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    2 Foomatic 4.0.17
    3 ===============
    5 foomatic-filters
    6 ----------------
    8 Filter scripts used by the printer spoolers to convert the incoming
    9 PostScript data into the printer's native format using a
   10 printer/driver specific, but spooler-independent PPD file.
   12 Till Kamppeter <till.kamppeter@gmail.com>
   13 Lars Uebernickel <larsuebernickel@gmx.de>
   15 http://www.openprinting.org/
   17 This usage documentation file is written by Till Kamppeter
   20 Intro
   21 -----
   23 Foomatic is a database providing information about the usage of
   24 printers with Unix-like operating systems (Linux, Solaris, ...).
   26 The applications of these operating systems send PostScript or PDF to
   27 the printer queues. Therefore one usually hands over the PostScript
   28 directly to a PostScript printer (sometimes with some inserted
   29 PostScript commands for options) or uses Ghostscript for generating
   30 the data format the printer needs from PostScript or PDF input. This
   31 is done by the printer spooler which also stores the data in a spool
   32 directory when the printer is still occupied by another job, transmits
   33 the data to a print server in the network, and so on.
   35 The printer drivers for non-PostScript printers are either compiled
   36 into Ghostscript, a plug-in for Ghostscript (e. g. IJS drivers), or
   37 they are an extra filter which converts a generic bitmap generated by
   38 Ghostscript into the printer's data format. For this the spooler has
   39 to call complicated command lines of Ghostscript and the extra filter
   40 (if needed). The user of a Unix-like operating system normally does
   41 not see these command lines because an installation program takes
   42 appropriate filter scripts and/or description files from a database
   43 and assigns them to the printer queue.
   45 Widely used databases were the RHS-Printfilters and the APS
   46 filters. Their disadvantages were that they only supported one spooler
   47 (LPD/LPRng) and only a small part of the driver's options (mostly page
   48 size and resolution). Foomatic supports all options of the drivers and
   49 all known spoolers (LPD, LPRng, GNUlpr, CUPS, Solaris LP, PPR, PDQ,
   50 CPS, direct spooler-less printing). In addition, all known free
   51 software printer drivers are supported. Foomatic also supports
   52 printing of various non-PostScript/PDF file types for spoolers which
   53 do not support these by themselves (LPD, LPRng, GNUlpr, spooler-less
   54 printing). To enable this feature you need to have "a2ps", "enscript",
   55 "mpage", or "paps" installed.
   57 Another problem is that the way how to install queues, to print files,
   58 and to handle jobs is very different with different spoolers. LPD for
   59 example requires editing of configuration files for adding a queue,
   60 whereas CUPS and PPR have specialized command line utilities. Foomatic
   61 puts a layer between the applications and the spoolers so that one has
   62 a common, spooler-independent command line interface for all spoolers,
   63 so that switching of spoolers or administration of a network with
   64 different spoolers gets much easier, because for the same operations
   65 there are the same commands, independent of the spooler.
   67 This command line interface can also be used as a base for
   68 spooler-independent graphical frontends.
   71 Installation
   72 ------------
   74 Foomatic runs on all systems where one can run the Perl
   75 interpreter and Ghostscript.
   77 foomatic-filters needs the Perl interpreter for beh (Backend Error
   78 Handler) and the test suite.
   80 To build foomatic-rip you need a C compiler and its standard libraries.
   82 To run beh (Backend Error Handler) or the test suite a Perl interpreter
   83 (5.6.0 and newer) is needed.
   85 To connect to remote printers with a non-CUPS printing system, you
   86 need additional connectivity software (as "rlpr", "nc", "smbspool',
   87 ...). To print non-PostScript/PDF files with LPD, LPRng, GNUlpr, or
   88 without spooler, you will need a2ps, enscript, mpage, paps, or similar
   89 filters which convert non-PostScript files to PostScript. a2ps,
   90 enscript, mpage, and paps will be automatically used by the scripts
   91 when they are installed.
   93 Download sources:
   94 rlpr: http://freshmeat.net/projects/rlpr/ or
   95       http://www.openprinting.org/download/printing/
   96 netcat: http://freshmeat.net/projects/netcat/
   98 This package does not require any other Foomatic package. it can be
   99 used with PPD files downloaded from the OpenPrinting site, with
  100 manufacturer-supplied PPDs for PostScript printers, and probably with
  101 other PPD files.
