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    1 Git 2.13 Release Notes
    2 ======================
    3 
    4 Backward compatibility notes.
    5 
    6  * Use of an empty string as a pathspec element that is used for
    7    'everything matches' is still warned and Git asks users to use a
    8    more explicit '.' for that instead.  The hope is that existing
    9    users will not mind this change, and eventually the warning can be
   10    turned into a hard error, upgrading the deprecation into removal of
   11    this (mis)feature.  That is not scheduled to happen in the upcoming
   12    release (yet).
   13 
   14  * The historical argument order "git merge <msg> HEAD <commit>..."
   15    has been deprecated for quite some time, and is now removed.
   16 
   17  * The default location "~/.git-credential-cache/socket" for the
   18    socket used to communicate with the credential-cache daemon has
   19    been moved to "~/.cache/git/credential/socket".
   20 
   21  * Git now avoids blindly falling back to ".git" when the setup
   22    sequence said we are _not_ in Git repository.  A corner case that
   23    happens to work right now may be broken by a call to die("BUG").
   24    We've tried hard to locate such cases and fixed them, but there
   25    might still be cases that need to be addressed--bug reports are
   26    greatly appreciated.
   27 
   28 
   29 Updates since v2.12
   30 -------------------
   31 
   32 UI, Workflows & Features
   33 
   34  * "git describe" and "git name-rev" have been taught to take more
   35    than one refname patterns to restrict the set of refs to base their
   36    naming output on, and also learned to take negative patterns to
   37    name refs not to be used for naming via their "--exclude" option.
   38 
   39  * Deletion of a branch "foo/bar" could remove .git/refs/heads/foo
   40    once there no longer is any other branch whose name begins with
   41    "foo/", but we didn't do so so far.  Now we do.
   42 
   43  * When "git merge" detects a path that is renamed in one history
   44    while the other history deleted (or modified) it, it now reports
   45    both paths to help the user understand what is going on in the two
   46    histories being merged.
   47 
   48  * The <url> part in "http.<url>.<variable>" configuration variable
   49    can now be spelled with '*' that serves as wildcard.
   50    E.g. "http.https://*.example.com.proxy" can be used to specify the
   51    proxy used for https://a.example.com, https://b.example.com, etc.,
   52    i.e. any host in the example.com domain.
   53 
   54  * "git tag" did not leave useful message when adding a new entry to
   55    reflog; this was left unnoticed for a long time because refs/tags/*
   56    doesn't keep reflog by default.
   57 
   58  * The "negative" pathspec feature was somewhat more cumbersome to use
   59    than necessary in that its short-hand used "!" which needed to be
   60    escaped from shells, and it required "exclude from what?" specified.
   61 
   62  * The command line options for ssh invocation needs to be tweaked for
   63    some implementations of SSH (e.g. PuTTY plink wants "-P <port>"
   64    while OpenSSH wants "-p <port>" to specify port to connect to), and
   65    the variant was guessed when GIT_SSH environment variable is used
   66    to specify it.  The logic to guess now applies to the command
   67    specified by the newer GIT_SSH_COMMAND and also core.sshcommand
   68    configuration variable, and comes with an escape hatch for users to
   69    deal with misdetected cases.
   70 
   71  * The "--git-path", "--git-common-dir", and "--shared-index-path"
   72    options of "git rev-parse" did not produce usable output.  They are
   73    now updated to show the path to the correct file, relative to where
   74    the caller is.
   75 
   76  * "git diff -W" has been taught to handle the case where a new
   77    function is added at the end of the file better.
   78 
   79  * "git update-ref -d" and other operations to delete references did
   80    not leave any entry in HEAD's reflog when the reference being
   81    deleted was the current branch.  This is not a problem in practice
   82    because you do not want to delete the branch you are currently on,
   83    but caused renaming of the current branch to something else not to
   84    be logged in a useful way.
   85 
   86  * "Cc:" on the trailer part does not have to conform to RFC strictly,
   87    unlike in the e-mail header.  "git send-email" has been updated to
   88    ignore anything after '>' when picking addresses, to allow non-address
   89    cruft like " # stable 4.4" after the address.
