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    1 @node Copying
    2 @appendix GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
    3 
    4 @cindex GPL, GNU General Public License
    5 @center Version 2, June 1991
    6 
    7 @display
    8 Copyright @copyright{} 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
    9 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301 USA
   10 
   11 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
   12 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
   13 @end display
   14 
   15 @appendixsubsec Preamble
   16 
   17   The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
   18 freedom to share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public
   19 License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
   20 software---to make sure the software is free for all its users.  This
   21 General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
   22 Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
   23 using it.  (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
   24 the GNU Library General Public License instead.)  You can apply it to
   25 your programs, too.
   26 
   27   When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
   28 price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
   29 have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
   30 this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
   31 if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
   32 in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.
   33 
   34   To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
   35 anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
   36 These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
   37 distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.
   38 
   39   For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
   40 gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
   41 you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
   42 source code.  And you must show them these terms so they know their
   43 rights.
   44 
   45   We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
   46 (2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
   47 distribute and/or modify the software.
   48 
   49   Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
   50 that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
   51 software.  If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
   52 want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
   53 that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
   54 authors' reputations.
   55 
   56   Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
   57 patents.  We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
   58 program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
   59 program proprietary.  To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
   60 patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.
   61 
   62   The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
   63 modification follow.
   64 
   65 @iftex
   66 @appendixsubsec TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
   67 @end iftex
   68 @ifinfo
   69 @center TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
   70 @end ifinfo
   71 
   72 @enumerate
   73 @item
   74 This License applies to any program or other work which contains
   75 a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
   76 under the terms of this General Public License.  The ``Program'', below,
   77 refers to any such program or work, and a ``work based on the Program''
   78 means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
   79 that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
   80 either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
   81 language.  (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
   82 the term ``modification''.)  Each licensee is addressed as ``you''.
   83 
   84 Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
   85 covered by this License; they are outside its scope.  The act of
   86 running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
   87 is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
   88 Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
   89 Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.
   90 
   91 @item
   92 You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
   93 source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
   94 conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
   95 copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
   96 notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
   97 and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
   98 along with the Program.
   99 
  100 You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
  101 you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.
  102 
  103 @item
  104 You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
  105 of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
  106 distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
  107 above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:
  108 
  109 @enumerate a
  110 @item
  111 You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
  112 stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.
  113 
  114 @item
  115 You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
  116 whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
  117 part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
  118 parties under the terms of this License.
  119 
  120 @item
  121 If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
  122 when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
  123 interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
  124 announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
  125 notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
  126 a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
  127 these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
  128 License.  (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
  129 does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
  130 the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
  131 @end enumerate
  132 
  133 These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.  If
  134 identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
  135 and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
  136 themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
  137 sections when you distribute them as separate works.  But when you
  138 distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
  139 on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
  140 this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
  141 entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.
  142 
  143 Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
  144 your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
  145 exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
  146 collective works based on the Program.
  147 
  148 In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
  149 with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
  150 a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
  151 the scope of this License.
  152 
  153 @item
  154 You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
  155 under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
  156 Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:
  157 
  158 @enumerate a
  159 @item
  160 Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
  161 source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
  162 1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,
  163 
  164 @item
  165 Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
  166 years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
  167 cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
  168 machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
  169 distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
  170 customarily used for software interchange; or,
  171 
  172 @item
  173 Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
  174 to distribute corresponding source code.  (This alternative is
  175 allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
  176 received the program in object code or executable form with such
  177 an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
  178 @end enumerate
  179 
  180 The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
  181 making modifications to it.  For an executable work, complete source
  182 code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
  183 associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
  184 control compilation and installation of the executable.  However, as a
  185 special exception, the source code distributed need not include
  186 anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
  187 form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
  188 operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
  189 itself accompanies the executable.
  190 
  191 If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
  192 access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
  193 access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
  194 distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
  195 compelled to copy the source along with the object code.
  196 
  197 @item
  198 You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
  199 except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
  200 otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
  201 void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
  202 However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
  203 this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
  204 parties remain in full compliance.
