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    1 Git 2.10 Release Notes
    2 ======================
    3 
    4 Backward compatibility notes
    5 ----------------------------
    6 
    7 Updates since v2.9
    8 ------------------
    9 
   10 UI, Workflows & Features
   11 
   12  * "git pull --rebase --verify-signature" learned to warn the user
   13    that "--verify-signature" is a no-op when rebasing.
   14 
   15  * An upstream project can make a recommendation to shallowly clone
   16    some submodules in the .gitmodules file it ships.
   17 
   18  * "git worktree add" learned that '-' can be used as a short-hand for
   19    "@{-1}", the previous branch.
   20 
   21  * Update the funcname definition to support css files.
   22 
   23  * The completion script (in contrib/) learned to complete "git
   24    status" options.
   25 
   26  * Messages that are generated by auto gc during "git push" on the
   27    receiving end are now passed back to the sending end in such a way
   28    that they are shown with "remote: " prefix to avoid confusing the
   29    users.
   30 
   31  * "git add -i/-p" learned to honor diff.compactionHeuristic
   32    experimental knob, so that the user can work on the same hunk split
   33    as "git diff" output.
   34 
   35  * "upload-pack" allows a custom "git pack-objects" replacement when
   36    responding to "fetch/clone" via the uploadpack.packObjectsHook.
   37    (merge b738396 jk/upload-pack-hook later to maint).
   38 
   39  * Teach format-patch and mailsplit (hence "am") how a line that
   40    happens to begin with "From " in the e-mail message is quoted with
   41    ">", so that these lines can be restored to their original shape.
   42    (merge d9925d1 ew/mboxrd-format-am later to maint).
   43 
   44  * "git repack" learned the "--keep-unreachable" option, which sends
   45    loose unreachable objects to a pack instead of leaving them loose.
   46    This helps heuristics based on the number of loose objects
   47    (e.g. "gc --auto").
   48    (merge e26a8c4 jk/repack-keep-unreachable later to maint).
   49 
   50  * "log --graph --format=" learned that "%>|(N)" specifies the width
   51    relative to the terminal's left edge, not relative to the area to
   52    draw text that is to the right of the ancestry-graph section.  It
   53    also now accepts negative N that means the column limit is relative
   54    to the right border.
   55 
   56  * A careless invocation of "git send-email directory/" after editing
   57    0001-change.patch with an editor often ends up sending both
   58    0001-change.patch and its backup file, 0001-change.patch~, causing
   59    embarrassment and a minor confusion.  Detect such an input and
   60    offer to skip the backup files when sending the patches out.
   61    (merge 531220b jc/send-email-skip-backup later to maint).
   62 
   63  * "git submodule update" that drives many "git clone" could
   64    eventually hit flaky servers/network conditions on one of the
   65    submodules; the command learned to retry the attempt.
   66 
   67  * The output coloring scheme learned two new attributes, italic and
   68    strike, in addition to existing bold, reverse, etc.
   69 
   70  * "git log" learns log.showSignature configuration variable, and a
   71    command line option "--no-show-signature" to countermand it.
   72    (merge fce04c3 mj/log-show-signature-conf later to maint).
   73 
   74  * More markings of messages for i18n, with updates to various tests
   75    to pass GETTEXT_POISON tests.
   76 
   77  * "git archive" learned to handle files that are larger than 8GB and
   78    commits far in the future than expressible by the traditional US-TAR
   79    format.
   80    (merge 560b0e8 jk/big-and-future-archive-tar later to maint).
   81 
   82 
   83  * A new configuration variable core.sshCommand has been added to
   84    specify what value for GIT_SSH_COMMAND to use per repository.
   85 
   86  * "git worktree prune" protected worktrees that are marked as
   87    "locked" by creating a file in a known location.  "git worktree"
   88    command learned a dedicated command pair to create and remove such
   89    a file, so that the users do not have to do this with editor.
   90 
   91  * A handful of "git svn" updates.
   92 
   93  * "git push" learned to accept and pass extra options to the
   94    receiving end so that hooks can read and react to them.
   95 
   96  * "git status" learned to suggest "merge --abort" during a conflicted
   97    merge, just like it already suggests "rebase --abort" during a
   98    conflicted rebase.
   99 
  100  * "git jump" script (in contrib/) has been updated a bit.
  101    (merge a91e692 jk/git-jump later to maint).