   90 
   91  * When "git submodule init" decides that the submodule in the working
   92    tree is its upstream, it now gives a warning as it is not a very
   93    common setup.
   94 
   95  * "git stash push" takes a pathspec so that the local changes can be
   96    stashed away only partially.
   97 
   98  * Documentation for "git ls-files" did not refer to core.quotePath.
   99 
  100  * The experimental "split index" feature has gained a few
  101    configuration variables to make it easier to use.
  102 
  103  * From a working tree of a repository, a new option of "rev-parse"
  104    lets you ask if the repository is used as a submodule of another
  105    project, and where the root level of the working tree of that
  106    project (i.e. your superproject) is.
  107 
  108  * The pathspec mechanism learned to further limit the paths that
  109    match the pattern to those that have specified attributes attached
  110    via the gitattributes mechanism.
  111 
  112  * Our source code has used the SHA1_HEADER cpp macro after "#include"
  113    in the C code to switch among the SHA-1 implementations. Instead,
  114    list the exact header file names and switch among implementations
  115    using "#ifdef BLK_SHA1/#include "block-sha1/sha1.h"/.../#endif";
  116    this helps some IDE tools.
  117 
  118  * The start-up sequence of "git" needs to figure out some configured
  119    settings before it finds and set itself up in the location of the
  120    repository and was quite messy due to its "chicken-and-egg" nature.
  121    The code has been restructured.
  122 
  123  * The command line prompt (in contrib/) learned a new 'tag' style
  124    that can be specified with GIT_PS1_DESCRIBE_STYLE, to describe a
  125    detached HEAD with "git describe --tags".
  126 
  127  * The configuration file learned a new "includeIf.<condition>.path"
  128    that includes the contents of the given path only when the
  129    condition holds.  This allows you to say "include this work-related
  130    bit only in the repositories under my ~/work/ directory".
  131 
  132  * Recent update to "rebase -i" started showing a message that is not
  133    a warning with "warning:" prefix by mistake.  This has been fixed.
  134 
  135  * Recently we started passing the "--push-options" through the
  136    external remote helper interface; now the "smart HTTP" remote
  137    helper understands what to do with the passed information.
  138 
  139  * "git describe --dirty" dies when it cannot be determined if the
  140    state in the working tree matches that of HEAD (e.g. broken
  141    repository or broken submodule).  The command learned a new option
  142    "git describe --broken" to give "$name-broken" (where $name is the
  143    description of HEAD) in such a case.
  144 
  145  * "git checkout" is taught the "--recurse-submodules" option.
  146 
  147  * Recent enhancement to "git stash push" command to support pathspec
  148    to allow only a subset of working tree changes to be stashed away
  149    was found to be too chatty and exposed the internal implementation
  150    detail (e.g. when it uses reset to match the index to HEAD before
  151    doing other things, output from reset seeped out).  These, and
  152    other chattyness has been fixed.
  153 
  154  * "git merge <message> HEAD <commit>" syntax that has been deprecated
  155    since October 2007 has been removed.
  156 
  157  * The refs completion for large number of refs has been sped up,
  158    partly by giving up disambiguating ambiguous refs and partly by
  159    eliminating most of the shell processing between 'git for-each-ref'
  160    and 'ls-remote' and Bash's completion facility.
  161 
  162  * On many keyboards, typing "@{" involves holding down SHIFT key and
  163    one can easily end up with "@{Up..." when typing "@{upstream}".  As
  164    the upstream/push keywords do not appear anywhere else in the syntax,
  165    we can safely accept them case insensitively without introducing
  166    ambiguity or confusion to solve this.
  167 
  168  * "git tag/branch/for-each-ref" family of commands long allowed to
  169    filter the refs by "--contains X" (show only the refs that are
  170    descendants of X), "--merged X" (show only the refs that are
  171    ancestors of X), "--no-merged X" (show only the refs that are not
  172    ancestors of X).  One curious omission, "--no-contains X" (show
  173    only the refs that are not descendants of X) has been added to
  174    them.
  175 
  176  * The default behaviour of "git log" in an interactive session has
  177    been changed to enable "--decorate".