  205 
  206 @item
  207 You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
  208 signed it.  However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
  209 distribute the Program or its derivative works.  These actions are
  210 prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.  Therefore, by
  211 modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
  212 Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
  213 all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
  214 the Program or works based on it.
  215 
  216 @item
  217 Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
  218 Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
  219 original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
  220 these terms and conditions.  You may not impose any further
  221 restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
  222 You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
  223 this License.
  224 
  225 @item
  226 If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
  227 infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
  228 conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
  229 otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
  230 excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot
  231 distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
  232 License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
  233 may not distribute the Program at all.  For example, if a patent
  234 license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
  235 all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
  236 the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
  237 refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.
  238 
  239 If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
  240 any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
  241 apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
  242 circumstances.
  243 
  244 It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
  245 patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
  246 such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
  247 integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
  248 implemented by public license practices.  Many people have made
  249 generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
  250 through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
  251 system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
  252 to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
  253 impose that choice.
  254 
  255 This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
  256 be a consequence of the rest of this License.
  257 
  258 @item
  259 If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
  260 certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
  261 original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
  262 may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
  263 those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
  264 countries not thus excluded.  In such case, this License incorporates
  265 the limitation as if written in the body of this License.
  266 
  267 @item
  268 The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
  269 of the General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
  270 be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
  271 address new problems or concerns.
  272 
  273 Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the Program
  274 specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and ``any
  275 later version'', you have the option of following the terms and conditions
  276 either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
  277 Software Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of
  278 this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
  279 Foundation.
  280 
  281 @item
  282 If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
  283 programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
  284 to ask for permission.  For software which is copyrighted by the Free
  285 Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
  286 make exceptions for this.  Our decision will be guided by the two goals
  287 of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
  288 of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.
  289 
  290 @item
  291 BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
  292 FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW.  EXCEPT WHEN
  293 OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
  294 PROVIDE THE PROGRAM ``AS IS'' WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
  295 OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
  296 MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS
  297 TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU.  SHOULD THE
  298 PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
  299 REPAIR OR CORRECTION.
  300 
  301 @item
  302 IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
  303 WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
  304 REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
  305 INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
  306 OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
  307 TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
  308 YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
  309 PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
  310 POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
  311 @end enumerate
  312 
  313 @iftex
  314 @heading END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
  315 @end iftex
  316 @ifinfo
  317 @center END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
  318 @end ifinfo
  319 
  320 @page
  321 @unnumberedsec How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs
  322 
  323   If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
  324 possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
  325 free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.
  326 
  327   To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
  328 to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
  329 convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
  330 the ``copyright'' line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.
  331 
  332 @smallexample
  333 @var{one line to give the program's name and an idea of what it does.}
  334 Copyright (C) 19@var{yy}  @var{name of author}
  335 
  336 This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
  337 modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
  338 as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
  339 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
  340 
  341 This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
  342 but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  343 MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
  344 GNU General Public License for more details.
  345 
  346 You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
  347 with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
  348 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA  02110-1301 USA.
  349 @end smallexample
  350 
  351 Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.
  352 
  353 If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
  354 when it starts in an interactive mode:
  355 
  356 @smallexample
  357 Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 19@var{yy} @var{name of author}
  358 Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details
  359 type `show w'.  This is free software, and you are welcome
  360 to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c' 
  361 for details.
  362 @end smallexample
  363 
  364 The hypothetical commands @samp{show w} and @samp{show c} should show
  365 the appropriate parts of the General Public License.  Of course, the
  366 commands you use may be called something other than @samp{show w} and
  367 @samp{show c}; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items---whatever
  368 suits your program.
  369 
  370 You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
  371 school, if any, to sign a ``copyright disclaimer'' for the program, if
  372 necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:
  373 
  374 @smallexample
  375 @group
  376 Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright
  377 interest in the program `Gnomovision'
  378 (which makes passes at compilers) written 
  379 by James Hacker.
  380 
  381 @var{signature of Ty Coon}, 1 April 1989
  382 Ty Coon, President of Vice
  383 @end group
  384 @end smallexample
  385 
  386 This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
  387 proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you may
  388 consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
  389 library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
  390 Public License instead of this License.