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    1 git-receive-pack(1)
    2 ===================
    3 
    4 NAME
    5 ----
    6 git-receive-pack - Receive what is pushed into the repository
    7 
    8 
    9 SYNOPSIS
   10 --------
   11 [verse]
   12 'git-receive-pack' <directory>
   13 
   14 DESCRIPTION
   15 -----------
   16 Invoked by 'git send-pack' and updates the repository with the
   17 information fed from the remote end.
   18 
   19 This command is usually not invoked directly by the end user.
   20 The UI for the protocol is on the 'git send-pack' side, and the
   21 program pair is meant to be used to push updates to remote
   22 repository.  For pull operations, see linkgit:git-fetch-pack[1].
   23 
   24 The command allows for creation and fast-forwarding of sha1 refs
   25 (heads/tags) on the remote end (strictly speaking, it is the
   26 local end 'git-receive-pack' runs, but to the user who is sitting at
   27 the send-pack end, it is updating the remote.  Confused?)
   28 
   29 There are other real-world examples of using update and
   30 post-update hooks found in the Documentation/howto directory.
   31 
   32 'git-receive-pack' honours the receive.denyNonFastForwards config
   33 option, which tells it if updates to a ref should be denied if they
   34 are not fast-forwards.
   35 
   36 A number of other receive.* config options are available to tweak
   37 its behavior, see linkgit:git-config[1].
   38 
   39 OPTIONS
   40 -------
   41 <directory>::
   42 	The repository to sync into.
   43 
   44 PRE-RECEIVE HOOK
   45 ----------------
   46 Before any ref is updated, if $GIT_DIR/hooks/pre-receive file exists
   47 and is executable, it will be invoked once with no parameters.  The
   48 standard input of the hook will be one line per ref to be updated:
   49 
   50        sha1-old SP sha1-new SP refname LF
   51 
   52 The refname value is relative to $GIT_DIR; e.g. for the master
   53 head this is "refs/heads/master".  The two sha1 values before
   54 each refname are the object names for the refname before and after
   55 the update.  Refs to be created will have sha1-old equal to 0\{40},
   56 while refs to be deleted will have sha1-new equal to 0\{40}, otherwise
   57 sha1-old and sha1-new should be valid objects in the repository.
   58 
   59 When accepting a signed push (see linkgit:git-push[1]), the signed
   60 push certificate is stored in a blob and an environment variable
   61 `GIT_PUSH_CERT` can be consulted for its object name.  See the
   62 description of `post-receive` hook for an example.  In addition, the
   63 certificate is verified using GPG and the result is exported with
   64 the following environment variables:
   65 
   66 `GIT_PUSH_CERT_SIGNER`::
   67 	The name and the e-mail address of the owner of the key that
   68 	signed the push certificate.
   69 
   70 `GIT_PUSH_CERT_KEY`::
   71 	The GPG key ID of the key that signed the push certificate.
   72 
   73 `GIT_PUSH_CERT_STATUS`::
   74 	The status of GPG verification of the push certificate,
   75 	using the same mnemonic as used in `%G?` format of `git log`
   76 	family of commands (see linkgit:git-log[1]).
   77 
   78 `GIT_PUSH_CERT_NONCE`::
   79 	The nonce string the process asked the signer to include
   80 	in the push certificate.  If this does not match the value
   81 	recorded on the "nonce" header in the push certificate, it
   82 	may indicate that the certificate is a valid one that is
   83 	being replayed from a separate "git push" session.
   84 
   85 `GIT_PUSH_CERT_NONCE_STATUS`::
   86 `UNSOLICITED`;;
   87 	"git push --signed" sent a nonce when we did not ask it to
   88 	send one.
   89 `MISSING`;;
   90 	"git push --signed" did not send any nonce header.
   91 `BAD`;;
   92 	"git push --signed" sent a bogus nonce.
   93 `OK`;;
   94 	"git push --signed" sent the nonce we asked it to send.
   95 `SLOP`;;
   96 	"git push --signed" sent a nonce different from what we
   97 	asked it to send now, but in a previous session.  See
   98 	`GIT_PUSH_CERT_NONCE_SLOP` environment variable.
   99 
  100 `GIT_PUSH_CERT_NONCE_SLOP`::
  101 	"git push --signed" sent a nonce different from what we
  102 	asked it to send now, but in a different session whose
  103 	starting time is different by this many seconds from the
  104 	current session.  Only meaningful when
  105 	`GIT_PUSH_CERT_NONCE_STATUS` says `SLOP`.
  106 	Also read about `receive.certNonceSlop` variable in
  107 	linkgit:git-config[1].
  108 
  109 This hook is called before any refname is updated and before any
  110 fast-forward checks are performed.
  111 
  112 If the pre-receive hook exits with a non-zero exit status no updates
  113 will be performed, and the update, post-receive and post-update
  114 hooks will not be invoked either.  This can be useful to quickly
  115 bail out if the update is not to be supported.
  116 
  117 See the notes on the quarantine environment below.
  118 
  119 UPDATE HOOK
  120 -----------
  121 Before each ref is updated, if $GIT_DIR/hooks/update file exists
  122 and is executable, it is invoked once per ref, with three parameters:
  123 
  124        $GIT_DIR/hooks/update refname sha1-old sha1-new
  125 
  126 The refname parameter is relative to $GIT_DIR; e.g. for the master
  127 head this is "refs/heads/master".  The two sha1 arguments are
  128 the object names for the refname before and after the update.