  178 
  179  * The output from "git status --short" has been extended to show
  180    various kinds of dirtyness in submodules differently; instead of to
  181    "M" for modified, 'm' and '?' can be shown to signal changes only
  182    to the working tree of the submodule but not the commit that is
  183    checked out.
  184 
  185  * Allow the http.postbuffer configuration variable to be set to a
  186    size that can be expressed in size_t, which can be larger than
  187    ulong on some platforms.
  188 
  189  * "git rebase" learns "--signoff" option.
  190 
  191  * The completion script (in contrib/) learned to complete "git push
  192    --delete b<TAB>" to complete branch name to be deleted.
  193 
  194  * "git worktree add --lock" allows to lock a worktree immediately
  195    after it's created. This helps prevent a race between "git worktree
  196    add; git worktree lock" and "git worktree prune".
  197 
  198  * Completion for "git checkout <branch>" that auto-creates the branch
  199    out of a remote tracking branch can now be disabled, as this
  200    completion often gets in the way when completing to checkout an
  201    existing local branch that happens to share the same prefix with
  202    bunch of remote tracking branches.
  203 
  204 
  205 Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
  206 
  207  * The code to list branches in "git branch" has been consolidated
  208    with the more generic ref-filter API.
  209 
  210  * Resource usage while enumerating refs from alternate object store
  211    has been optimized to help receiving end of "push" that hosts a
  212    repository with many "forks".
  213 
  214  * The gitattributes machinery is being taught to work better in a
  215    multi-threaded environment.
  216 
  217  * "git rebase -i" starts using the recently updated "sequencer" code.
  218 
  219  * Code and design clean-up for the refs API.
  220 
  221  * The preload-index code has been taught not to bother with the index
  222    entries that are paths that are not checked out by "sparse checkout".
  223 
  224  * Some warning() messages from "git clean" were updated to show the
  225    errno from failed system calls.
  226 
  227  * The "parse_config_key()" API function has been cleaned up.
  228 
  229  * A test that creates a confusing branch whose name is HEAD has been
  230    corrected not to do so.
  231 
  232  * The code that parses header fields in the commit object has been
  233    updated for (micro)performance and code hygiene.
  234 
  235  * An helper function to make it easier to append the result from
  236    real_path() to a strbuf has been added.
  237 
  238  * Reduce authentication round-trip over HTTP when the server supports
  239    just a single authentication method.  This also improves the
  240    behaviour when Git is misconfigured to enable http.emptyAuth
  241    against a server that does not authenticate without a username
  242    (i.e. not using Kerberos etc., which makes http.emptyAuth
  243    pointless).
  244 
  245  * Windows port wants to use OpenSSL's implementation of SHA-1
  246    routines, so let them.
  247 
  248  * The t/perf performance test suite was not prepared to test not so
  249    old versions of Git, but now it covers versions of Git that are not
  250    so ancient.
  251 
  252  * Add 32-bit Linux variant to the set of platforms to be tested with
  253    Travis CI.
  254 
  255  * "git branch --list" takes the "--abbrev" and "--no-abbrev" options
  256    to control the output of the object name in its "-v"(erbose)
  257    output, but a recent update started ignoring them; fix it before
  258    the breakage reaches to any released version.
  259 
  260  * Picking two versions of Git and running tests to make sure the
  261    older one and the newer one interoperate happily has now become
  262    possible.
  263 
  264  * "git tag --contains" used to (ab)use the object bits to keep track
  265    of the state of object reachability without clearing them after
  266    use; this has been cleaned up and made to use the newer commit-slab
  267    facility.
  268 
  269  * The "debug" helper used in the test framework learned to run
  270    a command under "gdb" interactively.
  271 
  272  * The "detect attempt to create collisions" variant of SHA-1
  273    implementation by Marc Stevens (CWI) and Dan Shumow (Microsoft)
  274    has been integrated and made the default.
  275 
  276  * The test framework learned to detect unterminated here documents.
  277 
  278  * The name-hash used for detecting paths that are different only in
  279    cases (which matter on case insensitive filesystems) has been
  280    optimized to take advantage of multi-threading when it makes sense.
  281 
  282  * An earlier version of sha1dc/sha1.c that was merged to 'master'
  283    compiled incorrectly on Windows, which has been fixed.
