
  216   padding-right: 0.5em;
  217 }
  218 div.admonitionblock td.content {
  219   padding-left: 0.5em;
  220   border-left: 3px solid #dddddd;
  221 }
  222 
  223 div.exampleblock > div.content {
  224   border-left: 3px solid #dddddd;
  225   padding-left: 0.5em;
  226 }
  227 
  228 div.imageblock div.content { padding-left: 0; }
  229 span.image img { border-style: none; vertical-align: text-bottom; }
  230 a.image:visited { color: white; }
  231 
  232 dl {
  233   margin-top: 0.8em;
  234   margin-bottom: 0.8em;
  235 }
  236 dt {
  237   margin-top: 0.5em;
  238   margin-bottom: 0;
  239   font-style: normal;
  240   color: navy;
  241 }
  242 dd > *:first-child {
  243   margin-top: 0.1em;
  244 }
  245 
  246 ul, ol {
  247     list-style-position: outside;
  248 }
  249 ol.arabic {
  250   list-style-type: decimal;
  251 }
  252 ol.loweralpha {
  253   list-style-type: lower-alpha;
  254 }
  255 ol.upperalpha {
  256   list-style-type: upper-alpha;
  257 }
  258 ol.lowerroman {
  259   list-style-type: lower-roman;
  260 }
  261 ol.upperroman {
  262   list-style-type: upper-roman;
  263 }
  264 
  265 div.compact ul, div.compact ol,
  266 div.compact p, div.compact p,
  267 div.compact div, div.compact div {
  268   margin-top: 0.1em;
  269   margin-bottom: 0.1em;
  270 }
  271 
  272 tfoot {
  273   font-weight: bold;
  274 }
  275 td > div.verse {
  276   white-space: pre;
  277 }
  278 
  279 div.hdlist {
  280   margin-top: 0.8em;
  281   margin-bottom: 0.8em;
  282 }
  283 div.hdlist tr {
  284   padding-bottom: 15px;
  285 }
  286 dt.hdlist1.strong, td.hdlist1.strong {
  287   font-weight: bold;
  288 }
  289 td.hdlist1 {
  290   vertical-align: top;
  291   font-style: normal;
  292   padding-right: 0.8em;
  293   color: navy;
  294 }
  295 td.hdlist2 {
  296   vertical-align: top;
  297 }
  298 div.hdlist.compact tr {
  299   margin: 0;
  300   padding-bottom: 0;
  301 }
  302 
  303 .comment {
  304   background: yellow;
  305 }
  306 
  307 .footnote, .footnoteref {
  308   font-size: 0.8em;
  309 }
  310 
  311 span.footnote, span.footnoteref {
  312   vertical-align: super;
  313 }
  314 
  315 #footnotes {
  316   margin: 20px 0 20px 0;
  317   padding: 7px 0 0 0;
  318 }
  319 
  320 #footnotes div.footnote {
  321   margin: 0 0 5px 0;
  322 }
  323 
  324 #footnotes hr {
  325   border: none;
  326   border-top: 1px solid silver;
  327   height: 1px;
  328   text-align: left;
  329   margin-left: 0;
  330   width: 20%;
  331   min-width: 100px;
  332 }
  333 
  334 div.colist td {
  335   padding-right: 0.5em;
  336   padding-bottom: 0.3em;
  337   vertical-align: top;
  338 }
  339 div.colist td img {
  340   margin-top: 0.3em;
  341 }
  342 
  343 @media print {
  344   #footer-badges { display: none; }
  345 }
  346 
  347 #toc {
  348   margin-bottom: 2.5em;
  349 }
  350 
  351 #toctitle {
  352   color: #527bbd;
  353   font-size: 1.1em;
  354   font-weight: bold;
  355   margin-top: 1.0em;
  356   margin-bottom: 0.1em;
  357 }
  358 
  359 div.toclevel0, div.toclevel1, div.toclevel2, div.toclevel3, div.toclevel4 {
  360   margin-top: 0;
  361   margin-bottom: 0;
  362 }
  363 div.toclevel2 {
  364   margin-left: 2em;
  365   font-size: 0.9em;
  366 }
  367 div.toclevel3 {
  368   margin-left: 4em;
  369   font-size: 0.9em;
  370 }
  371 div.toclevel4 {
  372   margin-left: 6em;
  373   font-size: 0.9em;
  374 }
  375 
  376 span.aqua { color: aqua; }
  377 span.black { color: black; }
  378 span.blue { color: blue; }
  379 span.fuchsia { color: fuchsia; }
  380 span.gray { color: gray; }
  381 span.green { color: green; }
  382 span.lime { color: lime; }
  383 span.maroon { color: maroon; }
  384 span.navy { color: navy; }
  385 span.olive { color: olive; }
  386 span.purple { color: purple; }
  387 span.red { color: red; }
  388 span.silver { color: silver; }
  389 span.teal { color: teal; }
  390 span.white { color: white; }
  391 span.yellow { color: yellow; }
  392 
  393 span.aqua-background { background: aqua; }
  394 span.black-background { background: black; }
  395 span.blue-background { background: blue; }
  396 span.fuchsia-background { background: fuchsia; }
  397 span.gray-background { background: gray; }
  398 span.green-background { background: green; }
  399 span.lime-background { background: lime; }
  400 span.maroon-background { background: maroon; }
  401 span.navy-background { background: navy; }
  402 span.olive-background { background: olive; }
  403 span.purple-background { background: purple; }
  404 span.red-background { background: red; }
  405 span.silver-background { background: silver; }
  406 span.teal-background { background: teal; }
  407 span.white-background { background: white; }
  408 span.yellow-background { background: yellow; }
  409 
  410 span.big { font-size: 2em; }
  411 span.small { font-size: 0.6em; }
  412 
  413 span.underline { text-decoration: underline; }
  414 span.overline { text-decoration: overline; }
  415 span.line-through { text-decoration: line-through; }
  416 
  417 div.unbreakable { page-break-inside: avoid; }
  418 
  419 
  420 /*
  421  * xhtml11 specific
  422  *
  423  * */