  102 
  103  * "git push" and "git clone" learned to give better progress meters
  104    to the end user who is waiting on the terminal.
  105 
  106  * An entry "git log --decorate" for the tip of the current branch is
  107    shown as "HEAD -> name" (where "name" is the name of the branch);
  108    the arrow is now painted in the same color as "HEAD", not in the
  109    color for commits.
  110 
  111  * "git format-patch" learned format.from configuration variable to
  112    specify the default settings for its "--from" option.
  113 
  114  * "git am -3" calls "git merge-recursive" when it needs to fall back
  115    to a three-way merge; this call has been turned into an internal
  116    subroutine call instead of spawning a separate subprocess.
  117 
  118  * The command line completion scripts (in contrib/) now knows about
  119    "git branch --delete/--move [--remote]".
  120    (merge 2703c22 vs/completion-branch-fully-spelled-d-m-r later to maint).
  121 
  122  * "git rev-parse --git-path hooks/<hook>" learned to take
  123    core.hooksPath configuration variable (introduced during 2.9 cycle)
  124    into account.
  125    (merge 9445b49 ab/hooks later to maint).
  126 
  127  * "git log --show-signature" and other commands that display the
  128    verification status of PGP signature now shows the longer key-id,
  129    as 32-bit key-id is so last century.
  130 
  131 
  132 Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
  133 
  134  * "git fast-import" learned the same performance trick to avoid
  135    creating too small a packfile as "git fetch" and "git push" have,
  136    using *.unpackLimit configuration.
  137 
  138  * When "git daemon" is run without --[init-]timeout specified, a
  139    connection from a client that silently goes offline can hang around
  140    for a long time, wasting resources.  The socket-level KEEPALIVE has
  141    been enabled to allow the OS to notice such failed connections.
  142 
  143  * "git upload-pack" command has been updated to use the parse-options
  144    API.
  145 
  146  * The "git apply" standalone program is being libified; the first
  147    step to move many state variables into a structure that can be
  148    explicitly (re)initialized to make the machinery callable more
  149    than once has been merged.
  150 
  151  * HTTP transport gained an option to produce more detailed debugging
  152    trace.
  153    (merge 73e57aa ep/http-curl-trace later to maint).
  154 
  155  * Instead of taking advantage of the fact that a struct string_list
  156    that is allocated with all NULs happens to be the INIT_NODUP kind,
  157    the users of string_list structures are taught to initialize them
  158    explicitly as such, to document their behaviour better.
  159    (merge 2721ce2 jk/string-list-static-init later to maint).
  160 
  161  * HTTPd tests learned to show the server error log to help diagnosing
  162    a failing tests.
  163    (merge 44f243d nd/test-lib-httpd-show-error-log-in-verbose later to maint).
  164 
  165  * The ownership rule for the piece of memory that hold references to
  166    be fetched in "git fetch" was screwy, which has been cleaned up.
  167 
  168  * "git bisect" makes an internal call to "git diff-tree" when
  169    bisection finds the culprit, but this call did not initialize the
  170    data structure to pass to the diff-tree API correctly.
  171 
  172  * Further preparatory clean-up for "worktree" feature continues.
  173    (merge 0409e0b nd/worktree-cleanup-post-head-protection later to maint).
  174 
  175  * Formats of the various data (and how to validate them) where we use
  176    GPG signature have been documented.
  177 
  178  * A new run-command API function pipe_command() is introduced to
  179    sanely feed data to the standard input while capturing data from
  180    the standard output and the standard error of an external process,
  181    which is cumbersome to hand-roll correctly without deadlocking.
  182 
  183  * The codepath to sign data in a prepared buffer with GPG has been
  184    updated to use this API to read from the status-fd to check for
  185    errors (instead of relying on GPG's exit status).
  186    (merge efee955 jk/gpg-interface-cleanup later to maint).
  187 
  188  * Allow t/perf framework to use the features from the most recent
  189    version of Git even when testing an older installed version.
  190 
  191  * The commands in the "log/diff" family have had an FILE* pointer in the
  192    data structure they pass around for a long time, but some codepaths
  193    used to always write to the standard output.  As a preparatory step
  194    to make "git format-patch" available to the internal callers, these
  195    codepaths have been updated to consistently write into that FILE*
  196    instead.
  197 
  198  * Conversion from unsigned char sha1[20] to struct object_id
  199    continues.
  200 
  201  * Improve the look of the way "git fetch" reports what happened to
  202    each ref that was fetched.
  203 
  204  * The .c/.h sources are marked as such in our .gitattributes file so
  205    that "git diff -W" and friends would work better.
  206 
  207  * Code clean-up to avoid using a variable string that compilers may
  208    feel untrustable as printf-style format given to write_file()
  209    helper function.
  210 
  211  * "git p4" used a location outside $GIT_DIR/refs/ to place its
  212    temporary branches, which has been moved to refs/git-p4-tmp/.
  213 
  214  * Existing autoconf generated test for the need to link with pthread
  215    library did not check all the functions from pthread libraries;
  216    recent FreeBSD has some functions in libc but not others, and we
  217    mistakenly thought linking with libc is enough when it is not.
  218 
  219  * When "git fsck" reports a broken link (e.g. a tree object contains
  220    a blob that does not exist), both containing object and the object
  221    that is referred to were reported with their 40-hex object names.
  222    The command learned the "--name-objects" option to show the path to
  223    the containing object from existing refs (e.g. "HEAD~24^2:file.txt").
  224 
  225  * Allow http daemon tests in Travis CI tests.
  226 
  227  * Makefile assumed that -lrt is always available on platforms that
  228    want to use clock_gettime() and CLOCK_MONOTONIC, which is not a
  229    case for recent Mac OS X.  The necessary symbols are often found in
  230    libc on many modern systems and having -lrt on the command line, as
  231    long as the library exists, had no effect, but when the platform
  232    removes librt.a that is a different matter--having -lrt will break
  233    the linkage.
  234 
  235    This change could be seen as a regression for those who do need to
  236    specify -lrt, as they now specifically ask for NEEDS_LIBRT when
  237    building. Hopefully they are in the minority these days.
  238 
  239  * Further preparatory work on the refs API before the pluggable
  240    backend series can land.
  241 
  242  * Error handling in the codepaths that updates refs has been
  243    improved.
  244 
  245  * The API to iterate over all the refs (i.e. for_each_ref(), etc.)
  246    has been revamped.
  247 
  248  * The handling of the "text=auto" attribute has been corrected.
  249    $ echo "* text=auto eol=crlf" >.gitattributes
  250    used to have the same effect as
  251    $ echo "* text eol=crlf" >.gitattributes
  252    i.e. declaring all files are text (ignoring "auto").  The
  253    combination has been fixed to be equivalent to doing
  254    $ git config core.autocrlf true
  255 
  256  * Documentation has been updated to show better example usage
  257    of the updated "text=auto" attribute.
  258 
  259  * A few tests that specifically target "git rebase -i" have been
  260    added.
  261 
  262  * Dumb http transport on the client side has been optimized.
  263    (merge ecba195 ew/http-walker later to maint).
  264 
  265  * Users of the parse_options_concat() API function need to allocate
  266    extra slots in advance and fill them with OPT_END() when they want
  267    to decide the set of supported options dynamically, which makes the
  268    code error-prone and hard to read.  This has been corrected by tweaking
  269    the API to allocate and return a new copy of "struct option" array.
  270 
  271  * "git fetch" exchanges batched have/ack messages between the sender
  272    and the receiver, initially doubling every time and then falling
  273    back to enlarge the window size linearly.  The "smart http"
  274    transport, being an half-duplex protocol, outgrows the preset limit
  275    too quickly and becomes inefficient when interacting with a large
  276    repository.  The internal mechanism learned to grow the window size
  277    more aggressively when working with the "smart http" transport.
  278 
  279  * Tests for "git svn" have been taught to reuse the lib-httpd test
  280    infrastructure when testing the subversion integration that
  281    interacts with subversion repositories served over the http://
  282    protocol.
  283    (merge a8a5d25 ew/git-svn-http-tests later to maint).
  284 
  285  * "git pack-objects" has a few options that tell it not to pack
  286    objects found in certain packfiles, which require it to scan .idx
  287    files of all available packs.  The codepaths involved in these
  288    operations have been optimized for a common case of not having any
  289    non-local pack and/or any .kept pack.
  290 
  291  * The t3700 test about "add --chmod=-x" have been made a bit more
  292    robust and generally cleaned up.
  293    (merge 766cdc4 ib/t3700-add-chmod-x-updates later to maint).