  103 For non-PostScript printers one also needs Ghostscript (5.50 or newer,
  104 GPL Ghostscript 8.63 or newer highly recommended) and the appropriate
  105 printer driver.
  107 For drivers which have to be compiled into Ghostscript ("Execution
  108 style: Ghostscript built-in" on the driver pages on the OpenPrinting
  109 site) check with "gs -h" whether the driver is in your Ghostscript. If
  110 not you need to compile the driver into your Ghostscript or use a
  111 Ghostscript version which already contains it (preferably GPL
  112 Ghostscript 8.63 or newer).
  114 If the driver page says "Execution style: Uniprint", it is much
  115 easier, check whether the appropriate ".upp" file is in one of the
  116 directories listed under "Search path:" in the end of the "gs -h"
  117 output. Copy the ".upp" file to one of these directories when it was
  118 not there already.
  120 The third type of driver is marked with "Execution style: Filter",
  121 this means, that you have to install a filter executable in addition
  122 to Ghostscript. Check with "which <name of the filter>" whether the
  123 filter is already there, otherwise download and install the
  124 appropriate package.
  126 foomatic-filters can be installed using these commands (if you have
  127 downloaded this package from the BZR repository, run
  128 "./make_configure" at first, for that you will also need the
  129 "autoconf" and "aclocal" utilities, "aclocal" is in the "automake"
  130 package in some distributions):
  132    ./configure
  133    make
  134    make install
  136 "make install" must be run as "root", the other commands can be run as
  137 a normal user.
  139 The "configure" script will auto-detect where the programs have to be
  140 installed and where the Perl interpreter is located. If "configure"
  141 fails because of something not being installed, do
  143    rm -rf config.cache autom*.cache
  145 before you run "configure" again (after installing the missing parts).
  147 By default, foomatic-filters is installed into subdirectories of
  148 /usr/local (e. g. /usr/local/bin/foomatic-rip), to get it into
  149 subdirectories of /usr (/usr/bin/foomatic-rip), enter:
  151    ./configure --prefix=/usr --sysconfdir=/etc
  152    make
  153    make install
  155 There are other things which can be adjusted by options on the
  156 "configure" command line, enter "./configure --help" for more
  157 info. You can also modify variables in the beginning of the "Makefile"
  158 after running "configure", but note that every run of "configure"
  159 re-creates the "Makefile".
  161 You can also run Foomatic out of its source directory (for example
  162 when you want to try it out, or when you don't have root
  163 access). Therefore enter (can be done as a normal user):
  165    ./configure
  166    make inplace
  168 and enter the commands with "./" in the beginning
  169 (e. g. "./foomatic-rip ...", "man ./foomatic-rip.1"). This also works
  170 on a machine where a system-wide Foomatic is already installed.
  172 In addition, if you do not use CUPS, you should install a utility to
  173 make PostScript out of non-PostScript files, so that you can print
  174 those non-PostScript files and also a list of available options using
  175 the "docs" option. The supported utilities are "a2ps"
  176 (http://www-inf.enst.fr/~demaille/a2ps/), "enscript"
  177 (http://people.ssh.fi/mtr/genscript/), "mpage"
  178 (http://www.mesa.nl/pub/mpage), and "paps"
  179 (http://paps.sourceforge.net/). Recommended is "a2ps" because it
  180 detects many file types (text, most image formats) and together with
  181 ImageMagick (for images) and Ghostscript it converts them to PostScript.
  182 The other tools convert only text files. However at present paps
  183 is the only one to support files encoded in utf-8. The tool you have
  184 installed is auto-detected by foomatic-rip and used automatically if
  185 necessary. PPR needs this tool only for printing the option list, and
  186 CUPS does not need it at all. PPR and CUPS use internal filters for
  187 printing non-PostScript files.
  189 If you have a printer or multi-function device from HP, install HPLIP from
  191    http://hplipopensource.com/
  193 before starting to set up printer queues with foomatic-filters. This
  194 is needed for printing on certain USB devices and for scanning and
  195 photo memory card access on all devices. It also adds maintenance
  196 functionality for inkjets, reporting of ink or toner levels and
  197 printer status, and also remote readout of the printers front-panel
  198 LCD. CUPS is required as the printing system when HPLIP is used.
  200 Note: The "hp" CUPS backend and "beh" (see below) cannot be used
  201 together.