  284 
  285  * "what URL do we want to update this submodule?" and "are we
  286    interested in this submodule?" are split into two distinct
  287    concepts, and then the way used to express the latter got extended,
  288    paving a way to make it easier to manage a project with many
  289    submodules and make it possible to later extend use of multiple
  290    worktrees for a project with submodules.
  291 
  292  * Some debugging output from "git describe" were marked for l10n,
  293    but some weren't.  Mark missing ones for l10n.
  294 
  295  * Define a new task in .travis.yml that triggers a test session on
  296    Windows run elsewhere.
  297 
  298  * Conversion from uchar[20] to struct object_id continues.
  299 
  300  * The "submodule" specific field in the ref_store structure is
  301    replaced with a more generic "gitdir" that can later be used also
  302    when dealing with ref_store that represents the set of refs visible
  303    from the other worktrees.
  304 
  305  * The string-list API used a custom reallocation strategy that was
  306    very inefficient, instead of using the usual ALLOC_GROW() macro,
  307    which has been fixed.
  308    (merge 950a234cbd jh/string-list-micro-optim later to maint).
  309 
  310  * In a 2- and 3-way merge of trees, more than one source trees often
  311    end up sharing an identical subtree; optimize by not reading the
  312    same tree multiple times in such a case.
  313    (merge d12a8cf0af jh/unpack-trees-micro-optim later to maint).
  314 
  315  * The index file has a trailing SHA-1 checksum to detect file
  316    corruption, and historically we checked it every time the index
  317    file is used.  Omit the validation during normal use, and instead
  318    verify only in "git fsck".
  319 
  320  * Having a git command on the upstream side of a pipe in a test
  321    script will hide the exit status from the command, which may cause
  322    us to fail to notice a breakage; rewrite tests in a script to avoid
  323    this issue.
  324 
  325  * Travis CI learns to run coccicheck.
  326 
  327  * "git checkout" that handles a lot of paths has been optimized by
  328    reducing the number of unnecessary checks of paths in the
  329    has_dir_name() function.
  330 
  331  * The internals of the refs API around the cached refs has been
  332    streamlined.
  333 
  334  * Output from perf tests have been updated to align their titles.
  335 
  336 Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
  337 
  338 
  339 Fixes since v2.12
  340 -----------------
  341 
  342 Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.12 in the maintenance
  343 track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
  344 notes for details).
  345 
  346  * "git repack --depth=<n>" for a long time busted the specified depth
  347    when reusing delta from existing packs.  This has been corrected.
  348 
  349  * The code to parse the command line "git grep <patterns>... <rev>
  350    [[--] <pathspec>...]" has been cleaned up, and a handful of bugs
  351    have been fixed (e.g. we used to check "--" if it is a rev).
  352 
  353  * "git ls-remote" and "git archive --remote" are designed to work
  354    without being in a directory under Git's control.  However, recent
  355    updates revealed that we randomly look into a directory called
  356    .git/ without actually doing necessary set-up when working in a
  357    repository.  Stop doing so.
  358 
  359  * "git show-branch" expected there were only very short branch names
  360    in the repository and used a fixed-length buffer to hold them
  361    without checking for overflow.
  362 
  363  * A caller of tempfile API that uses stdio interface to write to
  364    files may ignore errors while writing, which is detected when
  365    tempfile is closed (with a call to ferror()).  By that time, the
  366    original errno that may have told us what went wrong is likely to
  367    be long gone and was overwritten by an irrelevant value.
  368    close_tempfile() now resets errno to EIO to make errno at least
  369    predictable.
  370 
  371  * "git remote rm X", when a branch has remote X configured as the
  372    value of its branch.*.remote, tried to remove branch.*.remote and
  373    branch.*.merge and failed if either is unset.
  374 
  375  * A "gc.log" file left by a backgrounded "gc --auto" disables further
  376    automatic gc; it has been taught to run at least once a day (by
  377    default) by ignoring a stale "gc.log" file that is too old.
  378 
  379  * The code to parse "git -c VAR=VAL cmd" and set configuration
  380    variable for the duration of cmd had two small bugs, which have
  381    been fixed.