  129 Note that the hook is called before the refname is updated,
  130 so either sha1-old is 0\{40} (meaning there is no such ref yet),
  131 or it should match what is recorded in refname.
  132 
  133 The hook should exit with non-zero status if it wants to disallow
  134 updating the named ref.  Otherwise it should exit with zero.
  135 
  136 Successful execution (a zero exit status) of this hook does not
  137 ensure the ref will actually be updated, it is only a prerequisite.
  138 As such it is not a good idea to send notices (e.g. email) from
  139 this hook.  Consider using the post-receive hook instead.
  140 
  141 POST-RECEIVE HOOK
  142 -----------------
  143 After all refs were updated (or attempted to be updated), if any
  144 ref update was successful, and if $GIT_DIR/hooks/post-receive
  145 file exists and is executable, it will be invoked once with no
  146 parameters.  The standard input of the hook will be one line
  147 for each successfully updated ref:
  148 
  149        sha1-old SP sha1-new SP refname LF
  150 
  151 The refname value is relative to $GIT_DIR; e.g. for the master
  152 head this is "refs/heads/master".  The two sha1 values before
  153 each refname are the object names for the refname before and after
  154 the update.  Refs that were created will have sha1-old equal to
  155 0\{40}, while refs that were deleted will have sha1-new equal to
  156 0\{40}, otherwise sha1-old and sha1-new should be valid objects in
  157 the repository.
  158 
  159 The `GIT_PUSH_CERT*` environment variables can be inspected, just as
  160 in `pre-receive` hook, after accepting a signed push.
  161 
  162 Using this hook, it is easy to generate mails describing the updates
  163 to the repository.  This example script sends one mail message per
  164 ref listing the commits pushed to the repository, and logs the push
  165 certificates of signed pushes with good signatures to a logger
  166 service:
  167 
  168 	#!/bin/sh
  169 	# mail out commit update information.
  170 	while read oval nval ref
  171 	do
  172 		if expr "$oval" : '0*$' >/dev/null
  173 		then
  174 			echo "Created a new ref, with the following commits:"
  175 			git rev-list --pretty "$nval"
  176 		else
  177 			echo "New commits:"
  178 			git rev-list --pretty "$nval" "^$oval"
  179 		fi |
  180 		mail -s "Changes to ref $ref" commit-list@mydomain
  181 	done
  182 	# log signed push certificate, if any
  183 	if test -n "${GIT_PUSH_CERT-}" && test ${GIT_PUSH_CERT_STATUS} = G
  184 	then
  185 		(
  186 			echo expected nonce is ${GIT_PUSH_NONCE}
  187 			git cat-file blob ${GIT_PUSH_CERT}
  188 		) | mail -s "push certificate from $GIT_PUSH_CERT_SIGNER" push-log@mydomain
  189 	fi
  190 	exit 0
  191 
  192 The exit code from this hook invocation is ignored, however a
  193 non-zero exit code will generate an error message.
  194 
  195 Note that it is possible for refname to not have sha1-new when this
  196 hook runs.  This can easily occur if another user modifies the ref
  197 after it was updated by 'git-receive-pack', but before the hook was able
  198 to evaluate it.  It is recommended that hooks rely on sha1-new
  199 rather than the current value of refname.
  200 
  201 POST-UPDATE HOOK
  202 ----------------
  203 After all other processing, if at least one ref was updated, and
  204 if $GIT_DIR/hooks/post-update file exists and is executable, then
  205 post-update will be called with the list of refs that have been updated.
  206 This can be used to implement any repository wide cleanup tasks.
  207 
  208 The exit code from this hook invocation is ignored; the only thing
  209 left for 'git-receive-pack' to do at that point is to exit itself
  210 anyway.
  211 
  212 This hook can be used, for example, to run `git update-server-info`
  213 if the repository is packed and is served via a dumb transport.
  214 
  215 	#!/bin/sh
  216 	exec git update-server-info
  217 
  218 
  219 QUARANTINE ENVIRONMENT
  220 ----------------------
  221 
  222 When `receive-pack` takes in objects, they are placed into a temporary
  223 "quarantine" directory within the `$GIT_DIR/objects` directory and
  224 migrated into the main object store only after the `pre-receive` hook
  225 has completed. If the push fails before then, the temporary directory is
  226 removed entirely.
  227 
  228 This has a few user-visible effects and caveats:
  229 
  230   1. Pushes which fail due to problems with the incoming pack, missing
  231      objects, or due to the `pre-receive` hook will not leave any
  232      on-disk data. This is usually helpful to prevent repeated failed
  233      pushes from filling up your disk, but can make debugging more
  234      challenging.
  235 
  236   2. Any objects created by the `pre-receive` hook will be created in
  237      the quarantine directory (and migrated only if it succeeds).
  238 
  239   3. The `pre-receive` hook MUST NOT update any refs to point to
  240      quarantined objects. Other programs accessing the repository will
  241      not be able to see the objects (and if the pre-receive hook fails,
  242      those refs would become corrupted). For safety, any ref updates
  243      from within `pre-receive` are automatically rejected.
  244 
  245 
  246 SEE ALSO
  247 --------
  248 linkgit:git-send-pack[1], linkgit:gitnamespaces[7]
  249 
  250 GIT
  251 ---
  252 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite