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    1 \contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {1}Introduction }{1}
    2 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {1.1} A Brief Overview}{1}
    3 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {1.2}Sources of FITS Software and Information}{1}
    4 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {1.3}Acknowledgments}{2}
    5 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {1.4}Legal Stuff}{4}
    6 \contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {2} Creating the CFITSIO Library }{5}
    7 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {2.1}Building the Library}{5}
    8 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {2.1.1}Unix Systems}{5}
    9 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {2.1.2}VMS}{7}
   10 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {2.1.3}Windows PCs}{7}
   11 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {2.1.4}Macintosh PCs}{7}
   12 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {2.2}Testing the Library}{7}
   13 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {2.3}Linking Programs with CFITSIO}{9}
   14 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {2.4}Using CFITSIO in Multi-threaded Environments}{9}
   15 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {2.5}Getting Started with CFITSIO}{9}
   16 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {2.6}Example Program}{10}
   17 \contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {3} A FITS Primer }{13}
   18 \contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {4} Programming Guidelines }{15}
   19 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {4.1}CFITSIO Definitions}{15}
   20 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {4.2}Current Header Data Unit (CHDU)}{18}
   21 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {4.3}Function Names and Variable Datatypes}{18}
   22 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {4.4}Support for Unsigned Integers and Signed Bytes}{20}
   23 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {4.5}Dealing with Character Strings }{22}
   24 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {4.6}Implicit Data Type Conversion}{23}
   25 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {4.7}Data Scaling}{23}
   26 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {4.8}Support for IEEE Special Values}{24}
   27 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {4.9}Error Status Values and the Error Message Stack}{25}
   28 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {4.10}Variable-Length Arrays in Binary Tables}{25}
   29 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {4.11}Multiple Access to the Same FITS File}{27}
   30 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {4.12}When the Final Size of the FITS HDU is Unknown}{28}
   31 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {4.13}CFITSIO Size Limitations}{28}
   32 \contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {5}Basic CFITSIO Interface Routines }{31}
   33 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {5.1}CFITSIO Error Status Routines}{31}
   34 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {5.2}FITS File Access Routines}{32}
   35 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {5.3}HDU Access Routines}{35}
   36 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {5.4}Header Keyword Read/Write Routines}{37}
   37 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {5.4.1}Keyword Reading Routines}{38}
   38 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {5.4.2}Keyword Writing Routines}{41}
   39 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {5.5}Primary Array or IMAGE Extension I/O Routines}{43}
   40 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {5.6}Image Compression}{47}
   41 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {5.7}ASCII and Binary Table Routines}{52}
   42 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {5.7.1}Create New Table}{52}
   43 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {5.7.2}Column Information Routines}{53}
   44 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {5.7.3}Routines to Edit Rows or Columns}{56}
   45 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {5.7.4}Read and Write Column Data Routines}{58}
   46 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {5.7.5}Row Selection and Calculator Routines}{60}
   47 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {5.7.6}Column Binning or Histogramming Routines}{62}
   48 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {5.8}Utility Routines}{64}
   49 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {5.8.1}File Checksum Routines}{64}
   50 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {5.8.2}Date and Time Utility Routines}{65}
   51 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {5.8.3}General Utility Routines}{67}
   52 \contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {6} The CFITSIO Iterator Function }{79}
   53 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {6.1}The Iterator Work Function}{80}
   54 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {6.2}The Iterator Driver Function}{82}
   55 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {6.3}Guidelines for Using the Iterator Function}{83}
   56 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {6.4}Complete List of Iterator Routines}{84}
   57 \contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {7} World Coordinate System Routines }{87}
   58 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {7.1} Self-contained WCS Routines}{88}
   59 \contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {8} Hierarchical Grouping Routines }{91}
   60 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {8.1}Grouping Table Routines}{92}
   61 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {8.2}Group Member Routines}{94}
   62 \contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {9} Specialized CFITSIO Interface Routines }{97}
   63 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {9.1}FITS File Access Routines}{97}
   64 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {9.1.1}File Access}{97}