  424 
  425 div.tableblock {
  426   margin-top: 1.0em;
  427   margin-bottom: 1.5em;
  428 }
  429 div.tableblock > table {
  430   border: 3px solid #527bbd;
  431 }
  432 thead, p.table.header {
  433   font-weight: bold;
  434   color: #527bbd;
  435 }
  436 p.table {
  437   margin-top: 0;
  438 }
  439 /* Because the table frame attribute is overriden by CSS in most browsers. */
  440 div.tableblock > table[frame="void"] {
  441   border-style: none;
  442 }
  443 div.tableblock > table[frame="hsides"] {
  444   border-left-style: none;
  445   border-right-style: none;
  446 }
  447 div.tableblock > table[frame="vsides"] {
  448   border-top-style: none;
  449   border-bottom-style: none;
  450 }
  451 
  452 
  453 /*
  454  * html5 specific
  455  *
  456  * */
  457 
  458 table.tableblock {
  459   margin-top: 1.0em;
  460   margin-bottom: 1.5em;
  461 }
  462 thead, p.tableblock.header {
  463   font-weight: bold;
  464   color: #527bbd;
  465 }
  466 p.tableblock {
  467   margin-top: 0;
  468 }
  469 table.tableblock {
  470   border-width: 3px;
  471   border-spacing: 0px;
  472   border-style: solid;
  473   border-color: #527bbd;
  474   border-collapse: collapse;
  475 }
  476 th.tableblock, td.tableblock {
  477   border-width: 1px;
  478   padding: 4px;
  479   border-style: solid;
  480   border-color: #527bbd;
  481 }
  482 
  483 table.tableblock.frame-topbot {
  484   border-left-style: hidden;
  485   border-right-style: hidden;
  486 }
  487 table.tableblock.frame-sides {
  488   border-top-style: hidden;
  489   border-bottom-style: hidden;
  490 }
  491 table.tableblock.frame-none {
  492   border-style: hidden;
  493 }
  494 
  495 th.tableblock.halign-left, td.tableblock.halign-left {
  496   text-align: left;
  497 }
  498 th.tableblock.halign-center, td.tableblock.halign-center {
  499   text-align: center;
  500 }
  501 th.tableblock.halign-right, td.tableblock.halign-right {
  502   text-align: right;
  503 }
  504 
  505 th.tableblock.valign-top, td.tableblock.valign-top {
  506   vertical-align: top;
  507 }
  508 th.tableblock.valign-middle, td.tableblock.valign-middle {
  509   vertical-align: middle;
  510 }
  511 th.tableblock.valign-bottom, td.tableblock.valign-bottom {
  512   vertical-align: bottom;
  513 }
  514 
  515 
  516 /*
  517  * manpage specific
  518  *
  519  * */
  520 
  521 body.manpage h1 {
  522   padding-top: 0.5em;
  523   padding-bottom: 0.5em;
  524   border-top: 2px solid silver;
  525   border-bottom: 2px solid silver;
  526 }
  527 body.manpage h2 {
  528   border-style: none;
  529 }
  530 body.manpage div.sectionbody {
  531   margin-left: 3em;
  532 }
  533 
  534 @media print {
  535   body.manpage div#toc { display: none; }
  536 }
  537 
  538 
  539 </style>
  540 <script type="text/javascript">
  541 /*<![CDATA[*/
  542 var asciidoc = {  // Namespace.
  543 
  544 /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
  545 // Table Of Contents generator
  546 /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
  547 
  548 /* Author: Mihai Bazon, September 2002
  549  * http://students.infoiasi.ro/~mishoo
  550  *
  551  * Table Of Content generator
  552  * Version: 0.4
  553  *
  554  * Feel free to use this script under the terms of the GNU General Public
  555  * License, as long as you do not remove or alter this notice.
  556  */
  557 
  558  /* modified by Troy D. Hanson, September 2006. License: GPL */
  559  /* modified by Stuart Rackham, 2006, 2009. License: GPL */
  560 
  561 // toclevels = 1..4.
  562 toc: function (toclevels) {
  563 
  564   function getText(el) {
  565     var text = "";
  566     for (var i = el.firstChild; i != null; i = i.nextSibling) {
  567       if (i.nodeType == 3 /* Node.TEXT_NODE */) // IE doesn't speak constants.
  568         text += i.data;
  569       else if (i.firstChild != null)
  570         text += getText(i);
  571     }
  572     return text;
  573   }
  574 
  575   function TocEntry(el, text, toclevel) {
  576     this.element = el;
  577     this.text = text;
  578     this.toclevel = toclevel;
  579   }
  580 
  581   function tocEntries(el, toclevels) {
  582     var result = new Array;
  583     var re = new RegExp('[hH]([1-'+(toclevels+1)+'])');
  584     // Function that scans the DOM tree for header elements (the DOM2
  585     // nodeIterator API would be a better technique but not supported by all
  586     // browsers).
  587     var iterate = function (el) {
  588       for (var i = el.firstChild; i != null; i = i.nextSibling) {
  589         if (i.nodeType == 1 /* Node.ELEMENT_NODE */) {
  590           var mo = re.exec(i.tagName);
  591           if (mo && (i.getAttribute("class") || i.getAttribute("className")) != "float") {
  592             result[result.length] = new TocEntry(i, getText(i), mo[1]-1);
  593           }
  594           iterate(i);
  595         }
  596       }
  597     }
  598     iterate(el);
  599     return result;
  600   }
  601 
  602   var toc = document.getElementById("toc");
  603   if (!toc) {
  604     return;
  605   }
  606 
  607   // Delete existing TOC entries in case we're reloading the TOC.