  294 
  295  * The build procedure learned PAGER_ENV knob that lists what default
  296    environment variable settings to export for popular pagers.  This
  297    mechanism is used to tweak the default settings to MORE on FreeBSD.
  298    (merge 995bc22 ew/build-time-pager-tweaks later to maint).
  299 
  300  * The http-backend (the server-side component of smart-http
  301    transport) used to trickle the HTTP header one at a time.  Now
  302    these write(2)s are batched.
  303    (merge b36045c ew/http-backend-batch-headers later to maint).
  304 
  305  * When "git rebase" tries to compare set of changes on the updated
  306    upstream and our own branch, it computes patch-id for all of these
  307    changes and attempts to find matches. This has been optimized by
  308    lazily computing the full patch-id (which is expensive) to be
  309    compared only for changes that touch the same set of paths.
  310    (merge ba67504 kw/patch-ids-optim later to maint).
  311 
  312  * A handful of tests that were broken under gettext-poison build have
  313    been fixed.
  314 
  315  * The recent i18n patch we added during this cycle did a bit too much
  316    refactoring of the messages to avoid word-legos; the repetition has
  317    been reduced to help translators.
  318 
  319 
  320 Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
  321 
  322 
  323 Fixes since v2.9
  324 ----------------
  325 
  326 Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.8 in the maintenance
  327 track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
  328 notes for details).
  329 
  330  * The commands in `git log` family take %C(auto) in a custom format
  331    string.  This unconditionally turned the color on, ignoring
  332    --no-color or with --color=auto when the output is not connected to
  333    a tty; this was corrected to make the format truly behave as
  334    "auto".
  335 
  336  * "git rev-list --count" whose walk-length is limited with "-n"
  337    option did not work well with the counting optimized to look at the
  338    bitmap index.
  339 
  340  * "git show -W" (extend hunks to cover the entire function, delimited
  341    by lines that match the "funcname" pattern) used to show the entire
  342    file when a change added an entire function at the end of the file,
  343    which has been fixed.
  344 
  345  * The documentation set has been updated so that literal commands,
  346    configuration variables and environment variables are consistently
  347    typeset in fixed-width font and bold in manpages.
  348 
  349  * "git svn propset" subcommand that was added in 2.3 days is
  350    documented now.
  351 
  352  * The documentation tries to consistently spell "GPG"; when
  353    referring to the specific program name, "gpg" is used.
  354 
  355  * "git reflog" stopped upon seeing an entry that denotes a branch
  356    creation event (aka "unborn"), which made it appear as if the
  357    reflog was truncated.
  358 
  359  * The git-prompt scriptlet (in contrib/) was not friendly with those
  360    who uses "set -u", which has been fixed.
  361 
  362  * compat/regex code did not cleanly compile.
  363 
  364  * A codepath that used alloca(3) to place an unbounded amount of data
  365    on the stack has been updated to avoid doing so.
  366 
  367  * "git update-index --add --chmod=+x file" may be usable as an escape
  368    hatch, but not a friendly thing to force for people who do need to
  369    use it regularly.  "git add --chmod=+x file" can be used instead.
  370 
  371  * Build improvements for gnome-keyring (in contrib/)
  372 
  373  * "git status" used to say "working directory" when it meant "working
  374    tree".
  375 
  376  * Comments about misbehaving FreeBSD shells have been clarified with
  377    the version number (9.x and before are broken, newer ones are OK).
  378 
  379  * "git cherry-pick A" worked on an unborn branch, but "git
  380    cherry-pick A..B" didn't.
  381 
  382  * Fix an unintended regression in v2.9 that breaks "clone --depth"
  383    that recurses down to submodules by forcing the submodules to also
  384    be cloned shallowly, which many server instances that host upstream
  385    of the submodules are not prepared for.
  386 
  387  * Fix unnecessarily waste in the idiomatic use of ': ${VAR=default}'
  388    to set the default value, without enclosing it in double quotes.
  389 
  390  * Some platform-specific code had non-ANSI strict declarations of C
  391    functions that do not take any parameters, which has been
  392    corrected.
  393 
  394  * The internal code used to show local timezone offset is not
  395    prepared to handle timestamps beyond year 2100, and gave a
  396    bogus offset value to the caller.  Use a more benign looking
  397    +0000 instead and let "git log" going in such a case, instead
  398    of aborting.
  399 
  400  * One among four invocations of readlink(1) in our test suite has
  401    been rewritten so that the test can run on systems without the
  402    command (others are in valgrind test framework and t9802).
