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1 Building & Running Kerberos 5 on Windows
4 This file documents how to build MIT Kerberos for Windows.
5 The MIT Kerberos for Windows distribution contains additional components
6 not present in the Unix krb5 distribution, most notably the
7 MIT Kerberos Ticket Manager application.
9 To build Kerberos 5 on Windows, you will need the following:
11 * A version of Visual Studio (at least 2013) which includes the
12 Microsoft Foundation Classes libraries. These instructions will
13 work for Visual Studio 2017 Community or Professional, both of which
14 include the MFC libraries if the "Visual C++ MFC" checkbox is
15 selected after enabling the "Desktop development with C++" workload.
16 If you do not plan to build the graphical ticket manager
17 application, the MFC libraries are not required.
19 * A version of Perl.
21 * Some common Unix utilities such as sed/awk/cp/cat installed in the
22 command-line path.
24 * To build an MSI installer, the Windows Installer XML (WiX) toolkit,
25 and to ensure that the HTML Help Compiler (hhc.exe) and the WiX
26 tools are in your command-line path. WiX version 3.11.1 is verified
27 to work with this codebase.
29 A simple way to get the necessary Unix utilities is to install Git
30 BASH from https://gitforwindows.org and configure it to add the Unix
31 utilities to the command-line path. In some versions of Windows (not
32 the most current versions), the Unix utilities can alternatively be
33 obtained via the Utilities and SDK for UNIX-based Applications, which
34 may be enabled as a Windows feature and then the components installed.
35 Note that the Windows nmake will not find the SUA awk utility in the
36 path unless it is named awk.exe; the permissions on the utility may
37 need correcting if awk.exe is created as a copy of the original awk.
39 Git BASH contains a version of Perl, which will work to build krb5 if
40 the newlines in the source tree are not translated to native newlines.
41 Strawberry Perl will work regardless of whether newlines are
42 translated. If both Git BASH and Strawberry Perl are installed, you
43 may need to adjust the command line path to ensure that the preferred
44 Perl appears first.
46 The krb5 source tree may be obtained either directly on the Windows
47 machine with a native git client cloning the krb5 public mirror at
48 https://github.com/krb5/krb5.git or on a separate (Unix) machine and
49 copied over, such as from a VM host onto a Windows VM. If you are
50 checking out the sources with git and are using the Git BASH Perl,
51 make sure to set git's core.autocrlf variable to "input" or "false" to
52 avoid translating newlines.
54 After Visual Studio is installed, you should be able to invoke 32-bit
55 and 64-bit command prompts via the start menu (Visual Studio 2017 ->
56 x86 Native Tools Command Prompt and x64 Native Tools Command Prompt).
57 At the current time, Kerberos 5 can only be built for the x64 target
58 if the host platform is also 64-bit, because it compiles and runs
59 programs during the build.
61 IMPORTANT NOTE: By default, the sources are built with debug
62 information and linked against the debug version of the Microsoft C
63 Runtime library, which is not found on most Windows systems unless
64 they have development tools, and requires a separate license to
65 distribute. To build a release version, you need to define NODEBUG
66 either in the environment or the nmake command-line. Debug
67 information in the compiled binaries and libraries may be retained by
68 defining DEBUG_SYMBOL in the environment or on the nmake command line.
71 Building the code and installer:
74 First, make sure you have sed, (g)awk, cat, and cp.
75 You must also define KRB_INSTALL_DIR either in the environment or
76 on the command line (for nmake install). If you are proceeding to build
77 the MSI installer, this directory should be a temporary staging area in or
78 near your build tree. The directory must exist before nmake install
79 is run. The 64-bit installer provides 32-bit libraries, so a 32-bit build
80 and install must be performed before the 64-bit build.
82 To skip building the graphical ticket manager, run "set NO_LEASH=1"
83 before building, and do not build the installers.
85 In a 32-bit command shell:
87 1) set KRB_INSTALL_DIR=\path\to\dir # Where bin/include/lib lives
88 2) cd xxx\src # Go to where source lives
89 3) nmake -f Makefile.in prep-windows # Create Makefile for Windows
90 4) nmake [NODEBUG=1] # Build the sources
91 5) nmake install [NODEBUG=1] # Copy headers, libs, executables
92 6) cd windows\installer\wix # Go to where the installer source is
93 7) nmake [NODEBUG=1] # Build the installer
94 8) rename kfw.msi kfw32.msi # Save the 32-bit installer
96 In a 64-bit command shell:
98 9) set PATH=%PATH%;"%WindowsSdkVerBinPath%"\x86 # To get uicc.exe
99 10) set KRB_INSTALL_DIR=\path\to\dir # Where bin/include/lib lives
100 11) cd xxx\src # Go to where source lives
101 12) nmake clean # Clean up the 32-bit objects
102 13) nmake [NODEBUG=1] # Build the sources for 64-bit
103 14) nmake install [NODEBUG=1] # Copy 64-bit lib/executables
104 15) cd windows\installer\wix # Back to the installer source
105 16) nmake clean # Remove 32-bit leavings
106 17) nmake [NODEBUG=1] # Build the 64-bit installer
107 18) rename kfw.msi kfw64.msi # And name it usefully
109 Step 9 may be skipped if uicc is already in the command-line path (try
110 running "uicc" to see if you get a usage message or a not-found
111 error), or if you are not building the graphical ticket manager.