  608   var tocEntriesToRemove = [];
  609   var i;
  610   for (i = 0; i < toc.childNodes.length; i++) {
  611     var entry = toc.childNodes[i];
  612     if (entry.nodeName.toLowerCase() == 'div'
  613      && entry.getAttribute("class")
  614      && entry.getAttribute("class").match(/^toclevel/))
  615       tocEntriesToRemove.push(entry);
  616   }
  617   for (i = 0; i < tocEntriesToRemove.length; i++) {
  618     toc.removeChild(tocEntriesToRemove[i]);
  619   }
  620 
  621   // Rebuild TOC entries.
  622   var entries = tocEntries(document.getElementById("content"), toclevels);
  623   for (var i = 0; i < entries.length; ++i) {
  624     var entry = entries[i];
  625     if (entry.element.id == "")
  626       entry.element.id = "_toc_" + i;
  627     var a = document.createElement("a");
  628     a.href = "#" + entry.element.id;
  629     a.appendChild(document.createTextNode(entry.text));
  630     var div = document.createElement("div");
  631     div.appendChild(a);
  632     div.className = "toclevel" + entry.toclevel;
  633     toc.appendChild(div);
  634   }
  635   if (entries.length == 0)
  636     toc.parentNode.removeChild(toc);
  637 },
  638 
  639 
  640 /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
  641 // Footnotes generator
  642 /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////
  643 
  644 /* Based on footnote generation code from:
  645  * http://www.brandspankingnew.net/archive/2005/07/format_footnote.html
  646  */
  647 
  648 footnotes: function () {
  649   // Delete existing footnote entries in case we're reloading the footnodes.
  650   var i;
  651   var noteholder = document.getElementById("footnotes");
  652   if (!noteholder) {
  653     return;
  654   }
  655   var entriesToRemove = [];
  656   for (i = 0; i < noteholder.childNodes.length; i++) {
  657     var entry = noteholder.childNodes[i];
  658     if (entry.nodeName.toLowerCase() == 'div' && entry.getAttribute("class") == "footnote")
  659       entriesToRemove.push(entry);
  660   }
  661   for (i = 0; i < entriesToRemove.length; i++) {
  662     noteholder.removeChild(entriesToRemove[i]);
  663   }
  664 
  665   // Rebuild footnote entries.
  666   var cont = document.getElementById("content");
  667   var spans = cont.getElementsByTagName("span");
  668   var refs = {};
  669   var n = 0;
  670   for (i=0; i<spans.length; i++) {
  671     if (spans[i].className == "footnote") {
  672       n++;
  673       var note = spans[i].getAttribute("data-note");
  674       if (!note) {
  675         // Use [\s\S] in place of . so multi-line matches work.
  676         // Because JavaScript has no s (dotall) regex flag.
  677         note = spans[i].innerHTML.match(/\s*\[([\s\S]*)]\s*/)[1];
  678         spans[i].innerHTML =
  679           "[<a id='_footnoteref_" + n + "' href='#_footnote_" + n +
  680           "' title='View footnote' class='footnote'>" + n + "</a>]";
  681         spans[i].setAttribute("data-note", note);
  682       }
  683       noteholder.innerHTML +=
  684         "<div class='footnote' id='_footnote_" + n + "'>" +
  685         "<a href='#_footnoteref_" + n + "' title='Return to text'>" +
  686         n + "</a>. " + note + "</div>";
  687       var id =spans[i].getAttribute("id");
  688       if (id != null) refs["#"+id] = n;
  689     }
  690   }
  691   if (n == 0)
  692     noteholder.parentNode.removeChild(noteholder);
  693   else {
  694     // Process footnoterefs.
  695     for (i=0; i<spans.length; i++) {
  696       if (spans[i].className == "footnoteref") {
  697         var href = spans[i].getElementsByTagName("a")[0].getAttribute("href");
  698         href = href.match(/#.*/)[0];  // Because IE return full URL.
  699         n = refs[href];
  700         spans[i].innerHTML =
  701           "[<a href='#_footnote_" + n +
  702           "' title='View footnote' class='footnote'>" + n + "</a>]";
  703       }
  704     }
  705   }
  706 },
  707 
  708 install: function(toclevels) {
  709   var timerId;
  710 
  711   function reinstall() {
  712     asciidoc.footnotes();
  713     if (toclevels) {
  714       asciidoc.toc(toclevels);
  715     }
  716   }
  717 
  718   function reinstallAndRemoveTimer() {
  719     clearInterval(timerId);
  720     reinstall();
  721   }
  722 
  723   timerId = setInterval(reinstall, 500);
  724   if (document.addEventListener)
  725     document.addEventListener("DOMContentLoaded", reinstallAndRemoveTimer, false);
  726   else
  727     window.onload = reinstallAndRemoveTimer;
  728 }
  729 
  730 }
  731 asciidoc.install();
  732 /*]]>*/
  733 </script>
  734 </head>
  735 <body class="manpage">
  736 <div id="header">
  737 <h1>
  738 gitrevisions(7) Manual Page
  739 </h1>
  740 <h2>NAME</h2>
  741 <div class="sectionbody">
  742 <p>gitrevisions -
  743    Specifying revisions and ranges for Git
  744 </p>
  745 </div>
  746 </div>
  747 <div id="content">
  748 <div class="sect1">
  749 <h2 id="_synopsis">SYNOPSIS</h2>
  750 <div class="sectionbody">
  751 <div class="paragraph"><p>gitrevisions</p></div>
  752 </div>
  753 </div>
  754 <div class="sect1">
  755 <h2 id="_description">DESCRIPTION</h2>
  756 <div class="sectionbody">
  757 <div class="paragraph"><p>Many Git commands take revision parameters as arguments. Depending on