  403 
  404  * t/perf needs /usr/bin/time with GNU extension; the invocation of it
  405    is updated to "gtime" on Darwin.
  406 
  407  * A bug, which caused "git p4" while running under verbose mode to
  408    report paths that are omitted due to branch prefix incorrectly, has
  409    been fixed; the command said "Ignoring file outside of prefix" for
  410    paths that are _inside_.
  411 
  412  * The top level documentation "git help git" still pointed at the
  413    documentation set hosted at now-defunct google-code repository.
  414    Update it to point to https://git.github.io/htmldocs/git.html
  415    instead.
  416 
  417  * A helper function that takes the contents of a commit object and
  418    finds its subject line did not ignore leading blank lines, as is
  419    commonly done by other codepaths.  Make it ignore leading blank
  420    lines to match.
  421 
  422  * For a long time, we carried an in-code comment that said our
  423    colored output would work only when we use fprintf/fputs on
  424    Windows, which no longer is the case for the past few years.
  425 
  426  * "gc.autoPackLimit" when set to 1 should not trigger a repacking
  427    when there is only one pack, but the code counted poorly and did
  428    so.
  429 
  430  * Add a test to specify the desired behaviour that currently is not
  431    available in "git rebase -Xsubtree=...".
  432 
  433  * More mark-up updates to typeset strings that are expected to
  434    literally typed by the end user in fixed-width font.
  435 
  436  * "git commit --amend --allow-empty-message -S" for a commit without
  437    any message body could have misidentified where the header of the
  438    commit object ends.
  439 
  440  * "git rebase -i --autostash" did not restore the auto-stashed change
  441    when the operation was aborted.
  442 
  443  * Git does not know what the contents in the index should be for a
  444    path added with "git add -N" yet, so "git grep --cached" should not
  445    show hits (or show lack of hits, with -L) in such a path, but that
  446    logic does not apply to "git grep", i.e. searching in the working
  447    tree files.  But we did so by mistake, which has been corrected.
  448 
  449  * "git blame -M" missed a single line that was moved within the file.
  450 
  451  * Fix recently introduced codepaths that are involved in parallel
  452    submodule operations, which gave up on reading too early, and
  453    could have wasted CPU while attempting to write under a corner
  454    case condition.
  455 
  456  * "git grep -i" has been taught to fold case in non-ascii locales
  457    correctly.
  458 
  459  * A test that unconditionally used "mktemp" learned that the command
  460    is not necessarily available everywhere.
  461 
  462  * There are certain house-keeping tasks that need to be performed at
  463    the very beginning of any Git program, and programs that are not
  464    built-in commands had to do them exactly the same way as "git"
  465    potty does.  It was easy to make mistakes in one-off standalone
  466    programs (like test helpers).  A common "main()" function that
  467    calls cmd_main() of individual program has been introduced to
  468    make it harder to make mistakes.
  469    (merge de61ceb jk/common-main later to maint).
  470 
  471  * The test framework learned a new helper test_match_signal to
  472    check an exit code from getting killed by an expected signal.
  473 
  474  * General code clean-up around a helper function to write a
  475    single-liner to a file.
  476    (merge 7eb6e10 jk/write-file later to maint).
  477 
  478  * One part of "git am" had an oddball helper function that called
  479    stuff from outside "his" as opposed to calling what we have "ours",
  480    which was not gender-neutral and also inconsistent with the rest of
  481    the system where outside stuff is usuall called "theirs" in
  482    contrast to "ours".
  483 
  484  * "git blame file" allowed the lineage of lines in the uncommitted,
  485    unadded contents of "file" to be inspected, but it refused when
  486    "file" did not appear in the current commit.  When "file" was
  487    created by renaming an existing file (but the change has not been
  488    committed), this restriction was unnecessarily tight.
  489 
  490  * "git add -N dir/file && git write-tree" produced an incorrect tree
  491    when there are other paths in the same directory that sorts after
  492    "file".
  493 
  494  * "git fetch http://user:pass@host/repo..." scrubbed the userinfo
  495    part, but "git push" didn't.
  496 
  497  * "git merge" with renormalization did not work well with
  498    merge-recursive, due to "safer crlf" conversion kicking in when it
  499    shouldn't.
  500    (merge 1335d76 jc/renormalize-merge-kill-safer-crlf later to maint).