113 Visual Studio 2013 and 2015 provide only a single command prompt.
114 Within this prompt, use "vcvarsall.bat x86" and "vcvarsall.bat amd64"
115 to switch to 32-bit and 64-bit mode.
118 Running Kerberos 5 Apps:
121 Make sure you have a valid krb5.ini file.
122 By default, an empty krb5.ini is installed in CSIDL_COMMON_APPDATA
123 (that is, %SystemDrive%\ProgramData\MIT\Kerberos5\ on newer-than-XP).
124 (ProgramData is a hidden folder.) You may need to customize it with
125 settings for your site, but since DNS lookups are enabled for locating
126 KDCs, many sites will not need further customization. The file format is
127 identical to that of a Unix krb5.conf file.
130 krb5.ini File:
133 WARNING: Despite its name, this is not a Windows .ini file.
134 Therefore, do not try to use any .ini tools, including the Windows API
135 or any installer tools to manipulate this file. Its format is subtly
136 different from Windows .ini files!
139 Controlling the Kerberos 5 Run-Time Environment:
142 The Kerberos 5 configuration file and credentials cache can be
143 controlled with environment variables and registry settings. The
144 environment variable for a particular setting always takes precedence.
145 Next in precedence comes the setting in the registry under
146 HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\MIT\Kerberos5. Then comes the registry
147 setting under HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\MIT\Kerberos5. If none of
148 those are found, a default value is used.
150 Configuration File:
151 - Environment: KRB5_CONFIG
152 - Registry Value: config
153 - Default: looks in the user's AppData directory, the machine's ProgramData
154 directory, krb5_32.dll's dir and Windows directory
156 Default Credentials Cache:
157 - Environment: KRB5CCNAME
158 - Registry Value: ccname
159 - Default: API:
162 Credentials Cache:
165 In addition to standard FILE: (disk file) and MEMORY: (in-process
166 non-shared memory) Windows supports the API: cache type, which is a
167 shared memory cache. Kerberos for Windows also has access to an
168 MSLSA: cache type, which directly accesses the Microsoft Kerberos
169 Logon Session credentials cache. The MSLSA: cache is available when the
170 user logon is performed using Kerberos either to an Active Directory Domain
171 or a non-Microsoft KDC; the ms2mit and mit2ms utilities can also be used
172 to interact with it, though there are some limitations.
174 A user is able to logon to Windows using the Kerberos LSA if the machine
175 is part of a Windows Active Directory domain or if the machine has been
176 configured to authenticate to a non-Microsoft KDC such as MIT.
177 The instructions for configuring a Windows 2000 XP workstation to
178 authenticate to a non-Microsoft KDC are documented in TechNet somewhere.
179 In brief:
181 1. Install the Windows support tools in order to obtain KSETUP.EXE
182 and KTPASS.EXE.
183 2. Install the Windows Resource Kit to obtain KERBTRAY.EXE and KLIST.EXE
184 3. Add Realms and associated KDCs with: *KSETUP /AddKdc <realm>
185 [<kdcname>]*. If you leave off the <kdcname> DNS SRV records will
186 be used.
187 4. Specify the password change service host for the realm with:
188 *KSETUP /AddKpasswd <realm> <Kpwdhost>*
189 5. Assign the realm of the local machine with: *KSETUP /SetRealm
190 <realm>* where realm must be all upper case.
191 6. Assign the local machine's password with: *KSETUP
192 /SetComputerPassword <Password>
194 7. Specify the capabilities of the Realm KDC with: *KSETUP
195 /SetRealmFlags <realm> <flag> [<flag> ...]* where flags may be
196 *None, SendAddress, TcpSupported, Delegate, *and *NcSupported*,
197 8. Map principal names to local accounts with: *KSETUP /MapUser
198 <principal> <account>*
200 On the MIT KDC, you must then create service principals using the "Password"
201 assigned to the machine. So far the minimum list of principals required appear
202 to be for a machine named "mymachine" in the realm "EXAMPLE.COM" with a
203 domain name of "example.com":
205 * host/mymachine@EXAMPLE.COM
206 * host/mymachine.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
207 * cifs/mymachine@EXAMPLE.COM
208 * cifs/mymachine.example.com@EXAMPLE.COM
210 There may very well be other services for which principals must be created depending
211 on what services are being executed on the machine.