  758 the command, they denote a specific commit or, for commands which
  759 walk the revision graph (such as <a href="git-log.html">git-log(1)</a>), all commits which are
  760 reachable from that commit. For commands that walk the revision graph one can
  761 also specify a range of revisions explicitly.</p></div>
  762 <div class="paragraph"><p>In addition, some Git commands (such as <a href="git-show.html">git-show(1)</a> and
  763 <a href="git-push.html">git-push(1)</a>) can also take revision parameters which denote
  764 other objects than commits, e.g. blobs ("files") or trees
  765 ("directories of files").</p></div>
  766 </div>
  767 </div>
  768 <div class="sect1">
  769 <h2 id="_specifying_revisions">SPECIFYING REVISIONS</h2>
  770 <div class="sectionbody">
  771 <div class="paragraph"><p>A revision parameter <em>&lt;rev&gt;</em> typically, but not necessarily, names a
  772 commit object.  It uses what is called an <em>extended SHA-1</em>
  773 syntax.  Here are various ways to spell object names.  The
  774 ones listed near the end of this list name trees and
  775 blobs contained in a commit.</p></div>
  776 <div class="admonitionblock">
  777 <table><tr>
  778 <td class="icon">
  779 <div class="title">Note</div>
  780 </td>
  781 <td class="content">This document shows the "raw" syntax as seen by git. The shell
  782 and other UIs might require additional quoting to protect special
  783 characters and to avoid word splitting.</td>
  784 </tr></table>
  785 </div>
  786 <div class="dlist"><dl>
  787 <dt class="hdlist1">
  788 <em>&lt;sha1&gt;</em>, e.g. <em>dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735</em>, <em>dae86e</em>
  789 </dt>
  790 <dd>
  791 <p>
  792   The full SHA-1 object name (40-byte hexadecimal string), or
  793   a leading substring that is unique within the repository.
  794   E.g. dae86e1950b1277e545cee180551750029cfe735 and dae86e both
  795   name the same commit object if there is no other object in
  796   your repository whose object name starts with dae86e.
  797 </p>
  798 </dd>
  799 <dt class="hdlist1">
  800 <em>&lt;describeOutput&gt;</em>, e.g. <em>v1.7.4.2-679-g3bee7fb</em>
  801 </dt>
  802 <dd>
  803 <p>
  804   Output from <code>git describe</code>; i.e. a closest tag, optionally
  805   followed by a dash and a number of commits, followed by a dash, a
  806   <em>g</em>, and an abbreviated object name.
  807 </p>
  808 </dd>
  809 <dt class="hdlist1">
  810 <em>&lt;refname&gt;</em>, e.g. <em>master</em>, <em>heads/master</em>, <em>refs/heads/master</em>
  811 </dt>
  812 <dd>
  813 <p>
  814   A symbolic ref name.  E.g. <em>master</em> typically means the commit
  815   object referenced by <em>refs/heads/master</em>.  If you
  816   happen to have both <em>heads/master</em> and <em>tags/master</em>, you can
  817   explicitly say <em>heads/master</em> to tell Git which one you mean.
  818   When ambiguous, a <em>&lt;refname&gt;</em> is disambiguated by taking the
  819   first match in the following rules:
  820 </p>
  821 <div class="olist arabic"><ol class="arabic">
  822 <li>
  823 <p>
  824 If <em>$GIT_DIR/&lt;refname&gt;</em> exists, that is what you mean (this is usually
  825     useful only for <code>HEAD</code>, <code>FETCH_HEAD</code>, <code>ORIG_HEAD</code>, <code>MERGE_HEAD</code>
  826     and <code>CHERRY_PICK_HEAD</code>);
  827 </p>
  828 </li>
  829 <li>
  830 <p>
  831 otherwise, <em>refs/&lt;refname&gt;</em> if it exists;
  832 </p>
  833 </li>
  834 <li>
  835 <p>
  836 otherwise, <em>refs/tags/&lt;refname&gt;</em> if it exists;
  837 </p>
  838 </li>
  839 <li>
  840 <p>
  841 otherwise, <em>refs/heads/&lt;refname&gt;</em> if it exists;
  842 </p>
  843 </li>
  844 <li>
  845 <p>
  846 otherwise, <em>refs/remotes/&lt;refname&gt;</em> if it exists;
  847 </p>
  848 </li>
  849 <li>
  850 <p>
  851 otherwise, <em>refs/remotes/&lt;refname&gt;/HEAD</em> if it exists.
  852 </p>
  853 <div class="paragraph"><p><code>HEAD</code> names the commit on which you based the changes in the working tree.
  854 <code>FETCH_HEAD</code> records the branch which you fetched from a remote repository
  855 with your last <code>git fetch</code> invocation.
  856 <code>ORIG_HEAD</code> is created by commands that move your <code>HEAD</code> in a drastic
  857 way, to record the position of the <code>HEAD</code> before their operation, so that
  858 you can easily change the tip of the branch back to the state before you ran
  859 them.
  860 <code>MERGE_HEAD</code> records the commit(s) which you are merging into your branch
  861 when you run <code>git merge</code>.
  862 <code>CHERRY_PICK_HEAD</code> records the commit which you are cherry-picking
  863 when you run <code>git cherry-pick</code>.</p></div>
  864 <div class="paragraph"><p>Note that any of the <em>refs/*</em> cases above may come either from
  865 the <em>$GIT_DIR/refs</em> directory or from the <em>$GIT_DIR/packed-refs</em> file.
  866 While the ref name encoding is unspecified, UTF-8 is preferred as
  867 some output processing may assume ref names in UTF-8.</p></div>
  868 </li>
  869 </ol></div>
  870 </dd>
  871 <dt class="hdlist1">
  872 <em>@</em>
  873 </dt>
  874 <dd>
  875 <p>
  876   <em>@</em> alone is a shortcut for <code>HEAD</code>.