  501 
  502  * The use of strbuf in "git rm" to build filename to remove was a bit
  503    suboptimal, which has been fixed.
  504 
  505  * An age old bug that caused "git diff --ignore-space-at-eol"
  506    misbehave has been fixed.
  507 
  508  * "git notes merge" had a code to see if a path exists (and fails if
  509    it does) and then open the path for writing (when it doesn't).
  510    Replace it with open with O_EXCL.
  511 
  512  * "git pack-objects" and "git index-pack" mostly operate with off_t
  513    when talking about the offset of objects in a packfile, but there
  514    were a handful of places that used "unsigned long" to hold that
  515    value, leading to an unintended truncation.
  516 
  517  * Recent update to "git daemon" tries to enable the socket-level
  518    KEEPALIVE, but when it is spawned via inetd, the standard input
  519    file descriptor may not necessarily be connected to a socket.
  520    Suppress an ENOTSOCK error from setsockopt().
  521 
  522  * Recent FreeBSD stopped making perl available at /usr/bin/perl;
  523    switch the default the built-in path to /usr/local/bin/perl on not
  524    too ancient FreeBSD releases.
  525 
  526  * "git commit --help" said "--no-verify" is only about skipping the
  527    pre-commit hook, and failed to say that it also skipped the
  528    commit-msg hook.
  529 
  530  * "git merge" in Git v2.9 was taught to forbid merging an unrelated
  531    lines of history by default, but that is exactly the kind of thing
  532    the "--rejoin" mode of "git subtree" (in contrib/) wants to do.
  533    "git subtree" has been taught to use the "--allow-unrelated-histories"
  534    option to override the default.
  535 
  536  * The build procedure for "git persistent-https" helper (in contrib/)
  537    has been updated so that it can be built with more recent versions
  538    of Go.
  539 
  540  * There is an optimization used in "git diff $treeA $treeB" to borrow
  541    an already checked-out copy in the working tree when it is known to
  542    be the same as the blob being compared, expecting that open/mmap of
  543    such a file is faster than reading it from the object store, which
  544    involves inflating and applying delta.  This however kicked in even
  545    when the checked-out copy needs to go through the convert-to-git
  546    conversion (including the clean filter), which defeats the whole
  547    point of the optimization.  The optimization has been disabled when
  548    the conversion is necessary.
  549 
  550  * "git -c grep.patternType=extended log --basic-regexp" misbehaved
  551    because the internal API to access the grep machinery was not
  552    designed well.
  553 
  554  * Windows port was failing some tests in t4130, due to the lack of
  555    inum in the returned values by its lstat(2) emulation.
  556 
  557  * The reflog output format is documented better, and a new format
  558    --date=unix to report the seconds-since-epoch (without timezone)
  559    has been added.
  560    (merge 442f6fd jk/reflog-date later to maint).
  561 
  562  * "git difftool <paths>..." started in a subdirectory failed to
  563    interpret the paths relative to that directory, which has been
  564    fixed.
  565 
  566  * The characters in the label shown for tags/refs for commits in
  567    "gitweb" output are now properly escaped for proper HTML output.
  568 
  569  * FreeBSD can lie when asked mtime of a directory, which made the
  570    untracked cache code to fall back to a slow-path, which in turn
  571    caused tests in t7063 to fail because it wanted to verify the
  572    behaviour of the fast-path.
  573 
  574  * Squelch compiler warnings for nedmalloc (in compat/) library.
  575 
  576  * A small memory leak in the command line parsing of "git blame"
  577    has been plugged.
  578 
  579  * The API documentation for hashmap was unclear if hashmap_entry
  580    can be safely discarded without any other consideration.  State
  581    that it is safe to do so.
  582 
  583  * Not-so-recent rewrite of "git am" that started making internal
  584    calls into the commit machinery had an unintended regression, in
  585    that no matter how many seconds it took to apply many patches, the
  586    resulting committer timestamp for the resulting commits were all
  587    the same.
  588 
  589  * "git push --force-with-lease" already had enough logic to allow
  590    ensuring that such a push results in creation of a ref (i.e. the
  591    receiving end did not have another push from sideways that would be
  592    discarded by our force-pushing), but didn't expose this possibility
  593    to the users.  It does so now.
  594    (merge 9eed4f3 jk/push-force-with-lease-creation later to maint).