  382 
  383  * user.email that consists of only cruft chars should consistently
  384    error out, but didn't.
  385 
  386  * "git upload-pack", which is a counter-part of "git fetch", did not
  387    report a request for a ref that was not advertised as invalid.
  388    This is generally not a problem (because "git fetch" will stop
  389    before making such a request), but is the right thing to do.
  390 
  391  * A leak in a codepath to read from a packed object in (rare) cases
  392    has been plugged.
  393 
  394  * When a redirected http transport gets an error during the
  395    redirected request, we ignored the error we got from the server,
  396    and ended up giving a not-so-useful error message.
  397 
  398  * The patch subcommand of "git add -i" was meant to have paths
  399    selection prompt just like other subcommand, unlike "git add -p"
  400    directly jumps to hunk selection.  Recently, this was broken and
  401    "add -i" lost the paths selection dialog, but it now has been
  402    fixed.
  403 
  404  * Git v2.12 was shipped with an embarrassing breakage where various
  405    operations that verify paths given from the user stopped dying when
  406    seeing an issue, and instead later triggering segfault.
  407 
  408  * There is no need for Python only to give a few messages to the
  409    standard error stream, but we somehow did.
  410 
  411  * The code to parse "git log -L..." command line was buggy when there
  412    are many ranges specified with -L; overrun of the allocated buffer
  413    has been fixed.
  414 
  415  * The command-line parsing of "git log -L" copied internal data
  416    structures using incorrect size on ILP32 systems.
  417 
  418  * "git diff --quiet" relies on the size field in diff_filespec to be
  419    correctly populated, but diff_populate_filespec() helper function
  420    made an incorrect short-cut when asked only to populate the size
  421    field for paths that need to go through convert_to_git() (e.g. CRLF
  422    conversion).
  423 
  424  * A few tests were run conditionally under (rare) conditions where
  425    they cannot be run (like running cvs tests under 'root' account).
  426 
  427  * "git branch @" created refs/heads/@ as a branch, and in general the
  428    code that handled @{-1} and @{upstream} was a bit too loose in
  429    disambiguating.
  430 
  431  * "git fetch" that requests a commit by object name, when the other
  432    side does not allow such an request, failed without much
  433    explanation.
  434 
  435  * "git filter-branch --prune-empty" drops a single-parent commit that
  436    becomes a no-op, but did not drop a root commit whose tree is empty.
  437 
  438  * Recent versions of Git treats http alternates (used in dumb http
  439    transport) just like HTTP redirects and requires the client to
  440    enable following it, due to security concerns.  But we forgot to
  441    give a warning when we decide not to honor the alternates.
  442 
  443  * "git push" had a handful of codepaths that could lead to a deadlock
  444    when unexpected error happened, which has been fixed.
  445 
  446  * "Dumb http" transport used to misparse a nonsense http-alternates
  447    response, which has been fixed.
  448 
  449  * "git add -p <pathspec>" unnecessarily expanded the pathspec to a
  450    list of individual files that matches the pathspec by running "git
  451    ls-files <pathspec>", before feeding it to "git diff-index" to see
  452    which paths have changes, because historically the pathspec
  453    language supported by "diff-index" was weaker.  These days they are
  454    equivalent and there is no reason to internally expand it.  This
  455    helps both performance and avoids command line argument limit on
  456    some platforms.
  457    (merge 7288e12cce jk/add-i-use-pathspecs later to maint).
  458 
  459  * "git status --porcelain" is supposed to give a stable output, but a
  460    few strings were left as translatable by mistake.
  461 
  462  * "git revert -m 0 $merge_commit" complained that reverting a merge
  463    needs to say relative to which parent the reversion needs to
  464    happen, as if "-m 0" weren't given.  The correct diagnosis is that
  465    "-m 0" does not refer to the first parent ("-m 1" does).  This has
  466    been fixed.
  467 
  468  * Code to read submodule.<name>.ignore config did not state the
  469    variable name correctly when giving an error message diagnosing
  470    misconfiguration.
  471 
  472  * Fix for NO_PTHREADS build.