213 It is very important to note that while you can successfully log into a Windows
214 workstation by authenticating to the KDC without creating a host key; the logon
215 session you receive will not be a Kerberos Logon Session. There will be no Kerberos
216 principal and no LSA cache to access.
218 The result of a real KSETUP configuration looks like this:
221 default realm = KRB5.COLUMBIA.EDU (external)
223 kdc = kerberos.mit.edu
224 kdc = kerberos-1.mit.edu
225 kdc = kerberos-2.mit.edu
226 kdc = kerberos-3.mit.edu
227 Realm Flags = 0x0 none
229 kdc = kerberos.cc.columbia.edu
230 Realm Flags = 0x0 none
232 kdc = penn.central.org
233 kdc = grand-opening.mit.edu
234 Realm Flags = 0x0 none
236 kdc = yclept.kermit.columbia.edu
237 Realm Flags = 0x0 none
239 kdc = virtue.openafs.org
240 Realm Flags = 0x0 none
241 Mapping jaltman@KRB5.COLUMBIA.EDU to jaltman.
242 Mapping jaltman@CC.COLUMBIA.EDU to jaltman.
243 Mapping jaltman@ATHENA.MIT.EDU to jaltman.
244 Mapping all users (*) to a local account by the same name (*).
246 The MSLSA: credential cache relies on the ability to extract the entire
247 Kerberos ticket including the session key from the Kerberos LSA. In an
248 attempt to increase security Microsoft has begun to implement a feature
249 by which they no longer export the session keys for Ticket Getting Tickets.
250 This has the side effect of making them useless to the MIT krb5 library
251 when attempting to request additional service tickets.
253 This new feature has been seen in Windows 2003 Server, Windows 2000 Server SP4,
254 and Windows XP SP2. We assume that it will be implemented in all future
255 Microsoft operating systems supporting the Kerberos SSPI. Microsoft does work
256 closely with MIT and has provided a registry key to disable this new feature.
257 On server platforms the key is specified as:
260 AllowTGTSessionKey = 0x01 (DWORD)
262 On workstation platforms the key is specified as:
265 AllowTGTSessionKey = 0x01 (DWORD)
267 The Kerberos for Windows installer automatically sets this key on installation
268 and unsets it on uninstall, allowing the MSLSA: cache type to be used.
270 It has been noted that the Microsoft Kerberos LSA does not provide enough
271 information within its KERB_EXTERNAL_TICKET structure to properly construct
272 the Client Principal simply by examining a single ticket. From the MSDN
276 KERB_EXTERNAL_NAME structure that contains the client name in the ticket.
277 This name is relative to the current domain.
280 UNICODE_STRING that contains the name of the domain that corresponds to
281 the ServiceName member. This is the domain that issued the ticket.
284 UNICODE_STRING that contains the name of the domain in which the ticket is
285 valid. For an interdomain ticket, this is the destination domain.
288 UNICODE_STRING that contains a synonym for the destination domain. Every
289 domain has two names: a DNS name and a NetBIOS name. If the name returned
290 in the ticket is different from the name used to request the ticket (the
291 Kerberos Key Distribution Center (KDC) may do name mapping), this string
292 contains the original name.
294 Unfortunately, there is no field here which contains the domain of the client.
295 In order for the krb5_ccache to properly report the client principal name, the
296 client principal name is constructed by utilizing the ClientName and DomainName
297 fields of the Initial TGT associated with the Kerberos LSA credential cache.
298 To disable the use of the TGT info and instead simply use the "DomainName" field
299 of the current ticket define one of the following registry keys depending on
300 whether the change should be system global or just for the current user.
303 PreserveInitialTicketIdentity = 0x0 (DWORD)
306 PreserveInitialTicketIdentity = 0x0 (DWORD)
308 GSSAPI Sample Client:
311 The GSS API Sample Client provided in this distribution is compatible with the
312 gss-server application built on Unix/Linux systems. This client is not compatible
313 with the Platform SDK/Samples/Security/SSPI/GSS/ samples which Microsoft has been
314 shipping as of January 2004. Revised versions of these samples are available upon
315 request to email@example.com.
317 More Information:
320 For more information, please read the Kerberos 5 documentation in
321 the doc directory of the distribution.