  595 
  596  * The mechanism to limit the pack window memory size, when packing is
  597    done using multiple threads (which is the default), is per-thread,
  598    but this was not documented clearly.
  599    (merge 954176c ms/document-pack-window-memory-is-per-thread later to maint).
  600 
  601  * "import-tars" fast-import script (in contrib/) used to ignore a
  602    hardlink target and replaced it with an empty file, which has been
  603    corrected to record the same blob as the other file the hardlink is
  604    shared with.
  605    (merge 04e0869 js/import-tars-hardlinks later to maint).
  606 
  607  * "git mv dir non-existing-dir/" did not work in some environments
  608    the same way as existing mainstream platforms.  The code now moves
  609    "dir" to "non-existing-dir", without relying on rename("A", "B/")
  610    that strips the trailing slash of '/'.
  611    (merge 189d035 js/mv-dir-to-new-directory later to maint).
  612 
  613  * The "t/" hierarchy is prone to get an unusual pathname; "make test"
  614    has been taught to make sure they do not contain paths that cannot
  615    be checked out on Windows (and the mechanism can be reusable to
  616    catch pathnames that are not portable to other platforms as need
  617    arises).
  618    (merge c2cafd3 js/test-lint-pathname later to maint).
  619 
  620  * When "git merge-recursive" works on history with many criss-cross
  621    merges in "verbose" mode, the names the command assigns to the
  622    virtual merge bases could have overwritten each other by unintended
  623    reuse of the same piece of memory.
  624    (merge 5447a76 rs/pull-signed-tag later to maint).
  625 
  626  * "git checkout --detach <branch>" used to give the same advice
  627    message as that is issued when "git checkout <tag>" (or anything
  628    that is not a branch name) is given, but asking with "--detach" is
  629    an explicit enough sign that the user knows what is going on.  The
  630    advice message has been squelched in this case.
  631    (merge 779b88a sb/checkout-explit-detach-no-advice later to maint).
  632 
  633  * "git difftool" by default ignores the error exit from the backend
  634    commands it spawns, because often they signal that they found
  635    differences by exiting with a non-zero status code just like "diff"
  636    does; the exit status codes 126 and above however are special in
  637    that they are used to signal that the command is not executable,
  638    does not exist, or killed by a signal.  "git difftool" has been
  639    taught to notice these exit status codes.
  640    (merge 45a4f5d jk/difftool-command-not-found later to maint).
  641 
  642  * On Windows, help.browser configuration variable used to be ignored,
  643    which has been corrected.
  644    (merge 6db5967 js/no-html-bypass-on-windows later to maint).
  645 
  646  * The "git -c var[=val] cmd" facility to append a configuration
  647    variable definition at the end of the search order was described in
  648    git(1) manual page, but not in git-config(1), which was more likely
  649    place for people to look for when they ask "can I make a one-shot
  650    override, and if so how?"
  651    (merge ae1f709 dg/document-git-c-in-git-config-doc later to maint).
  652 
  653  * The tempfile (hence its user lockfile) API lets the caller to open
  654    a file descriptor to a temporary file, write into it and then
  655    finalize it by first closing the filehandle and then either
  656    removing or renaming the temporary file.  When the process spawns a
  657    subprocess after obtaining the file descriptor, and if the
  658    subprocess has not exited when the attempt to remove or rename is
  659    made, the last step fails on Windows, because the subprocess has
  660    the file descriptor still open.  Open tempfile with O_CLOEXEC flag
  661    to avoid this (on Windows, this is mapped to O_NOINHERIT).
  662    (merge 05d1ed6 bw/mingw-avoid-inheriting-fd-to-lockfile later to maint).
  663 
  664  * Correct an age-old calco (is that a typo-like word for calc)
  665    in the documentation.
  666    (merge 7841c48 ls/packet-line-protocol-doc-fix later to maint).
  667 
  668  * Other minor clean-ups and documentation updates
  669    (merge 02a8cfa rs/merge-add-strategies-simplification later to maint).
  670    (merge af4941d rs/merge-recursive-string-list-init later to maint).
  671    (merge 1eb47f1 rs/use-strbuf-add-unique-abbrev later to maint).
  672    (merge ddd0bfa jk/tighten-alloc later to maint).
  673    (merge ecf30b2 rs/mailinfo-lib later to maint).
  674    (merge 0eb75ce sg/reflog-past-root later to maint).
  675    (merge 4369523 hv/doc-commit-reference-style later to maint).