   65 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {9.1.2}Download Utility Functions}{101}
   66 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {9.2}HDU Access Routines}{102}
   67 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {9.3}Specialized Header Keyword Routines}{104}
   68 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {9.3.1}Header Information Routines}{104}
   69 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {9.3.2}Read and Write the Required Keywords}{104}
   70 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {9.3.3}Write Keyword Routines}{106}
   71 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {9.3.4}Insert Keyword Routines}{108}
   72 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {9.3.5}Read Keyword Routines}{109}
   73 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {9.3.6}Modify Keyword Routines}{111}
   74 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {9.3.7}Update Keyword Routines}{112}
   75 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {9.4}Define Data Scaling and Undefined Pixel Parameters}{113}
   76 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {9.5}Specialized FITS Primary Array or IMAGE Extension I/O Routines}{114}
   77 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {9.6}Specialized FITS ASCII and Binary Table Routines}{117}
   78 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {9.6.1}General Column Routines}{117}
   79 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {9.6.2}Low-Level Table Access Routines}{119}
   80 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {9.6.3}Write Column Data Routines}{119}
   81 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {9.6.4}Read Column Data Routines}{120}
   82 \contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {10} Extended File Name Syntax }{125}
   83 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {10.1}Overview}{125}
   84 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {10.2}Filetype}{128}
   85 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {10.2.1}Notes about HTTP proxy servers}{129}
   86 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {10.2.2}Notes about HTTPS and FTPS file access}{129}
   87 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {10.2.3}Notes about the stream filetype driver}{130}
   88 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {10.2.4}Notes about the gsiftp filetype}{131}
   89 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {10.2.5}Notes about the root filetype}{131}
   90 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {10.2.6}Notes about the shmem filetype:}{133}
   91 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {10.3}Base Filename}{133}
   92 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {10.4}Output File Name when Opening an Existing File}{135}
   93 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {10.5}Template File Name when Creating a New File}{137}
   94 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {10.6}Image Tile-Compression Specification}{137}
   95 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {10.7}HDU Location Specification}{137}
   96 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {10.8}Image Section}{139}
   97 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {10.9}Image Transform Filters}{140}
   98 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {10.10}Column and Keyword Filtering Specification}{141}
   99 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {10.11}Row Filtering Specification}{145}
  100 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {10.11.1}General Syntax}{145}
  101 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {10.11.2}Bit Masks}{148}
  102 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {10.11.3}Vector Columns}{149}
  103 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {10.11.4}Row Access}{151}
  104 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {10.11.5}Good Time Interval Filtering and Calculation}{151}
  105 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {10.11.6}Spatial Region Filtering}{153}
  106 \contentsline {subsection}{\numberline {10.11.7}Example Row Filters}{155}
  107 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {10.12} Binning or Histogramming Specification}{156}
  108 \contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {11}Template Files }{159}
  109 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {11.1}Detailed Template Line Format}{159}
  110 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {11.2}Auto-indexing of Keywords}{160}
  111 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {11.3}Template Parser Directives}{161}
  112 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {11.4}Formal Template Syntax}{162}
  113 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {11.5}Errors}{162}
  114 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {11.6}Examples}{162}
  115 \contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {12} Local FITS Conventions }{165}
  116 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {12.1}64-Bit Long Integers}{165}
  117 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {12.2}Long String Keyword Values.}{165}
  118 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {12.3}Arrays of Fixed-Length Strings in Binary Tables}{167}
  119 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {12.4}Keyword Units Strings}{167}
  120 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {12.5}HIERARCH Convention for Extended Keyword Names}{167}
  121 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {12.6}Tile-Compressed Image Format}{168}
  122 \contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {13} Optimizing Programs }{171}
  123 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {13.1}How CFITSIO Manages Data I/O}{171}
  124 \contentsline {section}{\numberline {13.2}Optimization Strategies}{172}
  125 \contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {A}Index of Routines }{177}
  126 \contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {B}Parameter Definitions }{183}
  127 \contentsline {chapter}{\numberline {C}CFITSIO Error Status Codes }{189}