  877 </p>
  878 </dd>
  879 <dt class="hdlist1">
  880 <em>&lt;refname&gt;@{&lt;date&gt;}</em>, e.g. <em>master@{yesterday}</em>, <em>HEAD@{5 minutes ago}</em>
  881 </dt>
  882 <dd>
  883 <p>
  884   A ref followed by the suffix <em>@</em> with a date specification
  885   enclosed in a brace
  886   pair (e.g. <em>{yesterday}</em>, <em>{1 month 2 weeks 3 days 1 hour 1
  887   second ago}</em> or <em>{1979-02-26 18:30:00}</em>) specifies the value
  888   of the ref at a prior point in time.  This suffix may only be
  889   used immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an
  890   existing log (<em>$GIT_DIR/logs/&lt;ref&gt;</em>). Note that this looks up the state
  891   of your <strong>local</strong> ref at a given time; e.g., what was in your local
  892   <em>master</em> branch last week. If you want to look at commits made during
  893   certain times, see <code>--since</code> and <code>--until</code>.
  894 </p>
  895 </dd>
  896 <dt class="hdlist1">
  897 <em>&lt;refname&gt;@{&lt;n&gt;}</em>, e.g. <em>master@{1}</em>
  898 </dt>
  899 <dd>
  900 <p>
  901   A ref followed by the suffix <em>@</em> with an ordinal specification
  902   enclosed in a brace pair (e.g. <em>{1}</em>, <em>{15}</em>) specifies
  903   the n-th prior value of that ref.  For example <em>master@{1}</em>
  904   is the immediate prior value of <em>master</em> while <em>master@{5}</em>
  905   is the 5th prior value of <em>master</em>. This suffix may only be used
  906   immediately following a ref name and the ref must have an existing
  907   log (<em>$GIT_DIR/logs/&lt;refname&gt;</em>).
  908 </p>
  909 </dd>
  910 <dt class="hdlist1">
  911 <em>@{&lt;n&gt;}</em>, e.g. <em>@{1}</em>
  912 </dt>
  913 <dd>
  914 <p>
  915   You can use the <em>@</em> construct with an empty ref part to get at a
  916   reflog entry of the current branch. For example, if you are on
  917   branch <em>blabla</em> then <em>@{1}</em> means the same as <em>blabla@{1}</em>.
  918 </p>
  919 </dd>
  920 <dt class="hdlist1">
  921 <em>@{-&lt;n&gt;}</em>, e.g. <em>@{-1}</em>
  922 </dt>
  923 <dd>
  924 <p>
  925   The construct <em>@{-&lt;n&gt;}</em> means the &lt;n&gt;th branch/commit checked out
  926   before the current one.
  927 </p>
  928 </dd>
  929 <dt class="hdlist1">
  930 <em>&lt;branchname&gt;@{upstream}</em>, e.g. <em>master@{upstream}</em>, <em>@{u}</em>
  931 </dt>
  932 <dd>
  933 <p>
  934   The suffix <em>@{upstream}</em> to a branchname (short form <em>&lt;branchname&gt;@{u}</em>)
  935   refers to the branch that the branch specified by branchname is set to build on
  936   top of (configured with <code>branch.&lt;name&gt;.remote</code> and
  937   <code>branch.&lt;name&gt;.merge</code>).  A missing branchname defaults to the
  938   current one. These suffixes are also accepted when spelled in uppercase, and
  939   they mean the same thing no matter the case.
  940 </p>
  941 </dd>
  942 <dt class="hdlist1">
  943 <em>&lt;branchname&gt;@{push}</em>, e.g. <em>master@{push}</em>, <em>@{push}</em>
  944 </dt>
  945 <dd>
  946 <p>
  947   The suffix <em>@{push}</em> reports the branch "where we would push to" if
  948   <code>git push</code> were run while <code>branchname</code> was checked out (or the current
  949   <code>HEAD</code> if no branchname is specified). Since our push destination is
  950   in a remote repository, of course, we report the local tracking branch
  951   that corresponds to that branch (i.e., something in <em>refs/remotes/</em>).
  952 </p>
  953 <div class="paragraph"><p>Here&#8217;s an example to make it more clear:</p></div>
  954 <div class="listingblock">
  955 <div class="content">
  956 <pre><code>$ git config push.default current
  957 $ git config remote.pushdefault myfork
  958 $ git checkout -b mybranch origin/master
  959 
  960 $ git rev-parse --symbolic-full-name @{upstream}
  961 refs/remotes/origin/master
  962 
  963 $ git rev-parse --symbolic-full-name @{push}
  964 refs/remotes/myfork/mybranch</code></pre>
  965 </div></div>
  966 <div class="paragraph"><p>Note in the example that we set up a triangular workflow, where we pull
  967 from one location and push to another. In a non-triangular workflow,
  968 <em>@{push}</em> is the same as <em>@{upstream}</em>, and there is no need for it.</p></div>
  969 <div class="paragraph"><p>This suffix is also accepted when spelled in uppercase, and means the same
  970 thing no matter the case.</p></div>
  971 </dd>
  972 <dt class="hdlist1">
  973 <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;</em>, e.g. <em>HEAD&#94;, v1.5.1&#94;0</em>
  974 </dt>
  975 <dd>
  976 <p>
  977   A suffix <em>&#94;</em> to a revision parameter means the first parent of
  978   that commit object.  <em>&#94;&lt;n&gt;</em> means the &lt;n&gt;th parent (i.e.
  979   <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;</em>
  980   is equivalent to <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;1</em>).  As a special rule,
  981   <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;0</em> means the commit itself and is used when <em>&lt;rev&gt;</em> is the
  982   object name of a tag object that refers to a commit object.