  473 
  474  * Fix for potential segv introduced in v2.11.0 and later (also
  475    v2.10.2) to "git log --pickaxe-regex -S".
  476 
  477  * A few unterminated here documents in tests were fixed, which in
  478    turn revealed incorrect expectations the tests make. These tests
  479    have been updated.
  480 
  481  * Fix for NO_PTHREADS option.
  482    (merge 2225e1ea20 bw/grep-recurse-submodules later to maint).
  483 
  484  * Git now avoids blindly falling back to ".git" when the setup
  485    sequence said we are _not_ in Git repository.  A corner case that
  486    happens to work right now may be broken by a call to die("BUG").
  487    (merge b1ef400eec jk/no-looking-at-dotgit-outside-repo-final later to maint).
  488 
  489  * A few commands that recently learned the "--recurse-submodule"
  490    option misbehaved when started from a subdirectory of the
  491    superproject.
  492    (merge b2dfeb7c00 bw/recurse-submodules-relative-fix later to maint).
  493 
  494  * FreeBSD implementation of getcwd(3) behaved differently when an
  495    intermediate directory is unreadable/unsearchable depending on the
  496    length of the buffer provided, which our strbuf_getcwd() was not
  497    aware of.  strbuf_getcwd() has been taught to cope with it better.
  498    (merge a54e938e5b rs/freebsd-getcwd-workaround later to maint).
  499 
  500  * A recent update to "rebase -i" stopped running hooks for the "git
  501    commit" command during "reword" action, which has been fixed.
  502 
  503  * Removing an entry from a notes tree and then looking another note
  504    entry from the resulting tree using the internal notes API
  505    functions did not work as expected.  No in-tree users of the API
  506    has such access pattern, but it still is worth fixing.
  507 
  508  * "git receive-pack" could have been forced to die by attempting
  509    allocate an unreasonably large amount of memory with a crafted push
  510    certificate; this has been fixed.
  511    (merge f2214dede9 bc/push-cert-receive-fix later to maint).
  512 
  513  * Update error handling for codepath that deals with corrupt loose
  514    objects.
  515    (merge 51054177b3 jk/loose-object-info-report-error later to maint).
  516 
  517  * "git diff --submodule=diff" learned to work better in a project
  518    with a submodule that in turn has its own submodules.
  519    (merge 17b254cda6 sb/show-diff-for-submodule-in-diff-fix later to maint).
  520 
  521  * Update the build dependency so that an update to /usr/bin/perl
  522    etc. result in recomputation of perl.mak file.
  523    (merge c59c4939c2 ab/regen-perl-mak-with-different-perl later to maint).
  524 
  525  * "git push --recurse-submodules --push-option=<string>" learned to
  526    propagate the push option recursively down to pushes in submodules.
  527 
  528  * If a patch e-mail had its first paragraph after an in-body header
  529    indented (even after a blank line after the in-body header line),
  530    the indented line was mistook as a continuation of the in-body
  531    header.  This has been fixed.
  532    (merge fd1062e52e lt/mailinfo-in-body-header-continuation later to maint).
  533 
  534  * Clean up fallouts from recent tightening of the set-up sequence,
  535    where Git barfs when repository information is accessed without
  536    first ensuring that it was started in a repository.
  537    (merge bccb22cbb1 jk/no-looking-at-dotgit-outside-repo later to maint).
  538 
  539  * "git p4" used "name-rev HEAD" when it wants to learn what branch is
  540    checked out; it should use "symbolic-ref HEAD".
  541    (merge eff451101d ld/p4-current-branch-fix later to maint).
  542 
  543  * "http.proxy" set to an empty string is used to disable the usage of
  544    proxy.  We broke this early last year.
  545    (merge ae51d91105 sr/http-proxy-configuration-fix later to maint).
  546 
  547  * $GIT_DIR may in some cases be normalized with all symlinks resolved
  548    while "gitdir" path expansion in the pattern does not receive the
  549    same treatment, leading to incorrect mismatch.  This has been fixed.
  550 
  551  * "git submodule" script does not work well with strange pathnames.