  205 Setting up printers
  206 -------------------
  208 If you have "foomatic-db-engine" installed, see the USAGE file there.
  210 If not, see, depending on your spooler:
  212 CUPS:
  214    http://www.openprinting.org/cups-doc.html
  216 LPD, LPRng, GNUlpr:
  218    http://www.openprinting.org/lpd-doc.html
  220 PPR:
  222    http://www.openprinting.org/ppr-doc.html
  224 PDQ:
  226    http://www.openprinting.org/pdq-doc.html
  228 CPS:
  230    http://www.tww.cx/cps.php
  232 Direct, spooler-less printing:
  234    http://www.openprinting.org/direct-doc.html
  236 Usage of PPD files (for all spoolers):
  238    http://www.openprinting.org/ppd-doc.html
  242 beh - Backend Error Handler
  243 ---------------------------
  245 A wrapper for CUPS backends to make error handling configurable
  247 Usually, if a CUPS backend exits with an error status other than zero
  248 (for example if a printer is not turned on or not reachable on the
  249 network), CUPS disables the print queue and one can only print again
  250 if a system administrator re-enables the queue manually. Even restarting
  251 CUPS (or rebooting) does not re-enable disabled queues.
  253 For system administrators this can get annoying, for newbie users
  254 who are not aware of this problem it looks like that CUPS is severely
  255 broken. They remove and re-install print queues, getting on the nerves
  256 of distro install support, people, or even switch back to a proprietary
  257 operating system.
  259 This script makes the handling of such backend errors configurable, so
  260 that the problem can easily be worked around. The new possibilities are:
  262  - Let queues simply not being disabled. Simple approach, but job gets 
  263    lost.
  265  - Repeat a given number of times.
  267  - Repeat infinitely often, until the job gets finally through. This
  268    is the standard of LPRng, and it eliminates loss of the job.
  270  - The interval between two attemts to run the backend can also be
  271    configured.
  273  - Configuration is done independently for each print queue. So local
  274    printers and network printers can be treated differently.
  277 Usage: 
  279 Make sure "beh" is in the CUPS backend directory (usually
  280 /usr/lib/cups/backend/) and world-readable and -executable. Restart
  281 CUPS (usually "killall -HUP cupsd" or "/etc/init.d/cups restart"). If
  282 all is correct "lpinfo -v" should have "beh" in its output.
  284 Then activate "beh" for your print queue(s) with command(s) like this:
  286 lpadmin -p <queue name> -E -v beh:/<dd>/<att>/<delay>/<originaluri>
  288 with 
  289   <queue name>:     The name of your print queue
  290   <dd>:             Don't Disable, if "1", beh always exits with zero
  291                     status, so the queue gets never disabled when the
  292                     original backend exits with an error. "0" carries
  293                     the error status of the last call of the backend
  294                     (after <att> retries) on to CUPS, so the queue
  295                     usually gets disabled.
  296   <att>:            Attempts, number of attempts to recall the backend
  297                     in case of an error. "0" means infinite retries. In
  298                     this case <dd> gets meaningless.
  299   <delay>:          Delay between two attempts to call the beckend, to
  300                     be given in seconds and as an integer number.
  301                     Meaningless if <att> is one.
  302   <originaluri>:    The original URI, which your queue had before. Can 
  303                     be determined with "lpstat -v".
  305 All parameters, especially, <dd>, <att>, and <delay> have always to
  306 be specified, even if one of them is meaningless due to the setting of
  307 the others.
  309 beh works with every backend except the "hp" backend of HPLIP.
  311 Example URIs:
  313 beh:/1/3/5/socket://printer:9100
  315   On the network printer with host name "printer" it is tried to access
  316   3 times with 5 second delays between the attempts. If the job still
  317   fails, the queue is not disabled (and the job discarded).
  319 beh:/0/10/60/socket://printer:9100
  321   Retry 10 times in one minute intervals, disable the queue when still
  322   not succeeding.
  324 beh:/1/0/60/usb://Brother/HL-5040%20series
  326   On a Brother HL-5040 on the USB try infinitely often until the printer
  327   comes back, in intervals of one minute. This way the job does not get
  328   lost when the printer is turned off and one can intendedly delay
  329   printing by simply switching off the printer. The ideal configuration
  330   for desktop printers and/or home users.