  983 </p>
  984 </dd>
  985 <dt class="hdlist1">
  986 <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#126;&lt;n&gt;</em>, e.g. <em>master&#126;3</em>
  987 </dt>
  988 <dd>
  989 <p>
  990   A suffix <em>&#126;&lt;n&gt;</em> to a revision parameter means the commit
  991   object that is the &lt;n&gt;th generation ancestor of the named
  992   commit object, following only the first parents.  I.e. <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#126;3</em> is
  993   equivalent to <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;&#94;&#94;</em> which is equivalent to
  994   <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;1&#94;1&#94;1</em>.  See below for an illustration of
  995   the usage of this form.
  996 </p>
  997 </dd>
  998 <dt class="hdlist1">
  999 <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;{&lt;type&gt;}</em>, e.g. <em>v0.99.8&#94;{commit}</em>
 1000 </dt>
 1001 <dd>
 1002 <p>
 1003   A suffix <em>&#94;</em> followed by an object type name enclosed in
 1004   brace pair means dereference the object at <em>&lt;rev&gt;</em> recursively until
 1005   an object of type <em>&lt;type&gt;</em> is found or the object cannot be
 1006   dereferenced anymore (in which case, barf).
 1007   For example, if <em>&lt;rev&gt;</em> is a commit-ish, <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;{commit}</em>
 1008   describes the corresponding commit object.
 1009   Similarly, if <em>&lt;rev&gt;</em> is a tree-ish, <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;{tree}</em>
 1010   describes the corresponding tree object.
 1011   <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;0</em>
 1012   is a short-hand for <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;{commit}</em>.
 1013 </p>
 1014 <div class="paragraph"><p><em>rev&#94;{object}</em> can be used to make sure <em>rev</em> names an
 1015 object that exists, without requiring <em>rev</em> to be a tag, and
 1016 without dereferencing <em>rev</em>; because a tag is already an object,
 1017 it does not have to be dereferenced even once to get to an object.</p></div>
 1018 <div class="paragraph"><p><em>rev&#94;{tag}</em> can be used to ensure that <em>rev</em> identifies an
 1019 existing tag object.</p></div>
 1020 </dd>
 1021 <dt class="hdlist1">
 1022 <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;{}</em>, e.g. <em>v0.99.8&#94;{}</em>
 1023 </dt>
 1024 <dd>
 1025 <p>
 1026   A suffix <em>&#94;</em> followed by an empty brace pair
 1027   means the object could be a tag,
 1028   and dereference the tag recursively until a non-tag object is
 1029   found.
 1030 </p>
 1031 </dd>
 1032 <dt class="hdlist1">
 1033 <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;{/&lt;text&gt;}</em>, e.g. <em>HEAD^{/fix nasty bug}</em>
 1034 </dt>
 1035 <dd>
 1036 <p>
 1037   A suffix <em>&#94;</em> to a revision parameter, followed by a brace
 1038   pair that contains a text led by a slash,
 1039   is the same as the <em>:/fix nasty bug</em> syntax below except that
 1040   it returns the youngest matching commit which is reachable from
 1041   the <em>&lt;rev&gt;</em> before <em>&#94;</em>.
 1042 </p>
 1043 </dd>
 1044 <dt class="hdlist1">
 1045 <em>:/&lt;text&gt;</em>, e.g. <em>:/fix nasty bug</em>
 1046 </dt>
 1047 <dd>
 1048 <p>
 1049   A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text, names
 1050   a commit whose commit message matches the specified regular expression.
 1051   This name returns the youngest matching commit which is
 1052   reachable from any ref, including HEAD.
 1053   The regular expression can match any part of the
 1054   commit message. To match messages starting with a string, one can use
 1055   e.g. <em>:/^foo</em>. The special sequence <em>:/!</em> is reserved for modifiers to what
 1056   is matched. <em>:/!-foo</em> performs a negative match, while <em>:/!!foo</em> matches a
 1057   literal <em>!</em> character, followed by <em>foo</em>. Any other sequence beginning with
 1058   <em>:/!</em> is reserved for now.
 1059   Depending on the given text, the shell&#8217;s word splitting rules might
 1060   require additional quoting.
 1061 </p>
 1062 </dd>
 1063 <dt class="hdlist1">
 1064 <em>&lt;rev&gt;:&lt;path&gt;</em>, e.g. <em>HEAD:README</em>, <em>:README</em>, <em>master:./README</em>
 1065 </dt>
 1066 <dd>
 1067 <p>
 1068   A suffix <em>:</em> followed by a path names the blob or tree
 1069   at the given path in the tree-ish object named by the part
 1070   before the colon.
 1071   <em>:path</em> (with an empty part before the colon)
 1072   is a special case of the syntax described next: content
 1073   recorded in the index at the given path.
 1074   A path starting with <em>./</em> or <em>../</em> is relative to the current working directory.
 1075   The given path will be converted to be relative to the working tree&#8217;s root directory.
 1076   This is most useful to address a blob or tree from a commit or tree that has
 1077   the same tree structure as the working tree.
 1078 </p>
 1079 </dd>
 1080 <dt class="hdlist1">
 1081 <em>:&lt;n&gt;:&lt;path&gt;</em>, e.g. <em>:0:README</em>, <em>:README</em>
 1082 </dt>
 1083 <dd>
 1084 <p>
 1085   A colon, optionally followed by a stage number (0 to 3) and a
 1086   colon, followed by a path, names a blob object in the
 1087   index at the given path. A missing stage number (and the colon
 1088   that follows it) names a stage 0 entry. During a merge, stage
 1089   1 is the common ancestor, stage 2 is the target branch&#8217;s version
 1090   (typically the current branch), and stage 3 is the version from
 1091   the branch which is being merged.