  552    Protect it from a path with slashes in them, at least.
  553 
  554  * "git fetch-pack" was not prepared to accept ERR packet that the
  555    upload-pack can send with a human-readable error message.  It
  556    showed the packet contents with ERR prefix, so there was no data
  557    loss, but it was redundant to say "ERR" in an error message.
  558    (merge 8e2c7bef03 jt/fetch-pack-error-reporting later to maint).
  559 
  560  * "ls-files --recurse-submodules" did not quite work well in a
  561    project with nested submodules.
  562 
  563  * gethostname(2) may not NUL terminate the buffer if hostname does
  564    not fit; unfortunately there is no easy way to see if our buffer
  565    was too small, but at least this will make sure we will not end up
  566    using garbage past the end of the buffer.
  567    (merge 5781a9a270 dt/xgethostname-nul-termination later to maint).
  568 
  569  * A recent update broke "git add -p ../foo" from a subdirectory.
  570 
  571  * While handy, "git_path()" is a dangerous function to use as a
  572    callsite that uses it safely one day can be broken by changes
  573    to other code that calls it.  Reduction of its use continues.
  574    (merge 16d2676c9e jk/war-on-git-path later to maint).
  575 
  576  * The split-index code configuration code used an unsafe git_path()
  577    function without copying its result out.
  578 
  579  * Many stale HTTP(s) links have been updated in our documentation.
  580    (merge 613416f0be jk/update-links-in-docs later to maint).
  581 
  582  * "git-shell" rejects a request to serve a repository whose name
  583    begins with a dash, which makes it no longer possible to get it
  584    confused into spawning service programs like "git-upload-pack" with
  585    an option like "--help", which in turn would spawn an interactive
  586    pager, instead of working with the repository user asked to access
  587    (i.e. the one whose name is "--help").
  588 
  589  * Other minor doc, test and build updates and code cleanups.
  590    (merge df2a6e38b7 jk/pager-in-use later to maint).
  591    (merge 75ec4a6cb0 ab/branch-list-doc later to maint).
  592    (merge 3e5b36c637 sg/skip-prefix-in-prettify-refname later to maint).
  593    (merge 2c5e2865cc jk/fast-import-cleanup later to maint).
  594    (merge 4473060bc2 ab/test-readme-updates later to maint).
  595    (merge 48a96972fd ab/doc-submitting later to maint).
  596    (merge f5c2bc2b96 jk/make-coccicheck-detect-errors later to maint).
  597    (merge c105f563d1 cc/untracked later to maint).
  598    (merge 8668976b53 jc/unused-symbols later to maint).
  599    (merge fba275dc93 jc/bs-t-is-not-a-tab-for-sed later to maint).
  600    (merge be6ed145de mm/ls-files-s-doc later to maint).
  601    (merge 60b091c679 qp/bisect-docfix later to maint).
  602    (merge 47242cd103 ah/diff-files-ours-theirs-doc later to maint).
  603    (merge 35ad44cbd8 sb/submodule-rm-absorb later to maint).
  604    (merge 0301f1fd92 va/i18n-perl-scripts later to maint).
  605    (merge 733e064d98 vn/revision-shorthand-for-side-branch-log later to maint).
  606    (merge 85999743e7 tb/doc-eol-normalization later to maint).
  607    (merge 0747fb49fd jk/loose-object-fsck later to maint).
  608    (merge d8f4481c4f jk/quarantine-received-objects later to maint).
  609    (merge 7ba1ceef95 xy/format-patch-base later to maint).
  610    (merge fa1912c89a rs/misc-cppcheck-fixes later to maint).
  611    (merge f17d642d3b ab/push-cas-doc-n-test later to maint).
  612    (merge 61e282425a ss/gitmodules-ignore-doc later to maint).
  613    (merge 8d3047cd5b ss/submodule-shallow-doc later to maint).
  614    (merge 1f9e18b772 jk/prio-queue-avoid-swap-with-self later to maint).
  615    (merge 627fde1025 jk/submodule-init-segv-fix later to maint).
  616    (merge d395745d81 rg/doc-pull-typofix later to maint).
  617    (merge 01e60a9a22 rg/doc-submittingpatches-wordfix later to maint).
  618    (merge 501d3cd7b8 sr/hooks-cwd-doc later to maint).