 1092 </p>
 1093 </dd>
 1094 </dl></div>
 1095 <div class="paragraph"><p>Here is an illustration, by Jon Loeliger.  Both commit nodes B
 1096 and C are parents of commit node A.  Parent commits are ordered
 1097 left-to-right.</p></div>
 1098 <div class="literalblock">
 1099 <div class="content">
 1100 <pre><code>G   H   I   J
 1101  \ /     \ /
 1102   D   E   F
 1103    \  |  / \
 1104     \ | /   |
 1105      \|/    |
 1106       B     C
 1107        \   /
 1108         \ /
 1109          A</code></pre>
 1110 </div></div>
 1111 <div class="literalblock">
 1112 <div class="content">
 1113 <pre><code>A =      = A^0
 1114 B = A^   = A^1     = A~1
 1115 C = A^2  = A^2
 1116 D = A^^  = A^1^1   = A~2
 1117 E = B^2  = A^^2
 1118 F = B^3  = A^^3
 1119 G = A^^^ = A^1^1^1 = A~3
 1120 H = D^2  = B^^2    = A^^^2  = A~2^2
 1121 I = F^   = B^3^    = A^^3^
 1122 J = F^2  = B^3^2   = A^^3^2</code></pre>
 1123 </div></div>
 1124 </div>
 1125 </div>
 1126 <div class="sect1">
 1127 <h2 id="_specifying_ranges">SPECIFYING RANGES</h2>
 1128 <div class="sectionbody">
 1129 <div class="paragraph"><p>History traversing commands such as <code>git log</code> operate on a set
 1130 of commits, not just a single commit.</p></div>
 1131 <div class="paragraph"><p>For these commands,
 1132 specifying a single revision, using the notation described in the
 1133 previous section, means the set of commits <code>reachable</code> from the given
 1134 commit.</p></div>
 1135 <div class="paragraph"><p>A commit&#8217;s reachable set is the commit itself and the commits in
 1136 its ancestry chain.</p></div>
 1137 <div class="sect2">
 1138 <h3 id="_commit_exclusions">Commit Exclusions</h3>
 1139 <div class="dlist"><dl>
 1140 <dt class="hdlist1">
 1141 <em>&#94;&lt;rev&gt;</em> (caret) Notation
 1142 </dt>
 1143 <dd>
 1144 <p>
 1145  To exclude commits reachable from a commit, a prefix <em>&#94;</em>
 1146  notation is used.  E.g. <em>&#94;r1 r2</em> means commits reachable
 1147  from <em>r2</em> but exclude the ones reachable from <em>r1</em> (i.e. <em>r1</em> and
 1148  its ancestors).
 1149 </p>
 1150 </dd>
 1151 </dl></div>
 1152 </div>
 1153 <div class="sect2">
 1154 <h3 id="_dotted_range_notations">Dotted Range Notations</h3>
 1155 <div class="dlist"><dl>
 1156 <dt class="hdlist1">
 1157 The <em>..</em> (two-dot) Range Notation
 1158 </dt>
 1159 <dd>
 1160 <p>
 1161  The <em>&#94;r1 r2</em> set operation appears so often that there is a shorthand
 1162  for it.  When you have two commits <em>r1</em> and <em>r2</em> (named according
 1163  to the syntax explained in SPECIFYING REVISIONS above), you can ask
 1164  for commits that are reachable from r2 excluding those that are reachable
 1165  from r1 by <em>&#94;r1 r2</em> and it can be written as <em>r1..r2</em>.
 1166 </p>
 1167 </dd>
 1168 <dt class="hdlist1">
 1169 The <em>&#8230;</em> (three-dot) Symmetric Difference Notation
 1170 </dt>
 1171 <dd>
 1172 <p>
 1173  A similar notation <em>r1...r2</em> is called symmetric difference
 1174  of <em>r1</em> and <em>r2</em> and is defined as
 1175  <em>r1 r2 --not $(git merge-base --all r1 r2)</em>.
 1176  It is the set of commits that are reachable from either one of
 1177  <em>r1</em> (left side) or <em>r2</em> (right side) but not from both.
 1178 </p>
 1179 </dd>
 1180 </dl></div>
 1181 <div class="paragraph"><p>In these two shorthand notations, you can omit one end and let it default to HEAD.
 1182 For example, <em>origin..</em> is a shorthand for <em>origin..HEAD</em> and asks "What
 1183 did I do since I forked from the origin branch?"  Similarly, <em>..origin</em>
 1184 is a shorthand for <em>HEAD..origin</em> and asks "What did the origin do since
 1185 I forked from them?"  Note that <em>..</em> would mean <em>HEAD..HEAD</em> which is an
 1186 empty range that is both reachable and unreachable from HEAD.</p></div>
 1187 </div>
 1188 <div class="sect2">
 1189 <h3 id="_other_lt_rev_gt_94_parent_shorthand_notations">Other &lt;rev&gt;&#94; Parent Shorthand Notations</h3>
 1190 <div class="paragraph"><p>Three other shorthands exist, particularly useful for merge commits,
 1191 for naming a set that is formed by a commit and its parent commits.</p></div>
 1192 <div class="paragraph"><p>The <em>r1&#94;@</em> notation means all parents of <em>r1</em>.</p></div>
 1193 <div class="paragraph"><p>The <em>r1&#94;!</em> notation includes commit <em>r1</em> but excludes all of its parents.
 1194 By itself, this notation denotes the single commit <em>r1</em>.</p></div>
 1195 <div class="paragraph"><p>The <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;-&lt;n&gt;</em> notation includes <em>&lt;rev&gt;</em> but excludes the &lt;n&gt;th
 1196 parent (i.e. a shorthand for <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;&lt;n&gt;..&lt;rev&gt;</em>), with <em>&lt;n&gt;</em> = 1 if
 1197 not given. This is typically useful for merge commits where you
 1198 can just pass <em>&lt;commit&gt;&#94;-</em> to get all the commits in the branch
 1199 that was merged in merge commit <em>&lt;commit&gt;</em> (including <em>&lt;commit&gt;</em>
 1200 itself).</p></div>
 1201 <div class="paragraph"><p>While <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;&lt;n&gt;</em> was about specifying a single commit parent, these
 1202 three notations also consider its parents. For example you can say
 1203 <em>HEAD&#94;2&#94;@</em>, however you cannot say <em>HEAD&#94;@&#94;2</em>.</p></div>
 1204 </div>
 1205 </div>
 1206 </div>
 1207 <div class="sect1">
 1208 <h2 id="_revision_range_summary">Revision Range Summary</h2>
 1209 <div class="sectionbody">
 1210 <div class="dlist"><dl>
 1211 <dt class="hdlist1">
 1212 <em>&lt;rev&gt;</em>
 1213 </dt>
 1214 <dd>
 1215 <p>
 1216         Include commits that are reachable from &lt;rev&gt; (i.e. &lt;rev&gt; and its
 1217         ancestors).
 1218 </p>
 1219 </dd>
 1220 <dt class="hdlist1">
 1221 <em>&#94;&lt;rev&gt;</em>
 1222 </dt>
 1223 <dd>
 1224 <p>
 1225         Exclude commits that are reachable from &lt;rev&gt; (i.e. &lt;rev&gt; and its
 1226         ancestors).
 1227 </p>
 1228 </dd>
 1229 <dt class="hdlist1">
 1230 <em>&lt;rev1&gt;..&lt;rev2&gt;</em>
 1231 </dt>
 1232 <dd>
 1233 <p>
 1234         Include commits that are reachable from &lt;rev2&gt; but exclude
 1235         those that are reachable from &lt;rev1&gt;.  When either &lt;rev1&gt; or
 1236         &lt;rev2&gt; is omitted, it defaults to <code>HEAD</code>.
 1237 </p>
 1238 </dd>
 1239 <dt class="hdlist1">
 1240 <em>&lt;rev1&gt;...&lt;rev2&gt;</em>
 1241 </dt>
 1242 <dd>
 1243 <p>
 1244         Include commits that are reachable from either &lt;rev1&gt; or
 1245         &lt;rev2&gt; but exclude those that are reachable from both.  When
 1246         either &lt;rev1&gt; or &lt;rev2&gt; is omitted, it defaults to <code>HEAD</code>.
 1247 </p>
 1248 </dd>
 1249 <dt class="hdlist1">
 1250 <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;@</em>, e.g. <em>HEAD&#94;@</em>
 1251 </dt>
 1252 <dd>
 1253 <p>
 1254   A suffix <em>&#94;</em> followed by an at sign is the same as listing
 1255   all parents of <em>&lt;rev&gt;</em> (meaning, include anything reachable from
 1256   its parents, but not the commit itself).
 1257 </p>
 1258 </dd>
 1259 <dt class="hdlist1">
 1260 <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;!</em>, e.g. <em>HEAD&#94;!</em>
 1261 </dt>
 1262 <dd>
 1263 <p>
 1264   A suffix <em>&#94;</em> followed by an exclamation mark is the same
 1265   as giving commit <em>&lt;rev&gt;</em> and then all its parents prefixed with
 1266   <em>&#94;</em> to exclude them (and their ancestors).
 1267 </p>
 1268 </dd>
 1269 <dt class="hdlist1">
 1270 <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;-&lt;n&gt;</em>, e.g. <em>HEAD&#94;-, HEAD&#94;-2</em>
 1271 </dt>
 1272 <dd>
 1273 <p>
 1274         Equivalent to <em>&lt;rev&gt;&#94;&lt;n&gt;..&lt;rev&gt;</em>, with <em>&lt;n&gt;</em> = 1 if not
 1275         given.
 1276 </p>
 1277 </dd>
 1278 </dl></div>
 1279 <div class="paragraph"><p>Here are a handful of examples using the Loeliger illustration above,
 1280 with each step in the notation&#8217;s expansion and selection carefully
 1281 spelt out:</p></div>
 1282 <div class="literalblock">
 1283 <div class="content">
 1284 <pre><code>   Args   Expanded arguments    Selected commits
 1285    D                            G H D
 1286    D F                          G H I J D F
 1287    ^G D                         H D
 1288    ^D B                         E I J F B
 1289    ^D B C                       E I J F B C
 1290    C                            I J F C
 1291    B..C   = ^B C                C
 1292    B...C  = B ^F C              G H D E B C
 1293    B^-    = B^..B
 1294           = ^B^1 B              E I J F B
 1295    C^@    = C^1
 1296           = F                   I J F
 1297    B^@    = B^1 B^2 B^3
 1298           = D E F               D G H E F I J
 1299    C^!    = C ^C^@
 1300           = C ^C^1
 1301           = C ^F                C
 1302    B^!    = B ^B^@
 1303           = B ^B^1 ^B^2 ^B^3
 1304           = B ^D ^E ^F          B
 1305    F^! D  = F ^I ^J D           G H D F</code></pre>
 1306 </div></div>
 1307 </div>
 1308 </div>
 1309 <div class="sect1">
 1310 <h2 id="_see_also">SEE ALSO</h2>
 1311 <div class="sectionbody">
 1312 <div class="paragraph"><p><a href="git-rev-parse.html">git-rev-parse(1)</a></p></div>
 1313 </div>
 1314 </div>
 1315 <div class="sect1">
 1316 <h2 id="_git">GIT</h2>
 1317 <div class="sectionbody">
 1318 <div class="paragraph"><p>Part of the <a href="git.html">git(1)</a> suite</p></div>
 1319 </div>
 1320 </div>
 1321 </div>
 1322 <div id="footnotes"><hr /></div>
 1323 <div id="footer">
 1324 <div id="footer-text">
 1325 Last updated
 1326  2018-12-15 13:23:56 JST
 1327 </div>
 1328 </div>
 1329 </body>
 1330 </html>